The data generated in this study provide a research platform for further analysis of cardiac development. Important features of this model system include the following: First, this heart induction system, using blastula-stage pluripotent cells, represents a simple yet reliable method that can be quickly and inexpensively exploited by a broad range of researchers. Most previous studies, especially those with mammalian embryos, have been undertaken with the burden of isolating the primordia from embryos, which are difficult to obtain and which require special expertise for the dissection and isolation of heart primordia. In the protocol described herein, the key step is the dissociation/reaggregation procedure, which is straightforward and readily accomplished. Whether activin itself is the actual inducer remains uncertain (Logan and Mohun, 1993; Schneider and Mercola, 2001). Most probably activin, especially at the relatively high concentrations employed in this culture system, is involved in a complex regulatory circuit that may include other peptide growth factors (e.g., BMP, FGF, etc.) functioning in the “induction” process (Lough et al ., 1996; Schultheiss et al. , 1997; Barron et al. , 2000; Shi et al. , 2000). Wnt signals, which likely act in both a positive (Pandur et al. , 2002) and a negative (Schneider and Mercola, 2001; Marvin et al. , 2001) fashion, also participate in the induction process. With this model system it should be possible to elucidate many of the details of the regulatory circuits, especially those involved in the earliest stages of the induction process (Lohr and Yost, 2000; Zaffran and Frasch, 2002).
Abstract: Softwares and the systems that employ them have become an integral part of human life now. Softwares are now widely used in almost all facets and the reliability of such systems is considered to be very important. There are many systems which are considered to be critical and cannot afford to undergo failures. Failure of such a system will very seriously affect the set of people as well as customers using them. So achieving quality and reliability on a software system is considered to be a crucial affair. Reliability describes the ability of the system to function under specified environment for a specified period of time and is used to objectively measure the quality. Evaluation of reliability of a computing system involves computation of hardware and software reliability. Most of the earlier works were given focus on software reliability with no consideration for hardware parts or vice versa. However, a complete estimation of reliability of a computing system requires these two elements to be considered together, and thus demands a combined approach. The present work focuses on this and presents a model for evaluating the reliability of a computing system. The method involves identifying the failure data for hardware components, software components and building a model based on it, to predict the reliability.
Abstract— The healthcare sector is the category of stocks relating to medical and healthcare goods or services. The healthcare sector includes hospital management firms, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), biotechnology and a variety of medical products. The objective of this research paper is to forecast the performance of share price for healthcare sector in Malaysia. The research methodology implemented in this study is forecasting method using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Data selection in this study is share price of healthcare company sector namely IHH Healthcare Berhad. Result shows the ARIMA(1,1,1) model exhibits r-squared value of 0.184 and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value is -1.112. Residual diagnostics shows ARIMA (1,1,1) is reliablemodel for forecasting of healthcare sector in Malaysia. The findings from this study will help economists to analyze the stock market performance especially in healthcare sector in Malaysia. This result also will help investors to decide appropriate decision in portfolio selection of capital investment.
markets. The study was conducted on the monthly return of Sample of ten performing companies of 100 index of Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) from the period of five years from 2006 to 2010. The study do not support CAPM in Pakistani stock market and it shows different beta for all selected companies. The study concluded that CAPM is not reliablemodel to measure the risk and return on stock prices of Pakistan stocks traded on KSEKhusbooRaheja (2014) examined the applicability of CAPM in India using the monthly prices of five individual securities from the period of Nov 2010 to October 2013. It is found that spread between the expected return and actual return is quite large.
