-assessment without sufficiently thinking of „why‟ and „how‟ to accomplish the project. The work is performed without preparing all those who are to participate in the project and without discussing the core values that constitute the work. If the organization has not reached the necessary maturity level it is probably a waste of resources to start a comprehensive self-assessment project. Orginality/value: As a synthesis form the analysis, a model for how an organization should start self-assessment is presented, as well as a number of guiding points. Owlia and Aspinwall (1997) conclude that customer orientation is a more problematic principle of TQM when applied to universities because of special nature of many academics whose motivation to work is often independent of market issues. The effectiveness of leadership is adversely affected by individualism among academic staff and due to absence of team working. Naware et al. (2006) found that Board of Governors and chairpersons in secondary schools are not providing the necessary leadership that would promote TQM practices necessary for schools' continuous improvement. However, some head teachers are providing the required leadership with a considerable number of school managements empowering their employees. The majority of schools are not committed to strategic quality planning, though they do promote human resource development initiatives. School management is expected to provide leadership that promotes TQM practices in order to achieve set objectives. Empowered employees participate in decision-making and are capable of increasing the quality of learning. Strategic quality planning is important for the provision of quality services while human resource development is necessary in schools to motivate and realize the maximum potential from employees.
On November 30, 2010, Assoc.prof. J.Miķelsons visited Issy les Moulieanux (France), the world’s largest water and heat consumption measuring equipment manufacturing company ITRON.
The researcher of the Institute for Quality Engineering Guna Čivčiša complements her practical skills and improves her qualifications in the accredited laboratory of the milk processing enterprise JSC “Rīgas piena kombināts”. Starting with August 2010, G. Čivčiša works in the industrial measurement field as a laboratory technician. The planned cooperation / exchange lasts one year. The experience resulting from a year in industrial production processes, measuring equipment and instrument maintenance (setup, monitoring / maintenance, calibration), measurements (testing, measurement sample preparation, measurement process, factors affecting it), testing / calibration results in quality assurance (evaluation of testing results, data and error analysis, inconsistency assessment) will allow to transfer the experience gained in the industry to university situation and to develop the content of study courses offered by the Institute for Quality Engineering .
By competitor benchmarking the company compares itself directly to present and potential competitors within the same range of products (e.g. competitors at foreign markets) in order to gather information on the competitors’ products, processes and results to be able to compare this information with the company’s own results and to learn from the differences. Gathering information about the behavior of competitors is naturally always of supreme interest for a company. When Rank Xerox started its benchmarking analysis in the early 1980s its production costs per unit were higher than Canon’s sales price. Obviously there was something which Canon could do which Xerox could not. To gather information about this was crucial to Xerox. Consequently, Xerox made an investigation of the conditions of production in a wider sense, not only with Canon, but also with Minolta, Toshiba and Ricoh. In doing this, Xerox was helped to a great extent by its Japanese joint venture named Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. They discovered that the Japanese producers of photocopying machines had sought their ideas from inter alia Toyota and Honda, one of which was the ‘just in time principle’ and they were very fast at adapting their ideas to their own production.
attainment of near perfection thus ensuring long-term survivability.
TQM STATISTICAL TOOLS
TQM relies heavily on statistical tools and techniques to improve processes within an organization. As discussed in preceding paragraphs, analyzing the results of a process change requires taking measurements. Some of the more popular tools for capturing and analyzing measurements data are flow charts, scatter diagrams, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, and Pareto analysis diagrams. Each of these tools has a different application, so understanding the type of information each provides is crucial.
4 TOTALQUALITYMANAGEMENT AND BALANCED SCORECARD IN MANAGERIAL CONTEXT
TotalQualityManagement is a collection of tools. On the other hand, it is often said to be a philosophy concentrating on the customer focus. In addition to the customer focus, TQM is without any doubt concerned in the perspective of internal processes (see the four perspectives of BSC in Figure 1). However, TQM does not explicitly emphasize the financial perspective, neither the perspective of learning and growth. From this point of view, Balanced Scorecard seems to have a wider frame than TQM. On the other hand, it is not justified to argue that TQM does not consider the financial perspective or the perspective of learning and growth. Some components of TQM do contribute in this area. These are for example cost reduction by making everyone responsible for quality, not only technical inspectors, or learning process acceleration by analyzing cause-and-effect relations of a specific phenomenon.
• Industry report: Method proposal implemented in the industry providing feedback on its results.
Most of the reached papers were providing a case study, as according to Figure 2-10, in regards to SQM or supplier risk. It was evidenced that literature brings a different concept in terms of the relationship between OEM and suppliers if compared with a real situation presented in section 1 by an aerospace company, where the SQM is a responsibility of supplier quality team and by the literature, the SQM is handled between suppliers and buyers. Besides the 60 case studies found, 29 papers presented some experimentation on the proposed methods. It can be highlighted the number of papers that propose the usage of Fuzzy logic on the SQM or supplier development as proposed by Chan and Kumar (2007) and Wu et al. (2010). Another 17 papers provided any kind of survey mainly on the electronics industry. Others 16 papers provided a conceptual analysis without necessarily having implemented it, as the analysis was done by Ojala and Hallikas (2006) on risks that enterprises have faced in their partnership relationships in the area of investment decision- making. Industrial reports were provided in 8 articles, providing real situations as done by Yoo (2014) when identified the relationship between return policy and product quality decisions. Last, 5 articles proposed an illustrative scenario.
with an indirect association towards employees’ job satisfaction.
