Thus it becomes clear from the above mentioned research that work-life balance is nothing but the satisfactory level of involvement between the multiple roles in a person‟s life and it is a very common and distressing problem for employers and employees of corporate sectors, industrial organizations and financial institutions. It can be asserted that a wide spread but vastly neglected psychological and social problem have been taken seriously.Work- Life balance is an important area of human resource management which has received increased attention from the governments. The researchers have been attacking the phenomenon of Work-life balance systematically and seriously. Even the professionals in the concerned organizations are busy in exploring and inventing new innovative ways to improve the Work- life balance, employee morale, retain employees and keep pace with the workplace trends. Gender equality and responsibility for caring however, are contested issues. The transition to motherhood still continues to have practical and emotional consequences. When women take break from their careers to fulfil their right to motherhood, it is considered unprofessional. Moreover, it also affects their professional stature when they return to work. These tend to reinforce gender in-equalities at work place. As a result many women have to make the difficult choice betweenfamily and career.
When applied to work-family conflict, the COR model proposes that the conflict leads to psychological stress and distress because resources are lost in trying to balancebetweenwork and family (Grandey & Cropanzano, 1999, p. 352). This in turn leads to lowered jobsatisfaction, anxiety, and intent to turnover (Grandey & Cropanzano, 1999, as cited in Thompson, 2002). The underlying mechanism is that when individuals experience more conflict in one domain, there are fewer resources available to fulfill one’s role in another domain. Therefore, experiencing high levels of conflict at work will result in fewer resources available for family responsibilities, and vice versa. Grandey and Cropanzano (1999) further suggested that individual difference variables – for example, self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem – are possible mediators and moderators of the relationshipbetweenwork-family conflict and stress. Hobfoll (2001) also added that because resources are used to prevent resource loss, initial resource losses would render people more vulnerable to future losses. It follows that individuals who lack resources in their work, family, or other personal domains are more prone to additional loss of resources, since all resources are intercorrelated in some way (Demerouti, Bakker, & Bulters, 2004).
This study focused on the life and jobsatisfaction of employees at Majlis Perbandaran Kulaijaya (MPKu). Within this study, three variables will be studied which is work-life balance (WLB) and work-family conflict as an independent variables; and life satisfaction and jobsatisfaction as the dependent variable. It is to see whether the independent variable which is the work-life balance and work-family conflict will affect the dependent variable which is the life and jobsatisfaction of employees. Previous research done had provided evidence that there is a positive relationshipbetween the variables being studied because when work-life balance is provided by organization, it is functioning to help employees to have a good both life and jobsatisfaction (Greenhaus et al, 2006). It is proven that supporting pattern of work that meet biological and psychological needs within the individual’s environment can lead to the reduction of stress, improved health and well-being and greater life satisfaction (Matuska and Christiansen, 2008 in Subramaniam and Selvaratnam, 2010).
Licensed under Creative Common Page 101 performance of work-related responsibilities". In this study, the author uses the definition of work-family conflict proposed by Greenhaus and Beutell (1985). This definition is consistent with the views of many researchers (Kahn ,1964; Holahan and Gilbert, 1979; Kopelman, 1983; Bedian and Mossholder, 1989, Duxbury and Higgins, 1991; Netemeyer et al., 1996). Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) define WFC as "a form of conflict which pressure from roles in work and in the family are mutually incompatible roles" (P.77). Greenhaus and colleagues argue that conflict in household roles can be expressed in three forms: time, stress and behavior (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). A time conflict occurs when the time spent on activities in one role hinders the fulfillment of responsibilities in another role, in other words, a time conflict occurs when someone must perform two roles at the same time in both the family and the workplace (For example, asking lecturers to teach after hours, which makes it difficult for them to perform obligations to the family, such as taking - picking up children at school). Conflict from stress occurs when the stress of one role affects the performance of another (For example, a mother who is worried about her sick child at home may not be fully focused on teaching and scientific research. Affect teaching quality, lecture content and scientific research results). Behavioral conflicts occur when behaviors in a role cannot be adjusted to be compatible with other behaviors (For example, a lecturer requires flexibility, able to speak and not easily accept criticism different from their views ...but sometimes such as behavior can lead to conflicts with other members of family ). Jobsatisfaction has been defined for many different areas of work, Imran et al. (2014) defining jobsatisfaction as a general or overall emotional response of individuals who feel a job, jobsatisfaction is the degree to which a person feels like their job. Harter and Stone (2011) have provided a broader definition that includes awareness of aspects of jobsatisfaction. Locke (1969) defines jobsatisfaction as the degree of expectation that an individual in a given position receives from that job. Jobsatisfaction is described as an attitude related to the extent to which people feel or dislike their jobs (Spector, 1997).
