However, the current literature on forward-reverse logistics network design with reliabilityconsideration is relatively limited. In this line of research, Vah- dani et al. [39-41] propose various models for reliable design of a closed-loop logistics network in an iron and steel industry. Various solution approaches are proposed to solve the concerned problem. In these studies, the reliability concepts are considered for the collection centers with unlimited capacities. The r- level assignment approach introduced by Snyder and Daskin  is also adopted to deal with disruptions occurred at collection centers. Hate and Jolai  introduced a scenario based model for designing an integrated forward-reverse logistics network in which the customer demand is considered as an uncertain parameter and facilities are subject to the threat of disruptions. A scenario planning approach and a p- robustness criterion are developed to handle facility disruptions and control reliability of the network. Their proposed model can just protect the logistic networks
Mahapatra et al. (2012) pointed out what Cheng (1989b) first found out that a basic assumption in the classical EPQ model is that the production setup cost is fixed. In addition, the model also implicitly assumes that items produced are of perfect quality. However, in reality product quality is not always perfect but directly affected by the reliability of the production process employed to manufacturer the product. Thus, a high-level of product quality can only be consistently achieved with substantial investment in improving the reliability of production process. They developed an EPQ model with demand dependent unit production cost in fuzzy environment. Flexibility and reliabilityconsideration are introduced in the production process. The models are developed under fuzzy goal and fuzzy restrictions on budgetary cost. The inventory related costs and other parameters are taken as fuzzy in nature. The problem is solved by parametric GP technique. The result obtained by fuzzy EPQ model is compared with the nonlinear programming. Shah and Soni (2011) developed an EPQ model with flexibility and reliabilityconsideration of production process in an imprecise and uncertain mixed environment. The model incorporated fuzzy random demand, an imprecise production preparation time and shortage. Here, the setup cost and the reliability of the production process along with the backorder replenishment time and production run period are the decision variables. Due to fuzzy-randomness of the demand, expected average demand is a fuzzy quantity and imprecise preparation time is represented by fuzzy number. Therefore, both are first transformed into a corresponding interval number and then using the interval arithmetic, the single objective function for expected profit over the time cycle is changed to respective multi-objective functions. Due to highly nonlinearity of the expected profit functions it is optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The associated profit maximization problem is illustrated by numerical examples and its sensitivity analysis is carried out. 4. Reliability adjusted “Entropy cost based” model
In classical inventory models quality of produced items are assumed to be good. Whereas it is not always true. The quality of items directly or indirectly related to the production process. So now a day many organizations have started to invest in improving the reliability of production process. Recently researchers have started to concentrate on this concept. For the review we can go through the work of Cheng (1989), Leung (2007), Panda and Maiti (2009).
A tool is said to have failed when the cut made by the tool is significantly different from that of a sharp tool. In most cases, such workpieces may not meet the quality requirements of the shop. In this research, the operation time of a tool, till it gets to this point is said to be the ‘absolute life’ of the tool. To avoid running into this undesirable situation, the practice is to use the tool for only its ‘useful life’ time period. The value of this time period is a statistical inference, qualified by a safety factor. This is done, hoping to achieve a certain degree of reliability for the cutting tool, and hence the system, that is processing the batch. In most cases, the value of the useful life is an under-estimate of the actual value, thus leading to higher operational costs. In the model derived below, the production planner gets to know the reliability with which the batches and the demand can be processed for a pre-determined value of the useful life
Third, machine failures are assumed to follow a lognormal distribution, whereas Das et al. (2006) considered the failure distributions to be either exponential or Weibull. In this thesis, the system reliability is computed assuming the machines failure times are independent and identically distributed as lognormal. Like the hazard rate of a Weibull distribution, the hazard rate of a lognormal distribution is not always constant over time. Lognormal distributions can take on a variety of shapes with different shape and location parameters. It is also often observed that data fitting a Weibull distribution will also fit a lognormal distribution (Ebeling, 1997). Additionally, a lognormal distribution can deal with both increasing and decreasing failure rates. Further discussion in support of the use of a lognormal distribution is found in Section 3.2.5.
Reliabilityconsideration is always important among the manufacturers of power modules and converters. Before using of power electronic converters into the related application, it is necessary to predict its reliability over time. In the meanwhile, the power loss and heat generated within the power semiconductors play a key role in the lifespan of the whole system. In this paper, a method for assessing the reliability of a step-down DC-DC converter is employed based on the thermal modeling of power semiconductors. As is evident from the used reliability approach, the junction temperature of power semiconductors – diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) – is the most influential factor on the lifetime of power converters. Therefore, the simultaneous influence of switching frequency and duty cycle is analyzed at the same time as a factor for evaluating reliability. A cut-off of 150°C is considered for the maximum allowable junction temperature for the examined IGBT power module. The results show that a failure can be expected after 46,000 hours of operation of the considered power converter. Additionally, 3D curves are presented to illustrate the influence of duty cycle and switching frequency on the reliability of circuit’s components and the overall system. The obtained results confirmed that an increase in switching frequency from 1 kHz to 10 kHz can decrease the circuit’s lifetime almost 22%.
