Protection switching can also be classified as local repair and global repair/end-to-end repair which is also called as path-based protection. The path-based protection schemes can be further classified as 1+1 (dedicated ) path protection, 1:1 path protection, 1:N (many-to-one) path protection, M:N (many-to-many) path protection and Split Path Protection (protection using load balancing) . Dedicated path-based (1+1) protection provides a dedicated recovery path for which resources are fully reserved. Though this scheme provides fast restoration while preserving QoS, it results in poor utilization of resources since resources are reserved but not used until failure of link and/node. The 1:1 path protection provides a recovery path for each working path. The 1:1 path protection scheme allows low-priority traffic to share the recovery path resources until the fault occurs. In 1:N path protection, N working paths are protected using a single protection path. In M:N path protection, N working paths are protected using M protection paths. Using 1:1, 1:N and M:N path protection schemes resources can be utilize efficiently since these protection schemes permit low priority traffic to utilize the recovery paths until the fault occurs. In case of failure of link/node on the working path, the low-priority traffic is preempted by the recovery path to carry the protected traffic. But disadvantage of these schemes is they may result in network instability because of preemption of low priority traffic. Using split path protection (protection using load balancing) multiple protection paths are used to carry the traffic of a working path.
So far, qualitative e ﬀ ects of the jitter and short-time vari- ations in the timing recovery mechanism have been pre- sented. Statistical values of the performance degradation computed over the 24 channels referred to in Section 2.1 are now given. To this end, the bit-rate loss experienced in both scenarios with each oscillator and modulation strategy is computed. Bit-rates obtained in each channel under per- fect synchronization conditions are taken as reference for the comparison. The bandwidth employed in all the channels is fixed for each modulation strategy and oscillator. These bandwidths values are computed by averaging the optimum bandwidths of all the channels in the selected configuration. Results are shown in Table 1. As seen, considerable perfor- mance degradation occurs in the apartment channels, espe- cially when the constellation remains fixed throughout the mains cycle. Bit-rate losses are smaller in the detached house due to the inherently worse characteristics of these channels, which are established over longer and more branched links than in the apartment.
sensors4 (with different sensing ranges) and locally recovering sensing holes (caused by sensor failures) unaddressed. However, in practice, those closely- related deployment issues should be resolved as a complete proto- col set to achieve an operative WSN with high detection capability. In light of this, we investigate the movement- assisted sensor deployment subject by considering those deployment-related problems in a holistic manner. A CASA protocol suite is proposed to address the global sensor deployment scheme (EVFA-B) and sensing coverage recovery in the presence of sensor failures (SSOA). We summarize our unique contributions as follows. First, we develop the enhanced virtual forces algorithm with boundary forces (EVFA- B) based on the concept of potential
In this paper, we propose and compare three channel recoveryschemes. We assume that the system uses the FCA scheme and a xed number of guard channels are reserved for HCs. In Scheme I, a failed channel(FCh) is automatically switched by an idle channel if one is available. Otherwise, the failed call(FC) is queued until an idle channel is available. In Scheme II, in order to use the limited spectrum more eciently, a restoration of the FCh is rst attempted within a pre-speci ed time threshold. If it can not be restored within that time, the switching strategy in Scheme I is applied. If the FCh can be recovered within the time threshold, the FC is restored without costing additional channel resources. In Scheme III, a hybrid of Schemes I and II is applied. For some of the failed channels, Scheme I is applied. For the others, Scheme II is used.
In practice, the underlying network carries various network services with diverse traffic characteristics and requirements, e.g. Voice over IP (VoIP) applications require low delay and jitter, and generally are not so sensitive to packet loss due to the advances of loss recoveryschemes deployed at the receiver, whereas background traffic (refer to LTE traffic Model subsection), such as file transfers, needs reliable data transmission with optimized system performance. Therefore, the proposed window control mechanism is only applied to the background traffic.
