Electric power losses are wasteful energy caused by external factors or internal factors, and energy dissipated in the system. These include losses due to resistance, atmospheric conditions, theft, miscalculations, etc., and losses incurred between sources of supply to load canter (or consumers). Loss minimization and quantification is very vital in all human endeavours. In power system, it can lead to more economic operation of the system. If we know how the losses occur, we can take steps to limit and minimize the losses. Consequently, this will lead to effective and efficient operation of the system. Therefore, the existing power generation and transmission can be effectively used without having the need to build new installations and at the same time save cost of losses. Basically, losses in electrical power system can be identified as those losses caused by internal factors known as Technicallosses and those caused by external factors which are called non-technicallosses. The Nigerian electricity grid has a large proportion of transmission and distribution losses - whopping 40%. This is attributed to technicallosses and non-technicallosses. Due to the size of the area the power system serves, the majority of the power systems are dedicated to power transmission. Generally, system losses increase the operating cost of electric utilities and consequently result in high cost of electricity. Therefore, reduction of system losses is of paramount importance because of its financial, economic and socio-economic values to the utility company, customers and the host country. However, low losses in transmission system could be achieved by installing generating stations near the load centres.
Mainly the Distribution losses are classified into two types as (i) TechnicalLosses and (ii) Non-TechnicalLosses. TechnicalLosses include the losses due to the heat dissipation resulting from current passing through conductors and magnetic losses in transformers, Resistive losses in windings and the core losses, resistive losses in service line and losses in kWh meter. These losses cannot be eliminated but can be reduced. Non-TechnicalLosses are the losses which include, power theft by hooking the lines, unauthorized connections from the power line, loss at the loose connection ends etc. These losses can be eliminated by taking some precautions. Power losses are mainly classified into Transmission losses, Distribution losses and Theft and billing deficiencies. Distribution losses and theft losses are mainly because of transmitting power at low load voltage profile to more number of consumers using High rating kVA Transformer. It is clear that, Distribution losses are more when compared to Transmission losses. This is mainly because of the present existing Low Voltage Distribution Systems (LVDS).At present the distribution system is Low Voltage Distribution System (LVDS). Distribution system with low voltage employs four core cables and LT lines and multiple loads fed from a bulk power transformer resulting in losses .
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of aggregate technical and commercial losses(AT & C) occur in Power Distribution Sector with special focus on loss reduction and efficiency improvement of power supply. Different major aspects of technical and non-technicallosses have been identified and on the basis of that a number of remedial measures have been suggested for loss reduction and to facilitate the improvement of overall efficiency of the power distribution system. The main objective of this paper is to implement a distribution system having negligible NonTechnicalLosses (NTL).Some case studies (CESC,NDPL) have also been made to reflect the viability of the loss reduction techniques which have been already implemented. This may provide further strategy to energy planners and managers.
During my research with the aim of defining the influences of non – linear and imbalances of loads on power networks, we picked five transformer substations in which we carried out measurements on energy parameters on the 0.4 kV side (power consumption read by measuring instruments of voltage and current in each overhead phase line of 0.4 kV). Ribno – Slobodski substation of 110/35/10 kV served as our feeder centre.
Today annual evaporation losses from farm water storages in Australia can potentially exceed 40% of their storage volume (Craig et al. 2005a). Baillie (2008) estimates evaporation losses from on farm storages in Australia to be in the range of 1,320GL to 2,880GL (depending on storage volume, evaporation potential and storage characteristics). In addition, considerable water distribution losses are present in irrigation channels due to evaporation and seepage (Baillie et al. 2007). As a consequence, agricultural production opportunities worth tens of millions of dollars evaporate with the water.
Belt rupture device is reduced of full length belt through cut, belt restoring time is reduced so Reduction of Additional truck tippers & wheel loader required for shifting & feeding of raw material to internal customers is reduced.