Investment in technology, accumulation of capital and other resources, or changes in strategies are some of the ways used to increase productivity. Better human resource management (HRM) practices also play a central role in enhancement of productivity of an organization (Bloom & Van Reenen, 2007). HRM practices may also affect employee turnover and productivity may increase (Sels et al., 2006). Petrescu & Simmons (2008) find that HRM practices increase satisfaction with pay and their overall jobsatisfaction. However, these effects are almost insignificant for union members. Workers satisfaction with leadership behavior and with pay is more where performance based pay and seniority related reward systems are practiced.
Salary is one of the major concern to both employers and employees. For employees, salary is of obvious importance in terms of satisfying their economic needs (Hassan, 2014). It is essential that they are satisfied with their overall salary as this may influence their attitudes and behaviours. Scholars note that one of the most important variables determining retention is monetary compensation (Motshegwa, 2010). Secondly, employee jobsatisfaction have positively affected by supervisors’ support and acknowledgement of employees (Yang, Brown & Moon, 2011). The supervisors are representative for the company, if they are supportive and caring, employees recognise the company as the same (Yang, Brown & Moon, 2011). Thirdly, according to Pergamit and Veum (1999), they initiate a positive association among career development and jobsatisfaction which helps to retain employees. Internal career development of employees is usually the best forecaster of an employee's operative commitment (Pergamit & Veum, 1999). When the company wants to retain professionals, they might need to think through in offering their future employment in the company as a consequence of their greater mobility (Hassan, 2014). Lastly, nature of work can be defined as the actual content of the job or work characteristics no matter whether these characteristics or the content of that work is positive or negative (Benrazavi & Silong, 2013). The effects of a job upon the employees are also reflected as contents of a job whether these effects are categorised as interesting or uninteresting, various or consistent, innovative or degrading, easy or tough, challenging or non- challenging (Benrazavi & Silong, 2013). It was recommended that if the company offers technical professionals the opportunity to involve in challenging and exciting jobs, they will be more involved and gratified in their companies, more dedicated to their companies, and finally, less possible to leave (Igbaria, 1991; Igbaria and Guimaraes, 1992; Igbaria, Meredith & Smith, 1994; Tutuncu and Kozak, 2007).
Each year, work related stress causes economical costs of approximately 4,2 billion Euro. Simultaneously to the increase of work-related stress, jobsatisfaction experienced a constant decrease over the past years. One’s working hours cover a big part of life and thus it is important to achieve high jobsatisfaction in terms of not having excessive stress. This study focuses on the moderating impact that self- compassion might have on the relationshipbetweenwork-related stress and jobsatisfaction. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, it can be suggested that self-compassion might function as a personal resource that buffers against the impact which work-related stressors have on individual outcomes such as jobsatisfaction. Self-compassion is already known to reduce stress and to be beneficial for one’s well- being and therefore thought to benefit that just mentioned relationship. Employed people were surveyed about their levels of work-related stress, self-compassion and jobsatisfaction. Then correlations were computed, such as a regression analysis and a moderation analysis, using the path model with an interaction term betweenwork- related stress and self-compassion. The results revealed that work-related stress affects 21% of jobsatisfaction, which got supported by results of other studies. Further, there was no significant moderation effect of self-compassion on that relationship, which might be due to the discovery of a weak correlation betweenwork-related stress and self-compassion. This leads then to the assumption that self- compassion might play a different role on work-related stress than expected within this study. An implication of these results is that it is important to focus more on the factors that trigger work-related stress. Furthermore, it would be highly valuable to investigate if self-compassion functions as personal resource as the Job Demands- Resource model suggests, in order to aid work-related stress and then over long term also jobsatisfaction.
B.F. Skiner proposes a reinforcement theory which states that individual behavior will bring up motivation if there is a consequence of that behavior. Research has continually demonstrated that people will exhibit specific behaviors if they are rewarded for doing so. Not surprisingly, we have a tendency to repeat behaviors that result in consequences that we like and to not exhibit behaviors that result in consequences we don't like. Although antecedents are useful for motivational reasons, it is primarily the consequences of actions that drive behavior. 8 Behavior that gives rise to high performance will reinforce the behavior so it tends to be repeated, on the other hand the behavior causing low performance will weaken the behavior so it tends to be abandoned. This relates to what is called reward and punishment. According to Irham Fahmi, performance is the result obtained by an organization both the organization is profit oriented and non profit oriented which is generated during the individual related to a period of time. 9 That is, the results of individual work behavior related to the achievement of organizational goals.