This article is mainly purposed to present an effective and reliablemodel by taking simulation approach toward recognition of bottlenecks in production line for Subway Ventilation Filter Holder in Shahrokhi Industrial Group Plants in order to detect the best scenario for removal of bottlenecks and reduced time of orders delivery. Design of production line for Subway Ventilation Filter Holder is extremely crucial so that only Shahrokhi Industrial Group may manufacture this product in production line in Iran. The manufacturing process of this product is as follows: 10 sheets with diameter of 1.25mm and dimensions (1250*2500mm) have been transferred from warehouse to workstation no 16 and cutting operation was done of these sheets so that they cut each of metallic sheets into four equal size with dimensions (625*1250mm). The cut sheets including 40 sheets were brought to workstation no 14. Punch operator puts each sheet on punching apparatus and punching operation starts on these work pieces. 2.5 filter points are punched on each sheet and then they are returned to workstation no 16. Each sheet is cut with dimensions (125*600mm) by two workers. To execute bending operation, each sheet is brought to workstation no 15 by a flexible robot and after forming in workstation 4, Clinch operation is done on them in workstation no 12. At this phase of operation, the work pieces are connected together by a worker. Welding operation is done in workstation no 20. At this workstation, special grid (lacing) is prepared by foreigner contractors and they weld this lattice to the middle part of main body by CO 2 welding
disruptions was addressed by Li and Ouyang . The reliable facility location problem in the presence of random facility disruptions with the option of hardening facilities was proposed by Lim et al. . Cui et al.  proposed a model to study the reliable UFLP under site- dependent facility disruptions. Two models for UFLP with unequal failure probabilities have been addressed by Shen et al. . Chen et al.  proposed a joint facility location-inventory design framework under equal probabilistic facility failures. Peng et al.  used the p-robustness criterion to develop a reliablemodel for a logistics network design. Li et al.  studied interdependent and correlated failures in facility location problem within a supporting structure framework. The impact of misestimating the disruption probability in the reliable facility location model was studied by Lim et al. . Li et al.  studied the reliable PMP and UFLP with the facility fortification. Aydin and Murat  presented a reliable two-stage stochastic programming model to handle uncertainty associated with disruptive events. Wang and Ouyang  proposed game-theoretical reliable facility location models based on continuum approximation approach. An et al.  proposed a two-stage robust optimization approach for uncapacitated and capacitated cases of reliable PMP. Alcaraz et al.  proposed a set packing formulation of the reliable UFLP and studied certain aspects of its polyhedral properties by identifying a number of clique facets. Farahani et al.  proposed a hierarchical maximal covering location model under equal failure and solve it by a hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm . Shishebori  proposed a reliable facility location-network design problem in which the failure costs cannot exceed the maximum allowable value. Ghezavati et al.  proposed a facility location model with a two-level hierarchical network in a supply chain of disaster relief under uncertainty in order to schedule the customers’ services. Zhang et al.  addressed a reliable location-inventory model under non-identical disruption probabilities.
Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efﬁciencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and ﬁ ve native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we deﬁned the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log 10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and 1 LRV) using two different learning al- gorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of ﬁt. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efﬁciency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efﬁciency in water treatment systems generally.
In recent years, many sociophysics researchers came out with fruitful ap- proach in the opinion formation study. There are various types of mathematical models and equations being utilize in order to complement with the particular objectives. Among the models are Ising Spin model (Sznajd-Weron and Sznajd, 2000), classical consensus model (Hegselmann and Krause, 2002), game theory (Di Mare and Latora, 2007), time-variant model (Fortunato et al., 2004, Hegsel- mann and Krause, 2002), Friedkin-Johnsen model (Hegselmann and Krause, 2002), voter model (Krause and Bornholdt, 2012) etc. The most recent is a study done by Ryosuke Yano and Arnaud Martin (Yano and Martin, 2014) in 2014 uses the relativistic Boltzmann-Vlasov type equation in opinion formation study.
For calculating the direct trust , the model assumes that the feedback values given by the user for one kind of job provided by an entity, are different from another kind of job by the same entity. So the model uses three types of trusts, namely, DT1, DT2 and indirect trust. DT1 represents the trust of the user on the provider as a result of the same kind of transactions, and DT2 for different types of transactions. Indirect trust is calculated by the same expression as that of the previous models. Further, this model considers the fact that the reputation values are not always constant. When there is no transaction between two entities for a long period of time then the value of reputation is brought down. Thus this model adopts a function called the decay function, which decreases the value of reputation when there is no transaction, over a given interval. After the elapse of a specific period with out any transaction this decrement is done.