The analyses conclude that there is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and some of the TQM activities including employee training and education, employee relations and teamwork. Most of the employees indicate that management of organization should have asked their opinion for important organizational decisions. Their inclusion to overall activities is not good enough and their inclusion to management activities has to be increased. The measure of job satisfaction comprise of limited number of TQM practices may not represent overall view of job satisfaction. It is suggested that the future research should be undertaken to include more TQM practices and their impacts on the organizational outcomes. Furthermore, a wider range of employees’ reactions to task characteristics, career satisfaction, management styles, and leadership commitment should be incorporated into a more comprehensive study. Finally, while the measure of job satisfaction comprises of only a small number of items, which tapped different aspects of job satisfaction behavior, and does not represent an overall view of job satisfaction, therefore this is a considerable biased view for this study.
separated the processes of planning and carrying out the plan, and union opposition arose as workers were deprived of a voice in the conditions and functions of their work. The Hawthorne experiments in the late 1920s showed how worker productivity could be impacted by
participation in management. In the 1930s, Walter Shewhart developed the methods for statistical analysis and control of quality which informed future the work of Dr. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran who are considered the founders of TQM.
4.1 Knowledge of TQM
The analysis of this section tells us that the majority of the contractors perceive quality as a competitive advantage next to elimination of defects. They feel that that product / service quality is very important for them in gaining customers satisfaction because it ultimately translates to higher profits for them. They feel that customer satisfaction is their main goal. Interestingly however, when they were asked to rank in the order of importance the following attributes: Quality, Safety, Time, Cost and Scope; they ranked scope and cost as the important considerations followed by Timeliness, Safety and Quality.
The answer to these questions for both buyers (which of course could very well be companies) and sellers is to obtain knowledge about the existing relationship in the market between price and attributes for the good in question. With the help of this information the seller will be in a good position when pricing a new product or when determining the viability of prices for existing products. When pricing a new product, one possibility is to identify the characteristics of the product, substitute these into the hedonic function and then price the product at the level of p(z). Likewise, the viability of current prices can be judged by a comparison with p(z). To the buyer, the information will show whether an offer is under or overpriced by looking at the residuals when substituting the characteristics into the hedonic function. In this way, the buyer will be able to pick out the set of efficient offers for further analysis before making a final decision. This again brings the hedonic function into focus with emphasis this time on the process of estimation and interpretation. In fact, the background to the empirical part of this chapter was an inquiry from a group of real estate agents who wanted a tool for a more systematic pricing of their houses.
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the thoughts of the modern era paradigm on Totalqualitymanagement "TQM" and its application in the field of education. This research also explores the adoption of totalqualitymanagement in the field of education. Our research starts with the background theory/ literature review and then outline the result of the study, conducted by the students to obtain the different perspective on Totalqualitymanagement in education. We applied survey methodology and selected questionnaire as an instrument. We used Multiple Regression to analyze the effect of TQM in education. By testing the hypothesis we have found out that the two sectors (government and educational institutions) agreed to adopt the concept of TQM except for the parental sector. This sector needs improvement. In our research F- statistics indicate positive results. It means that adoption of TQM in education gives you an excellent result in the overall system. As we can say that adoption of totalqualitymanagement in education can ascertain more effective institutional change with success. As a result, this research proposed a theory which is obtained from TQM i.e. institutional change environment, sustainable success, and innovation which express the relationship between the educational institutions and the role of totalqualitymanagement.
Basing on the strong foundation of trust, ethics and integrity, bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition. It includes:
4. Training - Training is very important for employees to be highly productive. Supervisors are solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments, and teaching their employees the philosophies of TQM. Training that employees require are interpersonal skills, the ability to function within teams, problem solving, decision making, job management performance analysis and improvement, business economics and technical skills. During the creation and formation of TQM, employees are trained so that they can become effective employees for the company. 5. Teamwork - To become successful in business, teamwork is also a key element of TQM. With the use of teams, the business will receive quicker and better solutions to problems. Teams also provide more permanent improvements in processes and operations. In teams, people feel more comfortable bringing up problems that may occur, and can get help from other workers to find a solution and put into place. There are mainly three types of teams that TQM organizations adopt:
regressionanalysis, cumulative curve probability graphs, Taguchi experiments, etc.
6 Genichi Taguchi
Taguchi was a telecom engineer who spent much of his professional life to improve the quality of manufactured products . Among the Japanese approaches to quality, Taguchi methods have been the most widely adopted in America and Europe . In the 80’s, he had a great contribution in the quality movement by eliminating the need for mass inspection through the process of building quality into the product at the design stage . His totalqualitymanagement framework provides two basic ideas :
– For EMS, the decrease of training days from 2004 to 2009 shows that most pharmaceutical sites made one step backwards regarding the ultimate objective of
“lean” to create a learning organization. This observa- tion is emphasized by the increase in fluctuation which leads to a loss of knowledge. The results for the performance indicators are confirmed by the analysis of the implementation. Besides “Employee involvement and continuous improvement ”, which improved, all other categories in this system changed for the worse or stayed the same. Pharmaceutical companies were not able to re-design their existing management systems to facilitate the implementation of a learning organization with the objective to leverage the potential of high educational levels among employees.
Tanuja Waghmare, Ph. D.
Asst.Professor, St. Teresa Institute of Education, Santacruz, West. Mumbai.
Management is the process of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling an organizations operation in order to achieve a coordination of the human and material resources essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives. Although the concept of quality is very old, today it is perhaps the major preoccupation of organizations world-wide. However, in the recent years, TQM has captured the world-wide attention and is being adopted in many organizations, both profit and non-profit. Step through TQM's door and the first person you'll want to meet will be W. Edwards Deming, credited as the founding father of TotalQualityManagement. Deming grew up in the twenties and thirties, a time when all you needed to succeed as a factory worker was the ability to work long hours at extremely boring jobs. Most industrial tasks required little or no formal schooling and illiteracy rates were high.