reducing re-offending

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21st century social work: reducing re-offending - key practice skills

21st century social work: reducing re-offending - key practice skills

practice. The supervision process begins with the establishment of relationships and the effectiveness of every subsequent part of the process will depend in part on the quality of the relationship, though good relationships alone will not be enough to bring about change. In other words, although we have described the ability to build and utilise relationships as a discrete skill set in its own right (including communication, counselling and inter-personal skills), in fact it underpins each of the other skill sets and each aspect of the supervision process. This has been the recurring theme of this literature review. Whether we look to the latest versions of the ‘what works’ research, to the psychotherapy literature or to the desistance research, similar messages emerge. The accumulated weight of evidence, coming from studies that start with quite different assumptions and using very different methodological approaches, drives us towards recognition that practice skills in general and relationship skills in particular are at least as critical in reducing re-offending as programme content.
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Reducing Re-offending Housing and Housing Support Resource Pack

Reducing Re-offending Housing and Housing Support Resource Pack

There is much that authorities, with their Commissioning Body and delivery partners can do to help shape the local agenda. This applies particularly to Probation staff who have a cross cutting oversight of issues affecting offenders through their attendance at partnership groups such as Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships, Drug Action Teams and Youth Offending Team boards. Together with an understanding of the needs of offenders in prison, Prolific and Priority Offenders, young offenders and women offenders, probation should provide strong representation for the broader offender groups.
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Are prison sentences a cost-beneficial way of reducing offending in those populations who are at risk of further offending?

Are prison sentences a cost-beneficial way of reducing offending in those populations who are at risk of further offending?

This study provides evidence about the net benefit of different criminal justice interventions. Net benefit includes the effectiveness of the interventions in reducing re- offending, the monetary value of these reductions in re-offending, and the cost of the intervention. This value for money assessment is not about minimising costs;

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The economic case for and against prison

The economic case for and against prison

The debate about imprisonment is a perennial one, drawing on a wide range of public and political opinions, academic theories and research studies. Current concerns include prison overcrowding, the level of probation resources, escalating costs and early release controversies. Much of the current debate, whether for or against imprisonment, tends to focus on the moral, political and social arguments. This study considers the economic aspects of this debate. Historically, most research has provided evidence on the effectiveness of criminal justice interventions at reducing re-offending. Whilst important, this information does not present the whole picture.
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The Research, Development and Statistics Directorate exists to improve policy making, decision taking and practice in support of the Home Office

The Research, Development and Statistics Directorate exists to improve policy making, decision taking and practice in support of the Home Office

Re-offending rates vary considerably by type of disposal, but it is reasonable to assume that the disposal given depends upon the characteristics of the offender which will also affect their chances of re-offending. The relationship between re-offending and disposal is a complex topic, and there is a comprehensive research programme underway to understand this further. The Home Office has commissioned a programme of rapid evidence assessments and systematic reviews to collate and critically appraise national and international evidence on what works to reduce re-offending (on mentoring, female offenders, violent offenders, juvenile offenders and persistent offenders). The Home Office has developed a programme of research and evaluation on sentencing, including the Courts Survey which will increase understanding of sentencing practice, identify factors associated with sentencing decisions, and evaluate the effectiveness (and cost-effectiveness) of different sentences. The Home Office continues to develop and implement a programme of cohort studies (on adult and juvenile offenders in custody and community) to identify offender needs and the interventions they receive, and assess what’s effective (and cost-effective) in reducing re-offending. In addition, Home Office Research Development and Statistics is developing a programme of randomised control trials and quasi-experimental studies of individual interventions to test what works to reduce re-offending.
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local authority research

local authority research

EXODUS is a three-year cross regional project to develop effective interventions with short-term prisoners and priority offenders with an aim of reducing re-offending by increasing employability. The philosophy behind this approach is that offenders are less likely to re-offend if they are in supported employment. EXODUS is aimed at people who have served a maximum of 12 months in prison and provides services including: work placements; training; C.V. writing; counselling; help in completing application forms; and advice on revealing criminal history to employers. The project also helps offenders with issues related to housing and benefits. EXODUS referrals come directly from Winchester prison. The EXODUS partnership in Southampton is led by the city council (this is the only example of an EXODUS project being led by a local authority. The wider partnership includes:
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Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

Articles | British Journal of Community Justice

First, the recommendation that the Ministry of Justice develop a measure to compare re- offending outcomes following prison and community sentences was questioned. Rather, a lack of consensus generally on what evidence base should be drawn upon to ensure a robust evaluation of the outcomes of prison and community sentences suggests a much wider discussion should take place.