Further, under Chapter 9 of the Listing Manual of the SGX-ST, where a company proposes to enter into a transaction with an Interested Person and the value of the transaction (either in itself or when aggregated with the value of other transactions, each of a value equal to or greater than S$100,000, with the same Interested Person during the same financial year) is equal to or exceeds 5.0% of the company's latest audited NTA, shareholders' approval is required in respect of the transaction. Based on the Company's audited financial statements for the financial year ended 31 December 2014, the NTA of the Company was RMB2,997,488,000 as at 31 December 2014. Accordingly, if the value of a transaction which is proposed to be entered into in the current financial year by the Company with an Interested Person is, either in itself or in aggregation with all other earlier transactions (each of a value equal to or greater than S$100,000) entered into with the same Interested Person during the current financial year, equal to or in excess of 5.0%, such a transaction would be subject to Shareholders' approval. Given the valuation of the Huicheng Group at RMB 1,269 million (which is 42.3% of the NTA of the Company as at 31 December 2014) and the Consideration of up to S$264 million (which is 40.0% of the NTA of the Company as at 31 December 2014), the value of the Proposed Acquisition exceeds the said threshold under rule 906(1)(a) of the Listing Manual of the SGX-ST.
Background: Comprehensive geriatric assessment has been shown to improve patient outcomes, but the geriatricians who deliver it are in short-supply. A web-based method of comprehensive geriatric assessment has been developed with the potential to improve access to specialist geriatric expertise. The current study aims to test the reliability and safety of comprehensive geriatric assessment performed “online” in making geriatric triage decisions. It will also explore the accuracy of the procedure in identifying common geriatric syndromes, and its cost relative to conventional “live” consultations.
discrimination in the delivery of services. As part of the initial Pre-Qualification phase of the competition, bidders seeking to progress to the next stage will need to provide satisfactory responses to questions reviewing their track record in relation to equality issues. The relevant section of the Pre-Qualification Questionnaire is attached as Appendix 5. Failure to meet the pass threshold for this section of the Questionnaire will prevent the bidder from participating in the next phase of the competition. Those bidders that proceed to the next phase of the competition will be required to answer further questions testing their proposed approach to meeting the public sector equality duty, and providing services that take into account the needs of particular offender groups. Commitments made at this stage in the competition will be established as contractual obligations for the successful bidders, and will be kept under review by NOMS contract managers. This approach is intended to ensure that prospective providers give due consideration to the particular needs of minority groups of offenders with shared protected characteristics and those with complex needs, as well as to encourage the provision of differential services.
Reason: The 2006 IRC and IBC contain a newly adopted requirement for minimum sill heights in windows located more than 72” above grade as a means to prevent child falls through open windows. During the consideration of this proposal over several code cycles, WDMA expressed dismay with the lack of technical substantiation that demonstrated any positive impact of this requirement on the number of child window falls. In fact, WDMA’s opposition was due in large part to concerns about the unintended consequences such a requirement could have on fire safety. Despite objections from numerous parties, the ICC assembly approved the minimum sill height. During the committee hearings, the IRC B/E committee passed a resolution asking for the creation of a study group of ICC that would study the issue of child falls in an attempt to take a serious look at the problem and recommend solutions to improve child safety. The ICC Board took no action on that resolution until after the completion of the 2004-5 code development process. Since that time, the ICC Code Technology Committee was tasked with the responsibility to study the problem of child window falls, gather statistical data, consider associate factors and develop recommended actions. The CTC appointed a study group in January of 2007, and created a scope and objective document, outlining the work plan of the study group. WDMA believes that the work of the CTC window safety study group should have been commissioned and completed before adopting a code requirement that has the potential for negative impact on life safety.
Panchakarma is one of the best weapons of Ayurveda which definitely eradicates Dosa vikruti. Kala is one of the main influencing factors for the success of treatment. If Panchakarma is done without the consideration of kāla then it will definitely end in complications.so consideration of kāla in Panchakarma is essential.
In light of the above discussion, it is only natural that green public procurement (GPP) is a high-profile business matter these days and that governments worldwide are increasingly concerned with the implementation of sustainable practices into their procurement activities (Marron, 2003; Lundberg et al., 2015). However, while a great deal of scientific research and literature is arguing for the value of sustainable consumption patterns and activities, little is known about the costs of implementing such green practices, making it impossible to consistently assess their very beneficial value. Due to the existence of such a striking literature gap between the socio-economic value of sustainable practices and the lack of established literature and knowledge regarding their cost (and thus their long-term financial effectiveness), this paper sets to explore the issues surrounding the measurement of the cost of green criteria consideration in public procurement.