Providing security in a private network is one of the leading challenges that organizations are facing with respect to the management of information. Companies often keep proprietary and personal information stored on a private network, and these companies do this with the intent of the information only being accessed by reliable individuals. Frequently, though, hackers (with either individual motives or affiliation with competing organizations) will find such information of great value and manage to pry their way into the private network to either obtain or corrupt the desired information. Most private networks have some form of internet connection, which allows for web- based attacks to be a threat. Hackers will track down such networks and determine the vulnerabilities and the exploits that will assist them in gaining access into such networks. Although security measures within private networks are improving, finding all of the vulnerabilities and keeping the various security measures up to date is a challenging task for company network administrators, and those planning to attack a private network are counting on just this. Furthermore, new exploits will always be found before security measures are made available to deal with them (Kurtz, McClure, and Scambray, 2005). Due to the difficulty of maintaining security in the world of private networks, the importance that private networks and the information stored on them have to companies and organizations around the world, and the frequency at which hackers will attack such networks to obtain the desirable information, the scope of this research will deal with security in private networks.
Results of preliminary analysis for impact tests are summarized in Table 2. Overall, computed perforation velocities for SC walls are mostly similar, although the erosion criteria vary by model. For the tested Specimen No. 7, the perforation velocities are consistent in the range 145 m/s to 150 m/s, which is very close to the design equation velocity of 147 m/s and is smaller than the tested velocity of 167 m/s that resulted in perforation. The velocities for all other cases are significantly (approximately 20% to 40%) greater than those per the design equation, as predicted, noting that the velocities calculated using the design equation should be sufficiently greater than the actual ones. The contribution of tie bar to the perforation velocity is negligible. The results for RC specimen are considerably different, which is attributed to the different erosion criteria of concrete. Fig. 3 shows simulation results for Specimen No. 7 and 8.
Direct communication between any node and sink could be subject only to just a small delay, if the distance between the source and the destination is short, but it suffers an important energy wasting when the distance increases. Therefore often mutihop short range communications through other sensor nodes, acting as intermediate relay, are preferred in order to reduce the energy consumption in the network. In such a scenario it is necessary to define efficient technique that can ensure reliable communication with very tight delay constraint. In this work we focus attention on the control of data and reliability in multihop scenario.
Abstract: Due to rapidly adopting different IOT devices in a campus or building which emits the data into various gateway or channel or actuators. Processing &real-time transfer of data from edge to cloud is becoming a mammoth task. Many times, the devices may not send data or not respond to gateway or edge servers. It is essential to keep a command center and monitoring and it needs troubleshooting of any devices on the fly. The troubleshooting will be done with the help of sensor or gateway logs and build with self-learning model with voice based chatbot application.
Abstract-A set of simple queuing theory models which can model the average response of a network of computers to a given traffic load has been implemented. The impact of variations in traffic patterns and intensities, channel capacities, and message protocols can be assessed using them because of the lack of fine detail in the network traffic rates, traffic patterns, and the hardware used to implement the networks. In order to access the networks it’s a two stage sequential procedure for data transfer from a node at customer’s premises to a central node. The stations which have data to transmit request will undergo contention stage and requests that are successfully received by the central node enter into the second stage. All the data will reside in a queue until they are scheduled by a centralized scheduler. Once the stages are set properly and all the data is queued accordingly then a congestion free communication will happen in the cable access networks. To establish a congestion free as well as reliable data transfer in cable access networks we are working with a access network which is hybridized with queuing models which has the capacity to maintain the data packets in a scheduled manner. We test on static as well as distributed (random) data which will arrive at the centralized node. From then its up to mathematical queuing model to route the data reliably without any collision free. The performance measures and various data transfer patterns are observed in this work.
