Remote Rural Areas

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Staffing remote rural areas in middle  and low income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

Staffing remote rural areas in middle and low income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

factors are of the recipient countries, migration only seems to result if there are also strong push factors from the donor country" [11]. Their argument supports the sug- gestion that different factors interact in complex ways to generate an individual's decision regarding place of work. The factors identified above re-enforce the view that HR directorates of ministries of health, or even the ministry itself, have a relatively limited scope to improve attraction and retention of health workers in remote rural areas. They may be able to bring some influence to bear on working conditions, including management styles, work- ing environments and HR policy. However, many deci- sion-makers who could develop and implement strategies to address attraction and retention are located outside the health sector. The development of a strategic and coherent HRM approach would therefore require multi-sectoral collaboration involving all the key decision-makers. Strategies to improve attraction and retention in remote rural areas
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Wider economic benefits of transport schemes in remote rural areas

Wider economic benefits of transport schemes in remote rural areas

Remote rural areas tend to experience slower population growth (sometimes decline), slower growth in GDP, fewer employment opportunities and lower productivity relative to the economy as a whole. Transport policy interventions are typically focussed on addressing structural economic weaknesses. Yet despite a strong general interest in wider economic benefits, their relevance to schemes in remote rural areas has received very little previous discussion. We argue that remote rural areas are likely to exhibit market distortions in the goods and labour markets, primarily arising from a lack of alternatives and choices in these areas. We also illustrate the empirical importance of the wider economic benefits, caused by these distortions. using case studies from the Highlands and Islands of Scotland to do so. We find that focusing the cost benefit analysis only on the primary transport market can significantly underestimate welfare benefits, and that the degree of underestimation varies significantly case by case. It is highest for schemes where the impacts on business and employment are large and where all of the output and employment effects occur in a remote rural area.
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Addressing chronic poverty in remote rural areas through social protection : a case study of workfare in Nepal

Addressing chronic poverty in remote rural areas through social protection : a case study of workfare in Nepal

The benefit o f the insurance function o f workfare programs was less evident in the case study analysis than that o f the provision of assets and income, but this was perhaps more because o f the current functioning o f the RCIW Programme than any inherent weakness in workfare as a social protection mechanism. There was some insurance benefit realised within the case-study analysis, but there was no evidence o f people now undertaking more productive strategies because the Programme had reduced risks. This can be blamed to some extent on the problem o f limited work days offered by the Programme, but it could also be due to the fact that in remote rural areas, such as the Kamali Zone, livelihood options are extremely limited. If RCIW remains after the road is completed and operating, and thus the isolation constraint is addressed to a certain extent, it is more likely that people will then start to appreciate the insurance benefit that RCIW offers and take some risks to improve their livelihoods with the knowledge that the RCIW will be there as a safety net to catch them if required. Having this reliable safety net has the ability to perform both income protection and promotion functions.
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The impacts of agricultural policy scenarios on development of remote rural areas – the case study of the Bruntál and Ostrava districts

The impacts of agricultural policy scenarios on development of remote rural areas – the case study of the Bruntál and Ostrava districts

Abstract: The paper presents the results of simulations for the Bruntál district as a remote rural area and ostrava as an adjacent urban centre, based on the computable general Equilibrium model. The model assesses spatial impacts of vari- ous agricultural policy and other economic conditions on the regional development of the study areas. The model utilizes a regional Social Accounting Matrix with economic inter-linkages between the rural-urban localities in the study areas. Four agricultural policy scenarios are assessed. All scenarios have negative impacts on the economy of the Bruntál district. nevertheless, the scenario based on the switch of funds from the Pillar 1 to the Pillar 2 of the common Agricultural Policy and on the degressive modulation of direct payments shows to be the most significant for the agricultural sector and the overall economy of the district.
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Rural Women and Innovation in Ivorian Rural Areas

