Some bins were more effective than others, with the Bongaree Jetty bin providing the most discarded fishing tackle despite this bin having its cap removed on several occasions. This bin was also the subject of significant vandalism, second only to the bin located at, and subsequently removed from, Skirmish Point. The Bongaree Jetty was the most frequented fishing location in the study area and hosted recreational fishers every day and night over the course of the FLRB program. This location is also popular with non-fishers who use the jetty to observe wildlife such as dolphins and turtles or for swimming. To these users, discarded fishing hooks present a hazard, particularly for children with bare feet. This, along with the decrease in the aesthetic experience due to the discarded fishing line and fish and weed from cast-netting, reflects poorly on recreational anglers. Such issues should be addressed to ensure the continued use of the jetty for recreationalfishing.
Diarists in this survey were not required to weigh or measure their fish as this was considered to be an excessive burden on fishers and self-reported weight information may not have been reliable. Commercial fishers, however, primarily report the weight by species caught and do not report the number harvested. Therefore a conversion was required in order to compare the recreational and commercial catch. For the species compared in this report, the recreational harvest was converted from numbers to weight using data collected as part of an ongoing recreationalfishing biological monitoring program conducted by Fisheries Queensland. This program collects length data at boat ramps for a variety of fish species caught at many locations in Queensland. As the average size of a species varies around the state, a stratified statewide representative sample of lengths is
The baseline results presented in this report provide an insight into the time series of recreationalfishing information that Fisheries Queensland is collecting through boat ramp surveys across the state. The information will be used to create indices of fishing activity, which can be used to make annual and regional comparisons of changes in those indices through time as the data set grows. Boat ramp surveys complement Fisheries Queensland’s other monitoring programs. They cannot provide estimates of total recreationalfishing effort or harvest; however, they complement the statewide surveys by providing information about the trends in fishing activity within a year and between the successive statewide surveys. Information on total statewide recreationalfishing harvest and effort is best provided by Fisheries Queensland’s statewide recreationalfishing surveys
Over the last decade recreationalfishing has increased in some parts of the world, perhaps due to improved fishing gear and technological advances (Kearney 2001; Coleman et al. 2004; Veiga et al. 2013). Over 30% of the New Zealand population take part in some form of recreationalfishing (Sutinen & Johnston 2003) which is regarded as an “open access fishery” (Borch 2010, Bosch 2010) with few controls. Recently there has been concern raised that increased recreationalfishing pressure could deplete natural populations (Zischke et al. 2012). Marine recreationalfishing and charter boat fisheries in New Zealand are managed outside the Quota Management System (QMS) (Bess & Rallapudi 2007). Rules and regulations are set by the Ministry for Primary Industries (previously known as the Ministry of Fisheries) and include bag limits, size restrictions, areas closed off to fishing, seasons, fishing methods and gear restrictions; methods that are used worldwide (Yandle 2007, Tetzlaff et al. 2013). The introduction of the Māori Fisheries Act of 1989 allowed for Taiāpure to promote sustainability in certain coastal areas affected by fishing. It allowed for the management of traditional customary fishing grounds and holds significance to the Māori community. In 2006 a Taiāpure was established in Akaroa Harbour for the protection of fish and shellfisheries with a management committee made up of representatives from Ngāi Tahu, local community, recreational and commercial fishing groups. No special restrictions were placed on recreationalfishing at the time; however, a combined maximum daily bag limit of 30 finfish per person, consisting of any combination of the
As discussed in Chapter 1 fisheries stakeholders can be instrumental in successful fisheries management through meaningful participation. Recreational fishers of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) are inclined to become involved in the monitoring and managing of fisheries resources and participate in education programs (Sawynok et al., 2009, Lynch et al., 2010). For instance, in 2004 the GBRWHA recreationalfishing community felt their lack of knowledge about local fisheries resources inhibited their ability to meaningfully engage in management decision such as the rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. As a result CapReef was created in 2005. CapReef is a community-based monitoring program initiated in central QLD to collect information on local fisheries resources and recreational fisheries. It is a partnership program involving managers, researchers and the recreationalfishing community (Sawynok et al., 2009). Recreational fishers participate in the program because they believe it can improve fisheries management, enhance their recreationalfishing practice and because it allows them to express their values towards fisheries conservation (Cheong, 2010). The interaction of researchers and government agencies with those involved in CapReef and the local fishing community has helped develop trust between government, science and the community (Sawynok et al., 2009). More relevant to the current study, Lynch et al. (2010) explored GBRWHA recreational fishers’ attitudes and practices towards sharks and rays and also found that recreational fishers of the GBRWHA are willing to be engaged and are prepared to improve their catch and handling techniques to minimise their impacts.