Furthermore, according to Goodman and Pennings (1977) an important criterion related to employee absence is employee satisfaction; that is an employee with high level of jobsatisfaction is less likely to be absent. Employees find it easier to be absent from work when they are not satisfied with their work in some way. Indeed, some interest in jobsatisfaction is focused primarily on its impact on employee commitment, absenteeism, the intention to quit, and actual turnover (Agho et al., 1993). These studies showed that jobsatisfaction gives negative affect if the employee has low jobsatisfaction. The lack of jobsatisfaction is one variable that is strongly related to employees leaving the company and their job involvement, so an employee who has low jobsatisfaction often has an intention of leaving the organization (Lee and Mowday, 1987) Jobsatisfaction is usually defined as a pleasurable feeling that arises from one’s workplace (Locke, 1976). Therefore, jobsatisfaction can be increased with rewards, recognition, better salaries and benefits and providing good facilities to the employees at work.
The results of the study suggest that organizational learning plays an important role and significantly contributes to organizational commitment, jobsatisfaction, and work outcomes of public service. Besides, the findings present empirical evidence that organizational commitment and jobsatisfaction partially mediate the relationshipbetween organizational learning and work performance of the public service managers. The result of the present this study contributes to the literature on organizational learning and work outcomes from the Telangana perspective. More specifically this study enhances and supports the findings of the earlier research regarding the role of organizational commitment and jobsatisfaction as mediator variables. This study represents original research of these mediating effects. Public services managers have many roles and responsibilities in the work place, such as managing learning. Strategic organizational initiatives aimed at improving workplace and professional development need to have top-level support, therefore top management need to have motivation, commitment, knowledge, and ability to create and enhance the learning atmosphere in the organization. Top management need to understand and identify what factors or elements contribute to the effectiveness of organizational learning activities and what factors hinder the learning processes among the public service managers. By doing that, organizations at the same time will be able to achieve benefits such as increased organizational commitment, jobsatisfaction and work performance among the public service managers.
related disorders among the nurses and the impact of shift work on the nurses’ quality of life. Emotional and mental problems, social life problems, digestive problems, and sleep disorder were among the most frequent shift work- related problems in the surveyed nurses. In addition, the majority of shift-working nurses were dissatisfied with the time they spend with their families. These findings can guide development of modified shift working programs to improve the quality of life of shift working nurses. A critical finding of this study was that the prevalence of shift-work related factors leading to reduced quality of life was less prevalent among nurses who had voluntarily chosen shift work compared to their counterparts obligated to work on shift. Hence, our study recommends that shift work is as- signed preliminarily to the nurses who voluntarily choose to work on shift in order to reduce the associated disor- ders and increase their jobsatisfaction.
The purpose of this secondary data analysis study was to examine nurses’ perceptions about inter-professional collaboration (IPC), jobsatisfaction and patient safety climate and the possible relationshipbetween them in a large tertiary care hospital in Ontario, Canada. The data used for this study came from a large quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact of introducing a new model of IPC. D’Amour’s Inter- professional Collaboration, Hackman & Oldham’s Global JobSatisfaction, and Sexton’s Patient Safety Climate were the main instruments used in this study. Study results showed that nurses reported moderate levels of IPC (M= 3.56, SD= .65) as measured by two inter-professional subscales including: care coordination (M= 3.46, SD= .74) and sharing clinical activity (M= 3.63, SD= .66), moderate levels of jobsatisfaction (M= 3.28, SD= .97), and lastly, nurses reported moderately high perceptions of patient safety climate (M= 75.59, SD= 16.96). Multiple linear regression showed that inter-professional collaboration and nurses’ jobsatisfaction explained a significant amount of the variance in patient safety climate [R 2 = .33, F (7, 740) = 52,15, p < .05]. This is may be the first
For distributed teams to work effectively, communication is an important requirement. People working in these teams rarely meet in person, conducting almost all of their interaction and decision making using communication technology (Maznevski & Chudoba, 2000). Identified to be the main three elements are frequency, the content of communication, and quality (Marlow et al., 2016). Although task focused communication is necessary for exchanging pertinent details for task completion, it has been argued that communication of a more interpersonal nature can foster integral affective states such as cohesion and trust(Gupta & Govindarajan 2000;Jarvenpaa & Leidner 1998). It can be concluded that the quality of the communication is the most important factor. Although, frequency and content cannot be disregarded because it is an inherent part of communication processes, it is found that the number of interactions with team members should not be to high, because this will influence the team performance negatively (Marlow et al., 2016). Next to that, important factors to enhance the different forms of content in communication are task and relational interactions. The first one is necessary but the latter is correlated to increase team performance (Keyton & Rhodes, 1997). Based on the quality of communication, it is found that face-to-face contact, understanding and adaption to cultural differences, being careful with stereotyping, and a common language are positively related.