According to translator Francis E. Williams, the document’s writer professes to be James, the brother of Jesus. However, since it was common for ancient writers to compose literature under a pseudonym, it is doubtful that the text was actually written by James. In addition, Williams contends that the document seems to include material that can be dated to prior oral and possibly even written transmissions, so it is not entirely the work of a sole individual. Ultimately, though, the document is equally worthy of study and consideration as an early account of Jesus’ interactions with his disciples regardless of its authorship.
Reliability evaluation of distribution systems is important from consumer’s view-point. Outage customer oriented and energy based indices are important for analysis of distribution system. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to improve availability of supply due to distribution systems . Preventive maintenance reduces failure rate whereas along with corrective repair availability of supply increases . Gangel and Ringlee  initially presented modelling concepts for the individual components of distribution systems for reliability evaluation. Different techniques for evaluating reliability indices have been discussed in literature [4-10]. Pereira and Pinto  discussed modelling assumptions and computational aspects of a computational tool for composite system reliability evaluation. Su and Lii  used genetic algorithm for distribution system and obtained optimum failure and repair rates. The optimal design of reliability indices in an electrical distribution system and their impact to planning was discussed by Chang et al. . Popov et al.  described an algorithm of reliability optimization for operational planning of distribution system. Meziane et al.  discussed reliability optimization using ant colony algorithm under performance and cost constraints. Sohn et al.  discussed a method for identifying the type and location for protection devices and switches on the pre routed distribution system using value based optimization. Bakkiyaraj and Kumarappan  presented a methodology for evaluating optimal reliability indices of system components for a composite electric power system based on state sampling non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation and using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Louit et al.  presented a methodology for obtaining optimum interval for major maintenance action for a power network. An algorithm for evaluating optimum value of reliability indices for distribution system using gradient projection method was proposed by Sallam et al. .
Little information is available when it comes to the per- sonalization of medications. With that being said it was the inclination to provide a paper that discusses the idea of applying pharmacogenomics to the current lipid low- ering therapies. Statins are the first line therapy for con- trolling lipid levels. Alternative therapies include choles- terol absorption inhibitors (ezetimibe), bile acid resins, fibrates and nicotinic acid. These medications are useful to keep lipid levels at a manageable level to decrease the risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, as with any medication, there are inherent differences between indi- viduals to that effect the way a drug is absorbed, distrib- uted, metabolized and eliminated. These processes ulti- mately influence the efficacy of treatment. This is where pharmacogenomics can be applied. Pharmacogenomics is the application of genetic variation to increase the effi- cacy of a drug. Pharmacogenomics can also be useful in identifying certain populations that would benefit from specific drug therapies. It takes the certain genetic dif- ferences amongst individuals into consideration to help optimize the drugs’ potential as well as decrease toxic side effects.
This factor is defined as the ability of a component to be transferred from on environment to another with little modifications, if required. The component should be easily and quickly portable to specified new environments if and when necessary, with minimized porting costs and schedules. In Component Based Development, it is a very important factor as a component may be used and reused in various different environments. Therefore the specification of the component should be platform independent. Some components are platform independent that are highly portable. The components that are available on the site www.jars.com are highly portable because they do not require any change in the environment whenever they are used in different applications. Whereas some of the components required changes whenever used from one application to another. So the portability of the component is among one of the most important factors for reliability of Component Based Software System. Thus in estimating CBSS reliability we can take portability as a highly important factor. If a component is easily portable then the reliability is high.
The consideration-sets procedure is also related to the idea of “short-listing”. A decision maker who faces a large choice set may simplify his decision problem by …rst eliminating a subset of alternatives that are dominated according to some incomplete preference relation, and then applying a complete preference relation to the remaining set. Manzini and Mariotti (2007) provide a choice-theoretic characterization of this procedure. The intuitive di¤erence between the two models is that although they both apply a pair of binary relations in sequence, the short-listing model uses the …rst stage to shrink the choice set, whereas the consideration-sets model uses the …rst stage to expand it. Thus, when the binary relation of the …rst stage gets closer to being complete, the set of options on which the decision-maker applies his preferences becomes smaller in the short-listing model, whereas in our model it becomes bigger.
FRACAS is used by many functional disciplines including reliability, design, testing, factories, quality control, and maintenance. In order to overcome the barriers between organizations, established a methodology in developing the FRACAS. The reason why the FRACAS has the process in the form of close loop i.e. so that engineers can monitor and analyse your products/services on an ongoing basis in improving the reliability of components or machines. A circle formed provides programs to increase reliability through repeated reporting process and the planned corrective actions. With FRACAS provides information about system failure, how and why failure can occur, and how to prevent the fiasco happen again in the future. Documentation of quality in determining the effectiveness of FRACAS in generating an acceptable solution ; .