Rural Women and Innovation in Ivorian Rural Areas

This paper aims to shed light on the central role of rural women in the agricultural production process in Cote d’Ivoire, in particular their potential for innovation and social change. Although they are not included in agricultural innovation projects, women remain the main agents testing out new techniques and ideas. As regards innovations, women display more self-confidence and a desire to know and understand new things. They show a high level of interest in activities and an ability to start varied experiences. Our study has been conducted from the introduction of new varieties of rice and maize in the Gagnoa area. It shows that innovations have a greater chance of success when they go through women. Therefore, the study suggests building women capacity and strengthening their position in agricultural production, if we want to ensure better adoption of innovation.
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Cost effective galvanising in remote areas

Cost effective galvanising in remote areas

Justification of this project lies in the limitations of remote areas being able to provide long term corrosion protection for fabricated steel work including mechanical components and structures. As previously mentioned, the closest hot-dip galvanising facility is located 900km east of Mount Isa at Townsville. For Barkly Engineering, this means a potential business opportunity to increase its service to the local industries by offering a suitable corrosion protection system. For the local industries it has the potential to increase the lifespan of steel work whilst reducing maintenance schedules.
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Remote and rural palliative care

Remote and rural palliative care

Contents PART Chapter Foreword v Preface x The photographs, dedication, acknowledgments PART ONE PROFESSIONAL ISSUES Chapter 1 Transitions in living and dying: defining palliative care A[r]

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Diabetic education in rural areas

Diabetic education in rural areas

Education in many forms was found to improve outcomes for diabetic patients. With the rural population, it is necessary to provide education that is culturally sensitive and accessible for the patient. This education may be in group classes or one-on-one counseling. Education may be presented in a variety of formats such as online classes, brochures/ pamphlets, hands-on demonstrations or videos depending on the abilities and/or limitations of individuals. Although online classes have the capability to bring education into the home for diabetic patients, some patients in rural areas may not have readily available internet access or may not be computer literate. Including family members in instructional classes and/or building meal plans around culturally significant foods is an additional method to increase dietary compliance in rural populations. Illiterate patients would benefit most from hands-on demonstrations and videos.
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Planning research in rural and remote areas

Planning research in rural and remote areas

lhe lnternattonal ElectronicJournal of Rural and Remote Health Reseerch, Educetion precticeand policy Table l: Detail of number and organisationsof researchworkshop participants Particip[r]

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The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

Although the majority of the construction plans for telepharmacy services generally focus on the remote site, the central pharmacy often requires remodeling. Special consideration should be given to ensure that sufficient space is allocated for a private room to accommodate the patient counseling equipment. Careful planning and placement of the telepharmacy technology is important and can significantly assist the pharmacist in running a smooth and efficient operation. The pharmacist must have quick and convenient access to all necessary tele- pharmacy equipment including the computer system, document camera, and videoconferencing system to properly and efficiently serve the remote site. The phar- macist must have the ability to check prescriptions in the traditional pharmacy and monitor, check, and counsel via the telepharmacy connections. If a central pharmacy serves multiple remote telepharmacy sites, it may be nec- essary to have a full-time pharmacist on staff whose job is dedicated to verifying prescription orders and counsel- ing patients at the remote sites.
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Perceptions, constraints and labour relations: health delivery services to birthing women in rural and remote areas of North Queensland

Perceptions, constraints and labour relations: health delivery services to birthing women in rural and remote areas of North Queensland