In 1996, the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries began collecting information on recreationalfishing participation in Queensland, Australia. Between 1996 and 2004, the recreationalfishing participation rate (i.e., the percent of the Queensland population aged five or over that participates) declined from 28.1% to 20.6%, and the number of active recreational fishers in the state declined from 882,200 to 733,400 (Higgs and McInnes 2003; J. Higgs, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, pers. comm.). These statistics indicate that people are being displaced from recreationalfishing in Queensland and are not being replaced with new recruits to the activity. This decline in participation is of concern for a number of reasons. First, a dwindling fish- ing constituency will likely result in reduced public, financial, and political support for fisheries management and con- servation efforts. Second, there are potential economic impacts on businesses and communities that support recre- ational fishing when displaced fishers spend their leisure dollars elsewhere. Finally, there may be quality-of-life impli- cations if displaced fishers are not able to replace fishing with another leisure activ- ity that provides them with the same level of benefits. Consequently, there is a great deal of interest in understanding the fac- tors that shape fishing participation patterns in Queensland.
The results show that fishers strongly rely on government internet sites and social media such as Facebook to access information about recreationalfishing rules and regulations. They also rely on friends and family, local tackle shops and government publications and brochures. However, a number of fishers expressed concern that fishing rules and regulations were not always easy to access and found it difficult to keep up to date with regulatory changes. Knowing how recreational fishers find out about fishing will help Fisheries Queensland better communicate with stakeholders in the future.
The variance estimators used are derived by treating the sample design as two phase, (the first phase being stratified random sample stratified by age, sex and region), the second phase introducing fishing/non-fishing strata within the age, sex and region strata. The formula used is adapted from (9.4.14) on page 353 of Model assisted sampling (Sarndal et al. 1992)—also refer to pages 333 and 334 of Sampling techniques (Cochran 1977). Earlier reports (Higgs 1999; Higgs 2001) reported variance estimates that were calculated on a quarterly basis and then summed to obtain annual estimates. This is only a valid way of calculating variances if the samples from each quarter are independent. Since we mostly have common samples (taking into account non- response) in all four quarters, these samples are not independent.
selective as well. The fact that it has been shown that snapper in particular are more widely distributed on the fishing grounds over a range of habitats (Sumpton et al. 2013b), confirms demersal fishing in many areas of the rocky reef fishery still has some probability of catching this species. While a thorough analysis of this was beyond the scope of this report, it is important to recognise that determining what constitutes a recreationalfishing trip likely to catch a particular species of interest (such as pearl perch) is critical and warrants careful consideration and scenario modelling in survey estimates of total catches and stock assessment that seeks to use recreational catch rates as an index of stock abundance. The handling of zero catches is not as problematic for the 1995/95 on-site survey data as the assumption that interviews of fishers at boat ramps were obtained from a random sample of all fishers who were fishing offshore, irrespective of their targeting behaviour. Effort estimates were obtained from counts of offshore fishing boats independent of the catch survey and also independent of any targeting preference. Thus, these catch rate estimates are less likely to be biased. Other on-site surveys that have adequate design would similarly provide better estimates of catch rates and would also be more likely to produce more accurate and precise estimates of released fish as recall bias would be reduced.