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Assessing young people in police custody: an examination of the operation of Triage schemes

Assessing young people in police custody: an examination of the operation of Triage schemes

Policing priorities at the time, particularly the pre-eminence of sanction detection rates as a policing target, had caused difficulties. Interviewees noted the need for Triage schemes to be properly recorded and valued as a police disposal, rather than as “no further action”. In some areas there was concern that police-led community resolution could have a negative impact on Triage schemes by resolving problems away from the custody suite. The worry was that this could reduce the numbers of young people being seen and assessed by Triage workers. This would mean that vulnerable young people with specific needs could slip through the net. Triage schemes are not intrinsically incompatible with community resolution and can fit well. However, there needs to be strategic leadership across the police and the Youth Offending Service and a clear definition of how the different interventions interact. A good practice example in one area involved having someone regularly check the details of all those who had received a community resolution as way of reviewing where the Triage schemes may have been more appropriate.
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Moving on from young offender institutions: Expectations, adjustment and the role of social support

Moving on from young offender institutions: Expectations, adjustment and the role of social support

Considerable heterogeneity was, however, noted concerning the life course and patterns o f individuals’ offending. Given the widespread nature o f antisocial behaviour in young people, and the range o f behaviours involved, this is perhaps unsurprising. In spite o f many attempts to introduce categories o f offender in response to this heterogeneity, little agreement was reached prior to the 1990s (Rutter, Giller & Hagell, 1998). Nevertheless, several authors have drawn an essential distinction between what Moffitt (1993) termed ‘adolescent-limited’ and ‘life-course persistent’ antisocial behaviour. Moffit (1993) believed the former to be much more common and this view has been confirmed by self-report data (Rutter et al, 1998). Regarding the latter, Rutter et al (1998) suggest that an additional subgroup be distinguished, whose antisocial behaviour shows a marked tendency to persist into adulthood and is associated with hyperactivity.
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Resettlement of young people leaving custody: Lessons from the literature

Resettlement of young people leaving custody: Lessons from the literature

The evaluations showed that the benefits of extending provision across local authority areas included more services being available, cost savings by pooling, easier engagement with third sector agencies, and the ability to move young people to accommodation away from their offending peers (Hazel et al, 2012; Wright et al, 2012; Ellis et al, 2012). Partnerships at a strategic level, with senior level buy-in, brought shared aims and targets and a more widespread awareness of needs around resettlement, including in the custodial institution. Such partnerships could help improve communication between agencies, although this was more problematic with children’s services and probation. Additional partnership at the operational level helped develop a sense of shared ownership and delivery focused on the multiple needs of clients, resulting in contributions from a wider range of agencies and meeting more of the needs of young people than has been identified in previous research. Involving the custodial institutions in the consortia is likely to have led to the improved access of agencies to young people inside and better information flow the other way (Hazel et al, 2012).
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Alternative Restrictions of Sex Offenders' Social Media Use & The Freedom of Speech

Alternative Restrictions of Sex Offenders' Social Media Use & The Freedom of Speech

