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Olfaction and selective rendering

Olfaction and selective rendering

Accurate simulation of all the senses in virtual environments is a computationally expensive task. Visual saliency models have been used to improve computational performance for rendered content, but this is insufficient for multi-modal environments. This paper considers cross-modal perception and, in particular, if and how olfaction affects visual attention. Two experiments are presented in this paper. Firstly, eye tracking is gathered from a number of participants to gain an impression about where and how they view virtual objects when smell is introduced compared to an odourless condition. Based on the results of this experiment a new type of saliency map in a selective-rendering pipeline is presented. A second experiment validates this ap- proach, and demonstrates that participants rank images as better quality, when compared to a reference, for the same rendering budget.
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An asynchronous method for cloud based rendering

An asynchronous method for cloud based rendering

Abstract Interactive high-fidelity rendering is still un- achievable on many consumer devices. Cloud gaming services have shown promise in delivering interactive graphics beyond the individual capabilities of user de- vices. However, a number of shortcomings are mani- fest in these systems: high network bandwidths are re- quired for higher resolutions and input lag due to net- work fluctuations heavily disrupts user experience. In this paper we present a scalable solution for interactive high-fidelity graphics based on a distributed rendering pipeline where direct lighting is computed on the client device and indirect lighting in the cloud. The client device keeps a local cache for indirect lighting which is asynchronously updated using an object space rep- resentation; this allows us to achieve interactive rates that are unconstrained by network performance for a wide range of display resolutions that are also robust to input lag. Furthermore, in multi-user environments, the computation of indirect lighting is amortised over participating clients.
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Olfaction and Selective Rendering

Olfaction and Selective Rendering

Accurate simulation of all the senses in virtual environments is a computationally expensive task. Visual saliency models have been used to improve computational performance for rendered content, but this is insufficient for multi-modal environments. This paper considers cross-modal perception and, in particular, if and how olfaction affects visual attention. Two experiments are presented in this paper. Firstly, eye tracking is gathered from a number of participants to gain an impression about where and how they view virtual objects when smell is introduced compared to an odourless condition. Based on the results of this experiment a new type of saliency map in a selective-rendering pipeline is presented. A second experiment validates this ap- proach, and demonstrates that participants rank images as better quality, when compared to a reference, for the same rendering budget.
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The Hybrid Approach to Teaching Graphics by Incorporating Cg Shading Language

The Hybrid Approach to Teaching Graphics by Incorporating Cg Shading Language

For nearly the past ten years, graphics hardware has been developing at a speed almost three times faster than Moore’s Law predicts [7]. As a consequence of this fact, the contents of the graphics courses should be frequently updated to catch up the advances of the technologies. The programmable rendering pipeline, compared to the traditional fixed rendering pipeline, boosts the technological advancements in graphics as the main driving force. So it is necessary to include the introduction to the programmable rendering pipeline in the computer graphics course. However, despite the fact that the shaders for programmable rendering pipeline are ubiquitous in modern graphical
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GRAPHICS PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR ENABLING IMMERSIVE VR

GRAPHICS PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS FOR ENABLING IMMERSIVE VR

One shortcoming of the traditional graphics pipeline is that the GPU is fundamentally treated as an offload engine for the CPU, rather than as a peer in the system. Data (e.g., constants) is pushed from the CPU to the GPU when draw calls are inserted into the command buffer; it can be many milliseconds or even seconds before the data is actually consumed by the GPU. This delay is a huge challenge for latency- sensitive applications like VR. Latest Data Latch is a technique designed to address this issue by enabling the GPU to consume updated data ‘just-in-time’ rather than receiving older data from the CPU, which is a crucial advantage for VR and other applications that require very low latency. This is especially important for moving sensor input data into the rendering pipeline, which is one of the major changes in VR rendering.
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Modeling Stream Communications in Component-based Applications

Modeling Stream Communications in Component-based Applications

software omponents, either sequential or parallel. We presented a steady state performane model for these. appliations and we applied it to a ase study, a rendering pipeline of sequentia[r]

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Silhouette Extraction Bruce Gooch, University of Utah

Silhouette Extraction Bruce Gooch, University of Utah

In addition to NPR, silhouettes are advantageous in realistic rendering and in interactive techniques. Sander et al. explain that high polygon count models can be rendered at interactive rates by clipping the polygons of a coarse geometric approximation of a model along the silhouette of the original model[29]. Hertzmann and Zorin have shown that silhouettes can be used as an efficient means to calculate shadow volumes[14]. Haines demonstrates an algorithm using silhouettes for rapidly creating and rendering soft shadows on a plane[13]. Johnson and Cohen show that haptic rendering can be facilitated using silhouette information[18]. Some authors,[4, 17] have described the use of silhouettes in CAD/CAM applications. Systems have also been built which use silhouettes to aid in modeling and motion capture tasks[2, 10, 21].
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Pipeline synthesis and optimization of FPGA-based video processing applications with CAL

Pipeline synthesis and optimization of FPGA-based video processing applications with CAL

Another important concept in circuit pipelining is Retiming, which exploits the ability to move registers in the circuit in order to decrease the length of the longest path while preserving its functional behavior [15-17]. A sequential circuit is an interconnection of logic gates and memory elements which communicate with its environment through primary inputs and primary out- puts. The performance optimization problem of pipe- lined circuits is to maximize the clocking rate or equivalently minimize the cycle time of the circuit. The aim of constrained min-area retiming is to constrain the number of registers for a target clock period, under the assumption that all registers have the same area, the min-area retiming problem reduces to seeking a solution with the minimum number of registers in the circuit. In the retiming problem, the objective function and con- straints are linear, so linear programming techniques can be used to solve this problem. The basic version of retiming can be solved in polynomial time. The concept of retiming proposed by Leiserson et al. [15] was extended to peripheral retiming in [16] by introducing the concept of a “ negative ” register. These studies assume that the degree of functional pipelining has already been fixed and consider only the problem of adding pipeline buffers to improve performance of an asynchronous circuit.
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A HYBRID METHOD OF LINGUISTIC APPROACH AND STATISTICAL METHOD FOR NESTED NOUN 
COMPOUND EXTRACTION