with a peak between 40 and 50 km (Figure 1b). The main purpose of the trip was to fish (70.18%). Anglers prefer to fish in both rivers and reservoirs (36.84%), only in reservoirs (34.50%), or in rivers (28.65%). Most (37.43%) fish throughout the year or during the hottest months (30.41%), especially at weekends and holidays. Most state they fish between 20 and 70 days a year (Figure 1c), with a peak (22.81%) between 30 and 50 days. The length of the fishing day (Figure 1d) is 4-6 hours (47.37%), although some prolong it for more than 12 hours (4.68%). Most prefer to fish from the shore (89.47%), about 7% fish from boats, while 2.93% liked to fish with belly boats. Most use natural bait (worms) alone or combined with artificial or live (fish) baits (Figure 1e). Most of the anglers interviewed expressed preference for a particular group of species (Figure 1f), especially cyprinids. The remainder (27.49%) expressed no preference for any particular fish group. The species are preferred (Figure 1g) for their fighting capacity (29.3%), size (23.90%), and combativity (19.80%). All (33.94%) or a few of fish (23.39%) are returned to the water after capture (Figure 1h). However, the 19.27% are given to acquaintances, and others are used as food (22.48%). Most anglers have more than two years experience (97.81%), and those with 10-15 years of experience were the most numerous group (22.81%) (Figure 1i). Expenditure on equipment, permits, baits, and fuel by anglers was highly variable and difficult for the anglers themselves to evaluate (Figure 1j). Thus, 29.24% of them spend between 100 and 300 euros per year, and 22.21% more than 1200 euros. The anglers know native (83.04%) and invasive species (78.95%) and the impact of exotic species on freshwater ecosystems (71.35%). Most of them (83.95%) believe that it is necessary to take measures to preserve fisheries. They consider that motivations and requirements to fish are in general important (Figure 2k). However, fishing is not a way to escape the daily routine (not important: 35.09%). The measures, that in their opinion, would contribute to the improvement of recreationalfishing were (Figure 1l): cleaning fishing sites (24.3%), stocking (15.93%), improving the access to fishing sites (11.95%), eradication of exotic species (9.16%), water depuration (8.70%), and others (more river wardens, increase the minimum takeable size, etc.).
Because mariculture data was not available for all of the Gulf states and in the states for which the data was available oyster production was reported in different metrics, a Gulf-wide analysis of the trajectory of revenue from mariculture was not possible. In addition, an accurate comparison to Sumaila and colleagues’ projection cannot be made given the limited analysis of the mariculture industry as a whole that was possible in this study. The extent to which the mariculture industry may have been impacted is more uncertain than what was observed in the commercial and recreationalfishing industries because of the limitations on data availability. Therefore, it is unclear which hypothesis concerning economic responses to natural disasters best characterizes the mariculture industry in the Gulf of Mexico.
Recreationalfishing has been shown to be an important component of fishing mortality across the globe (Coleman, Figueira, Ueland, & Crowder, 2004; Cooke & Cowx, 2004, 2006; Ihde, Wilberg, Loewensteiner, Secor, & Miller, 2011; Lewin, Arlinghaus, & Mehner, 2006; McPhee, Leadbitter, & Skilleter, 2002; Post et al., 2002), gener- ating significant economic (e.g. Arlinghaus & Cooke, 2009; Cisneros- Montemayor & Sumaila, 2010; Cowx, 2002; Toivonen et al., 2004) and social benefits (e.g. Arlinghaus, Mehner, & Cowx, 2002; Griffiths, Bryant, Raymond, & Newcombe, 2017; Lynch et al., 2016; Parkkila et al., 2010). In some parts of the world, data on marine recreationalfishing (MRF) removals are included in stock assessments, and sepa- rate quota allocations are made for commercial and recreational fish- eries for certain stocks (Ryan, Trinnie, Jones, Hart, & Wise, 2016). The economic value of the recreational fishery is in some cases recognized and taken into account in allocation decisions between sectors (e.g. Lee, Steinback, & Wallmo, 2017; Steinback, 1999; Steinback, Gentner, & Castle, 2004), and specific government policies supporting and pro- moting MRF have been developed (e.g. USA—NOAA, 2015). In Europe, a lack of reliable estimates of recreational catches has resulted in MRF being excluded from stock assessments and allocations for many years (Pawson, Tingley, & Padda, 2007). This can be problematic for some widely targeted species such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae), as it may undermine our ability to manage fish stocks to maximum sus- tainable yield (Hyder, Armstrong, Ferter, & Strehlow, 