(Kz-AN). With the exception of the Kp-AN variant, the DOC content in soils showed a right-skewed dis- tribution, evidenced by the positive value of skewness. During the four-year study, the process of DOC release was much more intensive in the topsoil (to the depth of 10 cm) than in the deeper soil layers (Figure 3). The DOC content in the topsoil of non- productive variant Kz-AN significantly decreased over the study period, while in other meadows fertilized with AN (Kp-AN and N120-AN) it decreased only till 2011. The tendency of reducing soluble forms of organic carbon was not observed in variants fertilized with CN (Figure 3). Similar results were also obtained in this meadow in earlier experiment (Burzyńska 2004). The obtained results partly confirmed those of Schauman (2000) demonstrating that the reserve of calcium ions in the soil stabilized the structure of organic matter and reduced the solubility of SOC. DOC in soils fertilized with CN slightly varied until the year 2011. In the following year, however, a significantly increased solubility of this carbon form was observed in all meadow soils (Figure 3). This phenomenon is difficult to assess and needs further studies.
Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic method that is inspired by the synergy observed in real ants and that is able to select the shortest way to get from the nest to a food source through the deposition and tracking of pheromones. This optimization problem is put in the form of a graph G such that G = (n, C) where n is the set of nodes and C the set of paths given by active losses in the branches. However, the paths connecting two sets of nodes not successives are not eligible because they can’t present losses. High values are assigned to these ineligible paths to get them out of the basic potential solutions. In practice, ant colony algorithms have been implemented on complete graphs, i.e. where each node is connected to all other nodes. This avoids dead ends in the construction of the cycle. If the configuration of the problem requires that some arcs be avoided, rather than eliminate them, as in our example, it is enough to assign them a very large length, so that the ants borrowing them are disadvantaged. From the practical point of view, at each arc (i, j), we associate a quantity of pheromones noted and we define the probability that the ant k placed in node i choose the node j.
Government provide scholarship scheme benefit to tribals for higher education which named as post matric scholarship scheme for tribes. The benefit of such scholarship schemes are as follows- A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further his or her education. Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award. Scholarship money is not required to be repaid. Scheme covers professional, technical as well as non-professional and non-technical courses at various levels including correspondence courses covering distance and continuing education.
ABSTRACT: As in everywhere automation is required to reduce the work and curbing electricity theft in India, which accounts for 80% of the power losses. While the nation strives to mark a new golden era, the power sector suffers contributing to blackouts and costs $17 billion in lost revenue annually, according to calculations by Bloomberg. With the nation-wide production at over 250GW, as on August 2016 , weak infrastructure accounts for various losses – transmission, distribution, aggregate technical and commercial losses due to these is occurs by power thefting our paper mainly focused on to identify these power thefting and calculate the units from the appliance and it gives the notification depend upon the consumption and electrical appliance may control through the internet at anywhere in the world there is no distance parameter for that and manual reset to start the function again.The main objectives of this system are described clearly as follows: theft of electricity increases the costs paid by customers and can have serious safety consequences. Detecting electricity theft has been traditionally addressed by physical checks of tamper-evident seals by field personnel and by using balance meters. Identify the theft by sending alert SMS to the owner. Sent meter readings and rate every month to the owner. Adding with these setup an efficient Internet of Things (IOT) is defined, which portraits the global connection environment to the users and allow them to view the status of meter reading and theft associations globally from anywhere at any time. Theft of electricity has a material impact on customers in terms of cost and safety. We consider that the existing regulatory framework does not adequately encourage suppliers to be proactive in detecting theft.
The large values of energy losses in the power system of Kosovo are due to the political situation in the first ten-year of period 1989-1999, when the country went through a period of economic destruction, the collapse of standards in general and particularly the cessation of investments in the distribution network. Then, we have the post-war period (after 1999), where at the beginning of this period, investments were made mostly in generation units and in enabling destroyed network. In this period we also have a very large annual increase electricity consumption (which is around 8% per year), which requires to be followed by a request for capacity building of existing distribution network.
In this paper we have analyzed the suitability of ferrite sheets as a shield of inductive transmission systems against the influence of metallic surfaces. In particular, we investi- gated the influence of single or double-layered substrates made of ferrite and/or copper on the link parameters, such as self-inductance and coupling. All results were obtained theoretically with a detailed analytical model as well as with FEM simulations and in addition were confirmed experimentally. The measurements show that copper-covered coils in inductive link systems lead to a significant drop of the self-inductance and cou- pling due to induced eddy current losses. We could demonstrate that a high shielding performance can be achieved by placing a finite ferrite plate between the coil and the copper disc. In this way, a setup with the same coil configuration leads to even higher values of the primary inductance for the double-layer configuration than for the air- cored reference system. The original link parameters such as inductances and coupling and hence the transfer efficiency can be retained through a reduction in the number of turns. Furthermore, we have shown that the shielding can be achieved for relatively small radii of the ferrite foil in the same order of magnitude as the coil radius which makes them a promising candidate for practical implementations. Our results are par- ticularly relevant for cochlear implant systems, since coil dimensions in these systems closely match the ones we used in our examinations.