speech. Part II will also discuss how protecting children on social networking sites is a compelling state interest. Part III will examine how federal and state courts and legislatures have approached full and partial bans on sex offenders’ social media use in the past. Part IV will discuss recent legislation that aims to provide a solution to the First Amendment issues raised in the past by impos- ing notice requirements on sex offenders’ social networking profiles and crime specific restrictions on social media use. Part IV will argue that a blanket ban on sex offenders’ social media use is unconstitutional; however, partial re- strictions on social media use, such as those used in Louisiana, based on the individual nature of one’s committed sex offense are appropriate and easier to enforce. Additionally, imposing notice requirements on sex offenders’ social media profiles is the functional equivalent of registering on a sex offender reg- istry, which is already required by law and made available online, and is thus not more restrictive than existing restrictions for many registered sex offend- ers. Part IV will argue that Louisiana’s revised statute, which defines the un- lawful use of a social networking website, should serve as a model law for oth- er states to adopt. Part V will conclude that legislation that restricts sex offend- ers’ social media use through the use of crime specific restrictions and notice requirements on social networking sites are less restrictive than banning sex offenders’ social media use. Such legislation should therefore be upheld by the states to best monitor sex offenders’ activity and protect children on social networking sites. Through analyzing the history and evolution of restrictions on sex offenders’ social media use, this Note will demonstrate why Louisiana’s revised statute should serve as a model for other states to adopt as the best al- ternative to bans on sex offenders’ social media use.
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Restoring identity: The use of religion as a mechanism to transition between an identity of sexual offending to a non-offending identity

Restoring identity: The use of religion as a mechanism to transition between an identity of sexual offending to a non-offending identity

11 Yet Norman also identifies with the idea of having an ingrained sexual attraction to children: “I don’t deny that I have had problems with pedophilia since I came of age [at] 13,14.”. Norman perceives his sexual attraction as being innate and integral to his sense of self, he views the condition as biological (“it’s an illness”) and possibly genetic: “why did I get this problem and you [brothers] didn’t, you see (mmm), now whether there’s a genetic erm side to this or not, I just do not know”. Either way, the idea that Norman is a pedophile (although not clinically diagnosed) is an important one to his identity and explaining his sexual offending. While Norman claims to be in control of his “problem” he describes how the pull to act on his sexual interests can be very strong. He is adamant he never acted on any desires, but describes a constant motivation to return to this innate sexual orientation. He uses a useful analogy to describe the challenge he faces:
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Proven Re-offending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin October 2010 to September 2011, England and Wales

Proven Re-offending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin October 2010 to September 2011, England and Wales

The second column shows the re-conviction rates from the previous measure looking at offenders who were released from custody or commenced a court order, but at any point during the year. The inclusion of offenders from a full 12 month period means the results are calculated using the full proven offender population rather than a sample – this ensures we do not over- represent prolific offenders in the cohort, which is a problem in using a January to March sample as in the previous adult re-conviction measure. This leads to a lower proportion of re-convicted offenders (between three and five percentage points, e.g. 34.7 per cent compared to 39.3 per cent in 2009). The change to a full year also increases the number of offenders, to 200,077 in 2009 23 .
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Reducing teacher workload: the ‘Re-balancing Feedback’ trial

Reducing teacher workload: the ‘Re-balancing Feedback’ trial

The ‘rebalancing feedback’ trial indicates that it is possible for schools to investigate the impact of school-led initiatives designed to improve working conditions by reducing workload. But this is not enough. As well as removing from the diet of teachers’ lives the unnecessary, the inefficient and the ineffective, there needs to be a sharp focus on bringing in the necessary, the efficient and the effective in their places. In essence, it is important to use this research – and others in the same field – to investigate how to use the opportunity of reducing workload to increase student learning.
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The Government’s Response to the House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee Report:Young Black People and the Criminal Justice System

The Government’s Response to the House of Commons Home Affairs Select Committee Report:Young Black People and the Criminal Justice System

As part of the Alliance agenda, which forms strong partnerships across the community and government with clear priorities to reduce re-offending, the Ministry of Justice MoJ and the YJB [r]

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Delinquency Predictors: Offending to Commitment

Delinquency Predictors: Offending to Commitment

Aside from general mental health problems, substance use disorder (SUD) and comorbidity are two of the most problematic disorders when it comes to the juvenile justice system. Hoeve, McReynolds, Wasserman, and McMillian (2013) conducted a study examining both mental health and SUD. Using a secondary data analysis of 700 juveniles from Alabama, Hoeve and colleagues evaluated the juveniles on psychiatric disorders and offense characteristics. As a whole, approximately half of the sample reported at least one psychiatric disorder. The analysis revealed that recidivists were more likely to have a psychiatric disorder over non-recidivists. When the results were examined further, participants with a SUD alone were more likely to commit a serious offense in the future. Juveniles with a SUD, with or without a co-occurring disorder, were at a greater risk to have a severe re-offense, making SUD possibly the most problematic disorder (Hoeve et al., 2013). Furthermore, in Cottle and associates’ (2001) meta- analysis, substance use alone did not predict recidivism, but substance abuse did, meaning habitual illicit substance use increases risk of offending.
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Working with Young People Who Offend : An Examination of the Literature Regarding Violence, Substance Misuse and Harmful Sexual Behaviour