2014) as required by the Common Fisheries Policy (EU, 2013) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU, 2008b). Widely held views that removals and socioeconomic impact of MRF are low have been challenged in Europe. Recent studies in Europe have demonstrated the biologi- cal impact (e.g. Armstrong et al., 2013; Ferter et al., 2013; van der Hammen, de Graaf, & Lyle, 2016; Herfaut, Levrel, Thébaud, & Véron, 2013; Morales- Nin et al., 2005; Sparrevohn & Storr- Paulsen, 2012; Strehlow, Schultz, Zimmermann, & Hammer, 2012; Veiga, Ribeiro, Gonçalves, & Erzini, 2010; Vølstad et al., 2011), economic impact (e.g. Armstrong et al., 2013; Borch, Moilanen, & Olsen, 2011; Herfaut et al., 2013; Monkman et al., 2015) and social benefits (e.g. Armstrong et al., 2013).
Very little is documented about the specific gears and methods that recreational anglers use to target sharks and little is known concerning the rationale behind these choices. In catch-and- release fisheries decreased animal welfare and post-release mortality can most commonly be linked to physical injuries associated with the gear used and the handling of the animal. Conservation behaviour as simple as adherence to responsible fishing techniques can help to minimise fishing mortality in many shark fisheries. However, public attitudes and perceptions can play a large part in how individuals participate in a fishery and as such, it is important to establish a standard of trust and communication between anglers, scientists and fisheries managers before any successful attempts at promoting this information can be made. This study aims to examine the gear choices and fishing preferences of Australian shortfin mako shark anglers and relate these to the angler’s perceptions on the impacts of shark fishing, their opinions on sharks and shark populations, and their support for fisheries management. This was done in an effort to better understand the rationale behind the practices and choices that anglers make regarding their fishing behaviours. This study utilised a targeted web survey to obtain information regarding the current gears and methods used by recreational shortfin mako fishers and how these relate to the angler’s perceptions on the impacts of recreational shark fishing, their opinions on sharks and shark populations, and their support for fisheries management. Information presented is based on the responses from 287 shortfin mako anglers distributed across south eastern Australia. Overall, game fishers have generally realistic and accurate perceptions about how their fishing behaviours and gear choices may affect the survival of released shortfin mako sharks. Selection of gear was shown to be determined largely by the fishing preference of the angler, with those practising catch-and- release more frequently using circle hooks more often. Geography also played a large part in determining the perceptions and behaviours of fishers with the largest differences in the opinion of respondents most commonly being noted between NSW and Tas. Respondents from NSW were also found to have the least support and trust for fisheries management. Most respondents did not acknowledge that their fishing behaviours were able to impact shark stocks, rather shifting all accountability onto commercial fisheries. Angler support for precautionary management suggests that a better understanding of the potential impacts of recreationalfishing on shark stocks may assist in promoting greater accountability and responsible fishing practices amongst these resource users; however, improved
Recreationalfishing can have significant impacts on fish stocks within ROFAs. Westera et al. (2003), for example, compared fish abundance and size between ‘sanctuaries’ (where no fishing is allowed) and ROFAs in Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. They examined three regions, each containing one sanctuary and one ROFA, and found higher abundances of legal-sized Lethrinids (the most targeted finfish family) in sanctuaries than in ROFAs, concluding that recreationalfishing does have an impact on target species. Similarly, New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus) populations were compared between the Mimiwhangata Marine Park, which is open to some recreationalfishing methods only (i.e. effectively a ROFA), to areas with no protection (i.e. open to all fishing) and areas with complete protection (i.e. no fishing allowed). The study found Mimiwhangata had fewer and smaller snapper than in any of the other areas, concluding that partial closures are ineffective as conservation tools. The authors further stated that there may be a perception that, in the absence of commercial fishing, fish are larger and more plentiful in the ROFA, which may result in higher recreationalfishing effort (Denny and Babcock 2004).