and the reductions in UK military establishments. Interestingly a number of land use classes were subject to high amounts of churn, where a class experiences losses in one location and gains in another. High degrees of churn were evident in the following classes: Wasteland, with equal losses and gains, Caravans and Cared for but Non- Productive which gained over twice the area they lost, and Industry and Transport which gained just under twice as much as they lost. More detailed analyses of churn are possible but these require careful consideration of the spatial units of analysis and consideration of the MAUP (the modifiable areal unit problem, Openshaw, 1984). Under the MUAP, different rates of churn would be expected at the same location, depending on the spatial extent scope of the analysis, for example using zones, reporting units, etc.
Among all currently known methods of synthesis, the most common are – the synthesis in water or in reverse micellar solutions. But in order to introduce silver into paint or polymer materials, which have hydrophobic surface, a dispersion of silver must be obtained in organic solvent. There fore, the purpose of work was to study the possibility of synthesis and evaluation of the stability of silver nanoparticles in an organic medium, namely among ethylene glycol, 2-methoxyethanol and ethyl acetate. Trifluoroacetate was synthesized and used as the initial compound for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ethyleneglycol and 2- methoxyethanol were used as non-aqueous media for nanoparticle stabilization and for providing their stability in time. Quercetin, ascorbicacid and potassium citrate were used as reducing agents.The chosen reducing agents possess sufficient solubility in organic solvents and a high reducing ability.
The US Airways flight 1549 case study, peppered across this chapter, illustrates effective decision- making and crew resource management in a highly challenging situation. This is in contrast to much of human-factors training that uses catastrophic case studies to demonstrate the lack or failure of a particular non-technical skill or system defence. US Airways flight 1549 makes one wonder how often aircrew, maintainers, air traffic controllers and other aviation personnel make valuable decisions that avert mishaps and accidents; decisions that are undocumented and essentially invisible. Flight 1549 highlighted a number of key points from this chapter, as well as from the broader non-technical skills perspective. The multiple bird strikes immediately immersed the flight crew into an emergency situation where stress was extremely high, as were the risks and the sense of responsibility for the lives of those on board (as well as, potentially, people and infrastructure on the ground if the aircraft failed to find a clear place to land in what was a high density metropolitan landscape).
musculoskeletal injuries, can be loosely divided into trauma and elective surgery. Trauma surgery deals with musculoskeletal pathologies requiring surgical interventions mostly resulting from acute injury or trauma such as fractures. Elective surgery deals with other non-‐acute and usually less urgent causes such as knee osteoarthritis requiring TKA. An important distinction between the two is the time pressure and urgency to operate. Elective surgery is usually planned-‐in-‐advance surgery and is relatively more predictable in comparison to trauma surgery. Similar to other surgical specialties, elective orthopaedics involves multidisciplinary teams working together to deliver optimum patient care. During an operation, the team members are constantly managing a wide range of tasks. In orthopaedics, teams are also regularly dealing with changing tools and technology in a field where reliance on highly specialised
This study aims to examine energy conservation behavior among student at a private higher learning institution using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model. Result depicted that there is no significant different on the intention to perform energy conservation between technical and non-technical students. Towards the intention to perform energy conservation, results showed that perceived behavioral control (PBC) is the highest contributors followed by attitude and subjective norm. The finding on PBC and attitude is similar with those of Lynch and Martin (2013), Abraham and Steg (2011) and Midden and Ritsema (1986). Previous study found that there is no contribution of subjective norm
In conclusion, the technique herein described offers a range of benefits over existing techniques, aimed at improving predictability, consistency and longevity of aesthetic results. Development of pseudoptosis in particular, which is a common pitfall with existing breast reduction techniques, is effectively delayed. We believe the learning curve and extra time required to complete the procedure, with its series of additional steps, is a very worthwhile trade-off for patients who receive a more lasting improvement in breast shape and lift. The modifications described have not been shown to increase the rates of surgical complications.