The important causes for stress among faculties are overloaded working hours, role in the performance of job, student discipline, innovations in the higher education field, career development, funding policies, problems arise from feeling of angry, whipping by finished tiredness and unfit to move in work are considered as the essential results of stress among Engineering Faculties.
Review of work flexibility literature reveals numerous studies that focus on the work-family conflict, its antecedents and consequences. While this work is informing it is often generic in that it only anecdotally includes work flexibility as part of the analysis and therefore making it difficult to understand the effects of work flexibility on employees. Kossek and Lambert (2005) confirm this observation, they noted that "Past research has been disappointing; showing very mixed results and often a limited impact of policies on employees’ lives.” Studies that have focused on alternative work arrangements such as work flexibility and telecommuting on the other hand generally tend to have questionable internal validity (Baltes et al., 1999). In summarizing concerns with these studies, Pierce (1989) described them as being "strongly characterized by (1) anecdotal reports of flexible working hour systems, (2) the use of non- standardized research scales, (3) failure to include statistical treatment of the reported data, and (4) the absence of other systematic data collection strategies." He also observed that past research, with few exceptions, was not based on theoretical models. The literature reviewed as part of this work corroborates this observation as most of the studies lacked theoretical frameworks or suffered from poor connections between statistical analysis and theoretical frameworks. These literature deficiencies have given rise to more unanswered questions; to this end, Bailey and Kurland (2002) stated that “empirical research to date has been largely unsuccessful in explaining what happens after flexible work arrangements have been provided by firms and opted by employees.”
term indicator of occupational well-being (Kinicki, McKee, & Wade, 1996) and an important indicator of employees’ adjustment to organizational change (e.g., Amiot, Terry, Jimmieson, & Calan, 2006; Rafferty & Griffin, 2006; Rafferty & Restubog, 2010). To date, researchers have drawn different conclusions about the relationshipbetweenjobsatisfaction and proactivity. On the one hand, jobsatisfaction has been viewed as a passive motivational resource unlikely to generate the challenging behaviors required by proactivity. Frese and colleagues (Frese et al., 1997) found personal initiative, a form of proactive behavior, to be unrelated to jobsatisfaction. Focusing on antecedents, Parker et al. (2006) considered affect- related constructs such as satisfaction and commitment to be more strongly associated with compliance than with proactivity; the authors argued that a high level of positive affect toward the organization does not necessarily mean that an employee will engage in proactive behavior. On the other hand, satisfaction has been identified as an antecedent of citizenship behaviors that include elements of proactivity (LePine, Erez, & Johnson, 2002). Although the strength of the association betweenjobsatisfaction and citizenship behaviors is typically low to moderate, there is a consistent positive relationshipbetweenjobsatisfaction and outcomes such as civic virtue and helping. Individuals experiencing positive affective states associated with jobsatisfaction are also more likely to change their situation proactively (Isen & Baron, 1991; Judge, 1993), and to show higher levels of innovative behaviors (George, 1990). Thus, the positive feelings associated with jobsatisfaction might lead to more proactive behaviors at work.
The data have been taken from nine sectors of activity (industry; construction; trade and repair; hotel and catering business; transport, storage and communications; real estate agencies, rents and managerial services; education; sanitary, veterinary activities and social services; as well as other social activities and personal services) during the sample period 2007-2010. Additionally, two groups have been defined in order to observe the differences between them for the variables defined, those with higher business failure rates than average, and those with business failure rates less than or equal to the average (see Table 1).
It may be read from table 3 that calculated value of is found 0.29 which is positive and significant at both levels of confidence i.e., .01 and .05 levels. Consequently, it can be interpreted that gender and Jobsatisfaction are significantly correlated and this also indicates that gender was positively related to JobSatisfaction, therefore null hypothesis was rejected. It can be said that in female teachers are more satisfied with their job. They are more likely to be committed to the colleges when they are provided a proportionate amount of job autonomy and basic facilities. Furthermore, the correlation value is a feeble relation type.