Pop-up satellite archival transmitting (PSAT) tags are capable of storing high-resolution behavioral and environmental information for extended periods of time (approximately 1 year), rendering them especially valuable for studying highly mobile species. In this review, we synthesize published PSAT data to understand the biophysical drivers that influence movements of billfishes (families Xiphiidae and Istiophoridae). To date, over 1,080 PSATs have been deployed on billfishes, with individuals demonstrating both trans-equatorial and trans-basin movements. Using this dataset, we identify four main physical variables that drive billfish behavior: temperature, light, oxygen, and complex water mixing (e.g. fronts and eddies). Of the seven species that have been studied with PSAT technology, all exhibited a strong thermal preference for water >22°C, though vertically migrating swordfish additionally occupied waters <10°C while at depth. Ambient light levels influence vertical movements, especially those associated with foraging, as billfish possess large eyes and thermoregulatory abilities that facilitate feeding behaviors below warm surface layers. Mounting evidence suggests that some billfishes actively avoid regions with low dissolved oxygen (<3.5 mL L −1 ). Human-induced climate change is expected to increase the horizontal and vertical extent of hypoxic water and may further compress habitat and concentrate fishing pressure on pelagic fishes. Finally, complex submeso- and mesoscale processes provide critical habitat for spawning, larval feeding, and retention, but our understanding of these and other behavioral aspects of billfish biology remains limited. Future research efforts should leverage technical advancements while integrating existing and future tag data with chemical and physical oceanographic datasets to gain a better understanding of the relevant biophysical interactions for billfishes, thereby enhancing management capabilities for this ecologically and economically important group of fishes.
Species diversity was highest at Sites 4 and 5, the Borrow Pits. Diversity was lowest at Site 3, where the dissolved oxygen concentration was lowest. The evenness of diversity varied strongly among sites, indicating a high variability in numbers of individuals captured within each taxa at the different sites (Figure 60). Helmke et al. (2000) reported higher numbers of fish (3154) and species (24) from Trinity Inlet while Hogan and Graham (1994) report a variable number of species, 13 – 30 species, in different creeks within the Herbert River flood plain. Both the Trinity Inlet and the Herbert River flood plain are larger catchments then the Bohle River catchment and are in the Wet Tropics. Both these factors typically contribute to a higher diversity than smaller catchments in the wet-dry tropics (Pusey et al. 1995). Low diversity in the Bohle River may be natural and result from low average rainfall with seasonal high intensity flows and the small physical size of the catchment or due to anthropological factors which could strongly and quickly reduce habitat quality and quantity (e.g. urban and industrial run-off, encroachment of housing and industrial industries into the catchment, water treatment discharge, introduction of exotic plant and fish species etc.). Karr (1981) has suggested a procedure to assess the biotic integrity of an area using descriptions for all components of the fish community, and according to his scheme, the indicative calculation reveals
Horta e Costa et al. (2013) found that target species’ habitats drive fishers’ choices of alternative fishing sites. In our analysis, urchin boats, which primarily target the red sea urchin (Mesocentrotus franciscanus), consistently preferred hard bottom areas, where kelp forests often occur and urchins feed (Parnell et al. 2006, Hamilton and Caselle 2015), both before and after MPA implemen tation. Urchin boats also preferred areas away from the MPA borders both before and after MPA implemen tation, indicating that their fishing patterns were not affected by MPA establishment. M. franciscanus is a rel atively sedentary species, restricted to locations where their food occurs (Mattison et al. 1976); any MPA ben efits to this fishery would likely come from larval export rather than adult spillover. Furthermore, hard-bottom and kelp forest areas are more extensive outside the MPAs, as are urchins (California Department of Fish and Game, PISCO, CINMS, and Channel Islands National Park 2008); this may explain the urchin boats’ preference for areas away from the MPA borders before and after MPA implementation.