Little is known at this time about how childbearing women and maternity care providers in rural and remote areas of North Queensland perceive birthing experiences. Although assumptions are commonly made about what women desire and expect from childbirth, and about the consequences of unmet expectations (Green, Coupland & Kitzinger, 1990), most information is derived from anecdotal accounts (Campion 2005b, c; NRWC, 2004). These are largely dominated by the voices of medical professionals rather than those of rural or remote childbearing women (RDAA, 2003; 2005c, 2005e; Kenny, 2004; ACRRM, 2004). Women’s expectations of health services, preferred ways in which they negotiate birth, satisfaction with maternity care and perceived constraints on a ‘good’ birth experience need to be further identified and documented (Kildea, 2001; 2003; Fitzpatrick, 1995). Qualitative studies that explore these women’s perceptions and representations of childbirth are lacking. Research into rural health and perinatal outcomes is dominated by quantitative, reductionist approaches which result in a lack of appreciation of the relational aspects of health interactions that are extraneous to the biomedical model (Bogossian, 1994; Oakley, 1980). Risk/technocratic discourses prevail (Leap & Kildea, 2003; Zadoroznyj, 2001; Lupton, 1999). While quantitative clinical and epidemiological sources provide calculable norms that are valuable for informing health policy, evidence-based practice and risk management strategies, they cannot reveal the complexity of the social context or provide knowledge about the experiential phenomenon of rural and remote birthing. This raises the question addressed in this thesis.
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The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

It is unrealistic to expect that all communities will have personal access to a pharmacist; distances are too vast and the costs prohibitive. However, telepharmacy has the potential to improve the quality of pharmaceutical services in rural and remote areas. The targeted surveys of pharmacists, medical practitioners and nurses discussed in Chapter 4 indicated that that there is an appreciation and willingness to improve pharmacy services through the use of telepharmacy. Whilst the more technology intensive applications, such as automated, remotely controlled dispensing were not thought to be a suitable embodiment of telepharmacy at present, the use of telepharmacy in medication reviews, patient counselling and remote video supervision was widely supported by the professions surveyed.
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The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

The application of telepharmacy as an enabling technology to facilitate the provision of quality pharmaceutical services to rural and remote areas of Australia

Murray noted in an article in Australian Prescriber (9) that only the Northern Territory and Queensland have provision for use of prescription drugs by Aboriginal health workers and that for Aboriginal health workers, training and accreditation in the use of medicines is of vital interest, because it is one of the few areas of health practice that is specifically regulated by statute. While legislation does not prevent Aboriginal health workers from assessing and treating patients, the Poisons legislation limits who is able to prescribe and supply medicines. The fact that prescribing activities are often outside the legal framework is a failure of health policy rather than a reflection on appropriate multidisciplinary practice. Legislative reform to cover such realities should not get caught up in territorial disputes between professional groups; the focus should be on how to ensure community access to and quality use of essential medicines. Withholding treatment is just not an option. In most remote settings, the caseload is heavy, the treatments are standard - the CARPA Standard Treatment Manual (76) is used
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Mais Médicos program: provision of medical doctors in rural, remote and socially vulnerable areas of Brazil, 2013-2014

Mais Médicos program: provision of medical doctors in rural, remote and socially vulnerable areas of Brazil, 2013-2014

some countries to boost the recruitment and retention of doctors in areas that are far from big cities and/or hard to access. Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador have all introduced compulsory social service. In Colombia in particular, universities are important actors in this process, since the new university curriculum has made this social service – better known as 'the rural year' (el año rural) – a prerequisite for obtaining a medical license.

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Women’s preferences and experiences of cervical cancer screening in rural and remote areas: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis

Women’s preferences and experiences of cervical cancer screening in rural and remote areas: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis

The concepts and ideas of PCC were recurrent in women’s discussion about their preferences, expectations and experiences of CCS in rural and remote areas . Barriers to PCC specific to rural patient–physician relationships include determining the time and location of CCS without considering the logistical obstacles that rural women may face or including women in the decision- making process ; having a discriminatory, demeaning or disdainful attitude towards women due to their distinct language and rural culture ; the absence of continuity of care with HCPs who may practice in rural areas on locums or for only short periods ; and women’s perception that their personal health privacy in rural and remote locations is limited due to the close- knit nature of rural communities . In particular, Racey and Gesink described that rural women’s perception of limited privacy comes from limited social distance with HCPs and medical staff in rural and remote areas . The limitations of social distance extended to worries about whether test results conveyed by phone were audible to other patients in the waiting room of the test facility, who might know the patient given the nature of small communities .
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The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas

The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas

Many tourism professionals have already identified Romania as the country with the highest potential in Europe regarding the development of rural tourism as a major source of income, both for investors, as for the budget of the country. Nevertheless, and in spite of the fact that more than 18 years have passed from the December Revolution, rural tourism in Romania is still at its beginnings. And it doesn’t seem to have an easy way, as Romanian authorities don’t yet fully acknowledge the importance and the potential of this type of tourism. They still support major investments in classic mass tourism. But more and more antrepreneurial-spirited people begin to see the benefits and the potential of practicing rural tourism. First steps in this field have started several years ago, shyly, in some traditional places of the country (Prahova Valley, Braşov neighbourhood), and later in other areas. The present-day offer extends from types of accommodation to location.
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Valued but tenuous? Postgraduate clinical psychology placements for psychology students in rural and remote areas – implications for future directions

Valued but tenuous? Postgraduate clinical psychology placements for psychology students in rural and remote areas – implications for future directions

The current study, therefore, makes additional contributions to the small body of literature demonstrating the value of rural clinical placements during the training of psychologists. It is important to highlight that these experiences appear to be consistent with the experiences of other health professional students reported in the literature . With new accreditation guidelines affording increased flexibility for remote supervision during placements, rural placements are becoming increasingly viable . It would be timely for higher education providers to demonstrate tangible interest in addressing the rural psychology workforce issues by promoting placements in rural and remote contexts. Ultimately, it may even be ideal for rural placements to become a mandatory training requirement.
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Colorectal cancer screening in rural and remote areas: analysis of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program data for South Australia

Colorectal cancer screening in rural and remote areas: analysis of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program data for South Australia

Overall, the analyses revealed lower NBCSP participation rates for people from metropolitan and remote areas compared with those from rural areas. Within these areas, lower participation rates were found for men compared with women, those 55 years compared with 65 year olds, and socio-economically disadvantaged groups compared with more affluent groups. Among invitees who participated in the NBCSP, comparison with the most recent Australian Census data indicated that South Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home and those who reported an Indigenous background were under- represented. These differences in participation rates were consistent for CRC screening in the SA metropolitan state capital Adelaide 12 , and NBCSP national data 35-37 . These
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Understanding the factors affecting the attraction and retention of health professionals in rural and remote areas: a mixed-method study in Niger

Understanding the factors affecting the attraction and retention of health professionals in rural and remote areas: a mixed-method study in Niger

However, this study has limitations. Social desirabil- ity bias could have been introduced during the con- cept mapping exercise with the midwifery students. To reduce this bias, participants were assured of the anonymity of their responses. They were told that the aim was to understand the conditions under which future midwives would be willing to work in rural areas and that their views were important for influen- cing policies on human resources management. An- other limitation of this study is that the concept mapping was carried out with students not yet work- ing in rural areas. As such, their statements were based on expectations and not on actual experience in rural areas. Finally, the collected data were limited to three districts and one training school. Conse- quently, any extrapolation of the results should be done with caution.
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Perceptions, constraints and labour relations: health delivery services to birthing women in rural and remote areas of North Queensland

Perceptions, constraints and labour relations: health delivery services to birthing women in rural and remote areas of North Queensland

Although childbirth is a defining life event for most women, those in rural and remote areas of Queensland often lack choice and control over this significant experience. Childbirth is embedded in a myriad of complex and competing social, political and cultural discourses which affect both maternity practices and the quality of a woman’s birthing experience. As the result of current health policies, centralised maternity facilities and the difficulty in recruiting suitable health professionals for rural practice, birth normally takes place in a large regional centre, under obstetric supervision. Relocation for birth separates women from family and support networks. Medical intervention in the birth process is common and cultural needs are difficult to accommodate. Despite the numerous Australian reviews of birthing, gaps in the literature indicate that there is a need for qualitative, sociological research that evaluates women’s satisfaction with maternity care in rural and remote areas.
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