Adaptive Security for Garbled Programs. The schemes mentioned so far only address the static setting where all inputs are chosen by the adversary in advance before it sees any garbled program. In contrast, adaptive security considers the case where new challenges may adversarially depend on the public information released so far. In the context of one-time garbling, this means that the the input may depend on the garbed program. This setting is considered in Goldwasser et al. [GKR08] and Bellare et al. [BHR12]. The latter work presents transformations from statically-secure one-time garbling schemes to adaptively-secure one- time garbling schemes that either incur overhead for the input garbling that is proportional to the size of the function circuit or that are instantiated in the random oracle model (ROM). Ananth et al. [ABSV15, AS15] and Waters [Wat15] construct adaptively secure functional encryption and program garbling for Turing machines in the plain model. In particular, both input and program in [AS15] are succinct. However, none of them is able to provide persistent memory.
Europe’s climate change policies should have as their primary goal the fight against climate change. But they should also minimise the economic impact of carbon pricing schemes and avoid introducing competitive distortions through sectoral ‘carve-outs’ from common rules and ‘grand- fathering’ of permits to pollute. Because it is more vulnerable than other economies to carbon pricing, as a result of the relatively high carbon-intensity of its export mix, the EU must i) ensure that carbon abatement mechanisms allow emissions to be cut at the lowest cost; ii) reduce competitive dis- tortions by pushing for widespread use of carbon pricing schemes; and iii) avoid trade-skewing sectoral ‘carve-outs’ from such schemes at national level.
First, let us remind the attack on Wild Goppa codes over quadratic extensions . This attack concerns some subclass of alternant codes called wild Goppa codes. For such codes a distinguisher exists which permits to compute a filtration of the public code. Hence, after some computations, we obtain the subcode A r+q+1 (x, y) of the public code A r (x, y). Then, according to Heuristic 27, the computation of a conductor permits to get the code NT (x). As soon as NT (x) is known, the recovery of the secret is easy. Note that, the use of the techniques of § 4.7 can significantly simplifies the end of the attack of  which was rather technical.
and that there is more to them than their experience of mental illness (Topor et al., 2011). Mancini, Hardiman and Lawson (2005) conducted a grounded theory study with 15 men and women in a framework of symbolic interactionism, exploring recovery from schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, major depression and bipolar disorder. The findings suggested that family and friends were crucial and provided belief in participants’ abilities to recover, heightening hopefulness and comfort. In addition, relations with health care professionals were important particularly where individuals felt as though they were collaborative partners. Relationships where participants were not viewed through the lens of disability helped facilitate recovery and humanise their experiences. A further finding suggested that supportive messages from family countered hopelessness and feelings of incompetence in recovery. However, it should also be noted that the participants of this study were individuals described as leaders in the consumer provisions of mental health services with all in the past having been hospitalised, therefore such positions potentially heighten the need for a sense of equality and humanness. Furthermore, their professional positions and familiarity with the recovery concepts perhaps make them a distinct group of individuals rather than a reflection of the majority population with these clinical diagnoses. Connectedness can also be experienced from people with shared experiences (peer support) or others whom people feel they can relate to for having gone through similar challenges (Slade, 2009). It might be argued that those with experiences of depression may feel a loss of connectedness, or a feeling of otherness heightened by one’s sense of isolation (Karp, 1996). Therefore, this sense of union with something or someone may be an important way to slowly help those with experiences of depression.
Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India have come up with various schemes, programmes, social welfare schemes, Health and Nutrition, scholarship for women empowerment, Girl Child pregnant women, mothers, ward members, Anganwadi Workers, Women Health Volunteers, the women living in the rural & tribal areas, ex-servicemen, physically handicapped, nursing women, Lactating mother, widows/destitute, Old age women, women self-help group (SHG), Women Entrepreneurs and Adolescent Girls’. Also, it helps to the women and child belonging to Scheduled Caste(SC) and Scheduled Tribe(ST), Other Backward Classes(OBC), Socially and Educationally Backward Classes(SEBC) Minority Category, below poverty line(BPL) and also for General Category This scheme provides assistance for Education, Training, Financial assistance/Cash, Subsidy on the loans, Scholarship, Nutrition, self-employment and other facilities. The prime goal is for empowerment, development, protection and welfare of Women & Child.
