Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries dominate the consumer electronics and electric vehicle markets. However, concerns on Li availability have prompted the development of alternative high energy density electrochemical energy storage systems. Rechargeablebatteries based on a Ca metal anode can exhibit advantages in terms of energy density, safety and cost. the development of rechargeable Ca metal batteries requires the identification of suitable high specific energy cathode materials. this work focuses on Ca-bearing minerals because they represent stable and abundant compounds. suitable minerals should contain a transition metal able of being reversibly reduced and oxidized, which points to several major classes of silicates and carbonates: olivine (CaFesio 4 ; kirschsteinite), pyroxene
Thesis Report University of Twente Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science Integrated State of Charge Circuit for Rechargeable Batteries Jasper Velner MSc Thesis August 2008[.]
cathode materials for rechargeablebatteries applications. These cathode materials were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), x-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements. XRD and SEM studies confirmed the nano materials size for all prepared spinels. LiMn 2 O 4 and
B y recycling rechargeablebatteries in the products they use, businesses and public agencies can take advantage of a convenient way to help the environment. Retailers, business- es, and public agencies can institute “take-back” programs and contribute funds for public education and battery collec- tion. (See “Options” section for information that industry trade associations provide to retailers, businesses, and public agencies.) Retailers of Ni-Cd and SSLA batteries can work with state and local governments to collect used batteries. Retailers can display posters or signs informing the community of the need to recycle these batteries and of the names and addresses of battery collection sites. Retailers can also provide used-battery collection containers that will be sent to an appropriate storage or recycling facility. Businesses and public agencies, such as hospitals, computer companies, auto manufacturers, and police and fire depart- ments, that use a large number of Ni-Cd or SSLA batteries can work on their own or with state and local governments to facili- tate the collection of their used batteries. These businesses and agencies can develop their own collection programs by edu- cating their employees about the importance of recycling these batteries and by providing containers or schedules for the col- lection of their used batteries. In addition, businesses and pub- lic agencies can fund or staff community collection programs and/or sponsor employee collection events that may last from one day to a week. All businesses that use cordless products— such as cellular phones, laptop computers, video recorders, and power tools—whether large Fortune 500 companies, small companies, or conditionally exempt small quantity gener- ators, should be encouraged to participate in the collection and recycling of rechargeablebatteries.
This study looks only into the awareness to recycle hazardous solid waste (HSW) (Ni-Cd batteries) generated from households in the community of Taman Universiti Skudai (study area), and not extending to all types such as those being generated from factories, industries, agricultural activities and also liquid hazardous waste from the area. The study will look into selected groups based on their monthly incomes resident within the area and one collection centre of these waste/spent Ni- Cd batteries. The scope here also does not look into formulation of policies or regulations but serve as a mere enlightenment towards further improvement on hazardous solid waste services.
In search of high energy density storage batteries large number of electrolytes comprising of different cations such as cadmium, zinc, lead, cobalt and copper have been reported . The majority of commercial batteries are fabricated with Li +salt solution immobilized in a variety of polymer matrices as electrolyte since lithium is the lightest of all metals. Most research work on polymer electrolyte has been made with lithium salt as ion source. As anode it well establish a contact with the electrolyte and provide good electropositive potential window. Hence, the batteries based on Li/Li + -salt facilitate a high energy density [2, 3]. The concentration of ionic charge carriers in the electrolyte depends on the dielectric constant of the polymer and the lattice energy of the salt. Salts having low lattice energy are preferred because it provides large number of ionic charge carriers by higher dissociation. Hence selection of suitable salt for the electrolyte preparation is inevitable. Accordingly, several reports are available for the significant choice the dopant salt.
In this study, we assembled a 4V-class bulk-type all-solid- state lithium rechargeable battery by hybrid use of complex hydride and sulfide electrolytes. Repeated operation of this battery was successfully demonstrated at room temperature. For use as the lithium metal negative electrode, we chose Li 4 (BH 4 ) 3 I electrolyte, which has a high reducing ability. A
Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) as rechargeable energy storage devices are most widely used in commercial applications (such as laptop, smartphone, camera, medical apparatus and instruments). Recently, alternative energy storage devices to LIBs have achieved remarkable attention. Na-ion and Mg-ion batteries as promising rechargeablebatteries are of particular interest to afford safety, environmental-friendly, abundant resources, low cost[2-5]. All kinds of investigations on promising anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries have been reported, such as group IVA elements Si, Sn, Ge [6-9]. It was reported that metal atoms diffusion in Ge is easier than in Si, the diffusivity of Li in Ge was estimated to 400 times higher than Si at room temperature , therefore, insertion Li, Na and Mg into Ge is more suitable for electrode materials in comparison with Si. Ge as anode materials for LIBs have been widely investigated due to its higher theoretical special capacity of 1623 mAhg -1 (LiGe 4.4 ), its theoretical special capacity is over four times than that of graphite as anode materials for
Although lithium metal is an attractive anode material for rechargeablebatteries because of its high-specific energy, the commercialization of rechargeable lithium batteries is impeded by its high reactivity with electrolyte components. One way to overcome this limitation without sacrificing energy density is to develop suitable electrolytes that are kinetically stable to lithium. In addition to good interfacial stability, high conductivity (> 10 -3 S/cm at room temperature) and mechanical strength are also required. Among currently examined electrolytes, composite electrolytes show promising electrochemical (e.g., conductivity, interfacial stability, and ionic transport properties) and mechanical properties (e.g., viscous and elastic moduli, yield stress) for lithium battery applications [1-6].