The paper proposes a model for calculating the integrated ecological and economic indicator, which has considerable potential for application as a reliable instrument for the expenditures harmonization for environmental and social purposes, namely gender and social interactions, as part of the sustainable development paradigm implementation at the regional level. It has been shown that the use of three-factor functions (factors of industrial development, environmental investments and structural changes in the economy) allows obtaining more relevant results for making managerial decisions by more accurate description of real processes. It has been proved that the social component ought to take into account the gender peculiarities of regional development and be reflected in decision-making procedures of local authorities, namely, the gender components of the region's development have to be reflected in statistical reporting and be subject to the requirements of the Sustainable Development Goals, which are officially approved by the Ukrainian government. Gender interactions have to be the subject to a comprehensive study of region sustainable development based on increasing the social significance of attracting vulnerable strata of the population to active labor and political activities, increasing the efficiency of "social lifts", forming stable equal relations between territorial communities of different levels of economic development and financial capacity. The main task is to find the balance of interests between the needs of certain types of economic activity development in the region, the development of social parameters and the need to preserve the environment. It has been noted that the most effective means of finding this balance is the corresponding economic and mathematical instrumentarium
process covered by ﬁnishing materials (Fukushima 1991; Kanematsu et al. 2005; Lee and Masuda 2010). But the fact is that adequacy and practicality of carbonation process in an actual environmental condition in relation to the above analysis result have not been sufﬁciently discussed to come up with a conclusion and actual results. The purpose of this research is to develop a practical and reliable analytical model that predicts carbonation of surface paint, as a part of ﬁnishing material, is applied on concrete surface under the actual environment. The reason for not being able to develop a practical and reliable analytical model for the prediction of carbonation under the actual environment was the lack of a perfect explanation of complicated carbonation process (Li and Ishida 2006). Moreover, the same is believed to be necessary to reﬂect an accurate analytical model showing carbonation process and following change in porosity development. Therefore, in this research, as the ﬁrst step of practical analytical model development, the carbonation process model was reviewed focusing ﬁrst on the reaction due to carbon dioxide increase and calcium hydroxide reverse diffusion in consideration to the carbonation main reaction and change in porosity development. Based on the review of the model as well as accelerated carbonation experiment results with ﬁnishing material, the sensitivity analysis was performed, the increase factor of carbon diox- ide of each ﬁnishing material was measured and other nec- essary information were gathered. Based on these factors along with the accelerated carbonation experiment results and a ten-year outdoor exposure test result on the same material, this research draws the result of performed veriﬁ- cation of applicability of the analytical model in relation to the outdoor exposure condition.
The main challenge of the IoT devices in near future with high densification and heterogeneity of wireless networks, particularly, when these IoT devices increase to reach more than twenty billion in 2020, which causes overload and congestion of incoming data traffic. In the world of cellular technology the fast growth of wireless network technologies (e.g. 5G) and ever-increasing demand for services with high QoS request, the management of network resources becomes a permanently more challenging problem that requires to be correctly designed in order to advance network performance. Nevertheless, in this situation, network slicing is getting an always-increasing importance as an effective approach to introduce flexibility in the management of network resources. A slice is a gathering of network resources, selected in order to satisfy the demands (e.g., in terms of QoS) of the service(s) to be delivered by the slice. The aim of slicing is to introduce flexibility and higher utilization of network resources by offering only the network resources necessary to fulfil the requirements of the slices enabled in the smart systems. As our approach here is designed to exploit and manage the RAN capacity of RNs and DeNB cells in slicing form, which allows to customize and reduce the PRBs wastage in each slice in terms of technical requirements such as mobility management and priorities, also QoS requirements such as latency, throughput and loading. In addition, we have designed the MEC Model to reduce the latency of IoT devices based on finding the closed edge cloud to these IoT devices, which also set up the appropriate priority for each IoT nodes. Therefore, we have used smart city use case as the smart system, which forms the network slices by differentiating the data traffic smartly in terms of QoS requirements of each slice such as in VCS, Smartphone, and smart healthcare system. In the next section we present the functional architecture of our proposed solution. Smartphone, and smart healthcare system. In the next section we present the functional architecture of our proposed solution.