The public-sector schemes cover all full-time workers and part-timers that work 40 per cent or more of the full working week. The pension plan for central-government employees has the same accrual structure as the ITP plan, paying ten per cent of final salary below the ceiling for the state pension, and a higher replacement rate for higher earnings. ‘Final’ salary is defined as the average of the last five years before retirement. Although the normal pension age is typically 65, 30 years’ contributions between age 28 and 65 are sufficient for a full pension. Workers can retire on a full pension from age 60 if they meet the contribution condition. The benefit is reduced proportionally for less than full contribution records. Although public plans are pay-as-you-go financed, ‘notional’ contributions of around six per cent of earnings are levied. In addition, there is a defined contribution top-up pension, to which the government contributes 1.7 per cent of pay.
In principle, STW schemes could affect labour demand directly and indirectly by af- fecting the way output shocks are transmitted to labour demand. The results, however, generally provide little evidence for any direct effects of STW. Only when the endogeneity of take-up is taken into account is there some evidence that STW reduces the contemporaneous growth rate of average hours worked independently of output changes. This is, perhaps, not surprising since STW is a programme that is explicitly designed to reduce working time. More interestingly, there is some indication that STW take-up slows employment growth in the future. However, this effect is econom- ically very small and only in one specification statistically significant at the 10% level. In principle, the direct negative effect of STW on employment could reflect its adverse impact on the reallocation of workers between more and less productive firms 10 . Con- cerns about the potential adverse effects of STW on job reallocation have motivated recommendations by the OECD that STW should only be used in the context of eco- nomic downturns and that its use should be strictly temporary (OECD, 2009, 2010).
In the la s t four sections, we have investigated num erically th e effect of e stim atin g tran sm issiv ity over subdom ains W, reducing th e num ber of h ead m ea su re m e n ts, ad d in g noise to th e h ead d a ta , an d in cluding a sm oothing c o n stra in t on tran sm issiv ity . E xcept for te s ts involving th e sm oothing co n strain t w here th e values of the regularizing p a ra m eter a were often not optim al due to large outliers, all resu lts obtained in these last sections were som ew hat expected. For example, estim ates have shown to be highly sensitive to noise in the head, and uniqueness of transm issivity for the continuous problem su b sta n tia lly increases th e accuracy of th e transm issivity coefficient estim ates. We have seen th a t w ithout additional prior inform ation, even a large num ber of accurate h ead m easu rem en ts does not p erm it recovery of more th a n the lower frequency tran sm issiv ity components. This is p articu larly tru e for those cases w here tran sm issiv ity or recharge is not smooth.
Figure 2 shows a generic chip timing recovery loop consist- ing of a timing error detector (TED), a loop filter to smooth the TED output, and a numerically controlled clock (NCC) to control the timing of the sampling devices . The or- der of the loop is determined by the transfer function of the loop filter . Here we use a first-order loop by setting the discrete-time transfer function of the loop filter to F(z) = 1. The loop bandwidth is then controlled by setting the gain term κ. The performance of a timing recovery loop is ulti- mately limited by the properties of its TED. Figure 3 shows an example of a coherent TED for DS-CDMA . A non- coherent version is shown in Figure 4. Both TEDs operate by despreading early and late versions of the received signal to obtain Y + [n] and Y − [n], respectively.
– Loftus et al. [LMSV12] showed that Gentry’s SHE scheme [Gen09b] is not IND-CCA1 secure and presented an IND-CCA1 attack against the variation proposed in [GH11b]. They also showed that the same attack applies to the other variant by Smart and Ver- cauteren [SV10]. In fact, the attacks are both key recovery attacks. Moreover, they modified the SHE in [SV10] and proved its IND-CCA1 security based on a new assump- tion. Zhang et al. [ZPS12] presented an IND-CCA1 attack against the SHE scheme in [vDGHV10], which can recover the secret key with O(λ 2 ) queries where λ is the security