lithium-metal as an anode. Despite the clear advantage of such an electrode, as mentioned above, it proved very difficult to obtain stripping and plating efficiencies which exceeded 99.5 %. Lithium is so reactive that in all solvents a surface layer rapidly forms, the composition of which depends on the solvent. As a result, on plating lithium the highly active material on the surface rapidly reacts with the solvent, furthermore, rapid plating (i.e. rapid charging) can result in the formation of lithium dendrites and in turn produce internal short circuit leading to safety problems. In most prototype lithium anode rechargeable cells, a 3-6 fold excess of lithium is required to compensate for the losses involved in the plating and stripping efficiency and this represents a significant cost of the whole device. Unquestionably the biggest single factor which contributed to the lack of commercial success for lithium anode rechargeablebatteries is the safety problem associated with the lithium electrode. Whether originating from internal short circuits or otherwise, accidents with prototype systems leading to fire or explosion led to the abandonment of the Li/MoS 2 rechargeable battery in 1989 . It was clear to those involved in the technology in the 1980s that despite many efforts the lithium anode had not been improved to a point when it could be used safely and efficiently. For this reason, the future of lithium batteries hung in large measure on finding a replacement for the lithium anode. The breakthrough was the development of carbon as an intercalation electrode to replace lithium. There are many books and review papers available on lithium batteries [ 6 - 11 ].
of 3862 mAh/g, could drastically satisfy this demand. However, due to it relatively low surface energy, it has very high propensity to grow dendrites during consecutive recharging. This phenomenon eventually leads to short-circuiting, overheating the cell and possible ignition of the organic electrolyte as well as creating isolated dead lithium crystals.  The current reports have investigated the effect of charging method, [8, 17] current density[25, 2, 7], electrode surface morphology [36, 58, 18], solvent and elec- trolyte chemical composition [27, 28, 26], electrolyte concentration [25, 61]on dendrite growth. Other methods include the use of powder electrodes  and adhesive poly- mers . Recent studies have tried to explain the dendrite evolution mechanism  and have offered impurities as dendrite initiation drive [13, 63] . Although the on- going research tends to extend the battery energy density by developing Lithium-Air and lithium-Sulfur batteries, the dendrite problem remains as a challenging issue in all kinds of rechargeablebatteries. [92, 93] Temperature is a highly accessible pa- rameter with foremost important effect in kinetics. It has been found that cycling at higher temperatures (from -50C up to 40C) can, on average, cause more frequent short-circuiting events up to a factor of 2 . Other results show that the increas- ing cell temperature enhances the ionic mobilities in favor of dendritic inception and growth . [25, 121] reported that the higher temperatures extends ion depletion layer length which is in agreement with temperature dependence of reaction rates .  also pointed out that the probability of ionic reduction in the electrode surface correlates directly to the temperature. In contrast,  found that imposing higher temperatures reduces dendrite growth rate relatively to the electrode surface, and could results in more uniform deposition. Although all those approaches are help- ful, it is apparent that further progress in tackling this crucial issue should accrue from a full understanding of the dynamics of dendrite growth on Li-metal electrodes. [122, 13]
A significant increase in the energy density of recharge- able batteries is required to satisfy the demands of vehi- cular applications and energy storage systems. One approach to solving this problem is the introduction of a new battery system having a higher energy density. Li/air batteries are potential candidates for advanced energy storage systems because of their high storage capability [1-3]. They do not store a ‘ cathode ’ in the sys- tem, which allows for a higher energy density than any other commercial rechargeablebatteries. Instead, oxygen from the environment is reduced by a catalytic surface inside the air electrode. Thus, catalysts are key materials that affect the capacity, cycle life, and rate capability of such batteries.
The optimized zinc-sulfur nanocomposite was used as anode material for the construction of laboratory scale zinc-manganese dioxide batteries. Two other anode materials including pure nanostructured zinc powder and industrial zinc powder (which is used in the manufacture of RAM batteries) were used to compare the anode ability of synthesized nanocomposite. The battery scheme was shown in Fig. 1. We then mixed 0.1 g zinc-sulfur nanocomposite powder was mixed with 9 %wt KOH solution to obtain a anodic paste. The resulting paste was soft- pressed in the anode hole of the battery. Industrial zinc powder and nanostructured zinc powder were mixed with 1 %wt CMC, 2 %wt MgO, 4 %wt ZnO and 1 %wt acetylene black. The obtained 0.1 g blend was mixed with KOH 9 %wt to form a hard paste. The paste was soft pressed in the anode hole of the battery plan.
VFusion Charger can charge either one or two VFusion Batteries at the same time. The batteries must be the same size (either 312 or 13) as listed on the VFusion Charger housing. To ensure optimum performance, charge VFusion batteries each night, so they will be ready in the morning to provide a full day of power for your hearing devices. VFusion Batteries do not have a memory effect, so they can be recharged at any time. In fact, it is best NOT to fully discharge the battery prior to recharging. Recharging the battery before it is fully drained will prolong its life.