Working with Young People Who Offend : An Examination of the Literature Regarding Violence, Substance Misuse and Harmful Sexual Behaviour

While the risk assessment debate has emerged in more recent years, and while proponents for differing methodological approaches continue to promote their particular preferences, the place for actuarial assessment and structured professional judgement is now established. As (Hong, Ryan, Chiu, & Sabri, 2013) indicated, static items such as age, ethnicity, or special education are important, while anger and irritability featured among the dynamic items are also related to re-arrests. The risk factors examined are variables that contribute to a measure of the likelihood of further offending. It continues to be the case that actuarial approaches have a good track record for providing a judgement on the likelihood of further offending based on group data of others with similar histories. Tempering those judgements with structured clinical judgement for the specific variability of individual offenders results in a constructive basis on which to build interventions and strategies for the management of the risks and needs identified. It is no longer the case of an either/or approach but a central acknowledgement of the contribution that both actuarial and structured clinical judgement bring to risk assessment. In this regard, the SAVRY has shown promise in relation to young people with violent behaviours. However, despite this, studies to date have found that no one risk assessment instrument has shown unequivocal positive results in predicting future offending amongst young people who display sexually harmful behaviour and that, as such, further independent research is required.
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Patterns of offending behaviour:a new approach (Full report)

Patterns of offending behaviour:a new approach (Full report)

In broad terms, there is increasing specialisation as male offenders get older. This is measured by considering the next age group in which a reconviction occurs. Those remaining in the same cluster are termed specialists. There are different patterns to be observed among the clusters. Figure 3 shows how the majority of male clusters become more specialised with age. However, there is a difference between the pattern observed for shoplifting (cluster I) where specialisation continues to increase into adulthood, and wounding (cluster H ) where specialisation levels off at age 21. Cluster F (aggressive property offending and wide-ranging car crime) illustrates an exception, with specialisation declining with age.
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Machine Learning: For Offending Drivers

Machine Learning: For Offending Drivers

The use of mobile phones while driving causes four types of mutually non-exclusive distractions; i.e visual, auditory, cognitive and manual/physical. While visual distractions cause drivers to look away from the roadway, manual distractions requires the driver to take their hands off the steering wheel, auditory distractions mask those sounds that are crucial for the driver to hear while driving and cognitive ones induce the driver to think about something other than driving. It has been established that distraction caused by mobile phone usage while driving, can deprecate driving performance, and have now joined alcohol and speeding as leading factors in fatal and serious injury crashes. This paper strives to improve these alarming statistics, by testing whether dashboard cameras can automatically detect drivers engaging in distracted behaviors. If we can capture the pictures of offending drivers in car seat (texting, eating, talking on the phone, makeup, reaching behind, etc), the goal is to predict the likelihood of what the driver is doing in each picture.
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Young offenders' views of desistance in Japan : a comparison with Scotland

Young offenders' views of desistance in Japan : a comparison with Scotland

Consultation apart, western integrative theories of desistance would, on the face of it, seem to match the explanations given by Japanese and Scottish young people on what encourages desistance. These explanations suggest both agency and structure influencing desistance. I would argue that Scottish (Western) and Japanese (East Asian) respondents in my study at least (which it is acknowledged cannot be deemed representative by any means) showed remarkable consistency in both reasons for starting and stopping offending, contrary to Messner’s argument that East Asians and Westerners ‘see the same environment differently’ (Messner, 2015, p.121, emphasis in original) (see also Chapter 6). I would argue that the East Asian values of harmony and relatedness are as significant for Scottish young offenders as they are for Japanese young offenders – both in starting and stopping offending. I would thus suggest that in terms of youth crime in particular, more comparative and empirical research on youth crime needs to be undertaken, including eliciting the views of young offenders, within the context of youth transitions and integration into adult society.
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