A HYBRID METHOD OF LINGUISTIC APPROACH AND STATISTICAL METHOD FOR NESTED NOUN COMPOUND EXTRACTION

Figure 2: Hardware Structure For Booths Multiplication The booth hardware shown in figure 2 consists of an ALU that can perform the add/sub operation depending on the two bits Q(0)Q(-1). A control circuitry is alsorequired to perform the Arithmetic shift Right (AQ) and to issue the appropriate signals needed tocontrol the number of cycles[14]. In the present work a Vedic multiplier is designed and analysed with Cadense tool. The conventional Vedic multiplier is compared with pipeline technology.In the present work the throughput is concentrated to improve the execution performance. In the present work, it is observed that the throughputof the traditional Vedic multiplier is less than the pipeline Vedic multiplier technique. This limitation of throughput can be overcome by inserting pipeline stages into Vedic multiplier at appropriate positions as shown in figure 8.In pipeline technology pipeline stages are inserted between individual Ladner Fischer adder (LFA) under Parallel Prefix Adder (PPA) structure. In general multipliers are classified into three types [12].
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8.1-rendering.ppt

8.1-rendering.ppt

• Explotation of the parallelism implicit in the rendering. – Parallelismo in the pipeline[r]

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18 September Re: Initial Consultation Document

18 September Re: Initial Consultation Document

The rendering of financial advice, and to a somewhat lesser extent the rendering of financial plans, is susceptible to conflicts of interest. We strongly believe that those who provide financial planning and financial advice owe duties of loyalty, prudence, and care to their customers, and that a best interests duty of care be required of those who provide financial planning and financial advice. The benefit of such a system are that: a) those providing financial planning and financial advice work to eliminate conflicts of interest; b) where that work proves impractical, that such conflicts are clearly disclosed; c) conflicts are resolved in favor of customer’s interests when they cannot be avoided; and d) clear accountability is established for advisers and financial planners so that violations receive appropriate sanction.
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Development of Methodology for Main Pipelines Linear Section Stress-Strain State Сhanges Assessment

Development of Methodology for Main Pipelines Linear Section Stress-Strain State Сhanges Assessment

the process of pipeline deformation for the assessment, namely assessment of the existing values and prediction of stresses. The method of evaluation of the pipeline stress- strain state is developed. The process of the underground section of the pipeline deformation is mathematically developed according to the data of the displacement of a certain set of points. The determination process of underground pipeline underground pipeline points position, interpolation accuracy evaluation of the of the above-ground pipeline deformed axis spatial and determination process of interpolation step and smoothing parameters were described.
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Its objective is to provide mechanisms for peering inside volumetric datasets and to enhance the visual understanding.

Its objective is to provide mechanisms for peering inside volumetric datasets and to enhance the visual understanding.

The Dividing cubes algorithm is an extension to or optimization of the Marching Cubes. It was designed to overcome the problem of the superfluous number of triangles with that algorithm[37]. Instead of, as in the marching cube algorithm, calculating the approximate iso-surface through a cell, the Dividing cubes algorithm first projects all cells that are intersected by the iso-surface to the image/screen space. If a cell projects to a larger area than a pixel it is divided into sub-cells and rendered as a surface point. Otherwise the whole cell is rendered as a surface point. After the surface points are determined, the gradients can be calculated, using interpolation between the original cells. With the given gradient, the shading can be calculated and finally the image can be rendered. Surface points can be rendered into the image buffer directly, because there are no intermediate surface primitives used. This is done by using standard computer graphics hidden-surface removal algorithms. This algorithm works far more faster than the marching cubes even when there is no any rendering hardware available. The algorithm is also parallelizable.
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SHAMARAN Q FINANCIAL AND OPERATING RESULTS

SHAMARAN Q FINANCIAL AND OPERATING RESULTS

of  the  pipeline  from  the  block  boundary  to  the  tie‐in  point  on  the  main  export  pipeline.  It  is  now  planned  to . construct a 12  inch pipeline to the location of a fut[r]

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The GlycanBuilder: a fast, intuitive and flexible software tool for building and displaying glycan structures

The GlycanBuilder: a fast, intuitive and flexible software tool for building and displaying glycan structures

The automatic rendering algorithm detailed in the previ- ous section enable the "GlycanBuilder" to be employed in several different applications. A visual editor for glycan structures has been developed both as a stand-alone Java application [see additional file 1] and a Java applet that can be integrated in standard web pages. The applet is part of the forthcoming web interface of the EUROCarbDB database and is currently available for testing from the EUROCarbDB homepage (Figure 9). The user creates a structure in the editor by sequentially adding monosac- charides, modifications or reducing-end markers. Each addition is done by selecting the point of attachment and performing the desired action. The placement is decided by the rendering algorithm on the basis of the symbolic notation as described above. The user can change the sym- bolic notation by selecting from: CFG (normal B&W and with linkage placement), UOXF and 2D text. The available structural constituents comprise a comprehensive and continuously updated list of saccharides, substituents, reducing-end markers and saccharide modifications. A library of common structural motifs (core and terminals) Effect of the "sticky" attribute
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A Software Prototype for Leak Detection along Petroleum Pipeline Distribution Channels

A Software Prototype for Leak Detection along Petroleum Pipeline Distribution Channels

Analysis of the most recently available data from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) indicates that, despite emphasis by regulators and operators, the rate at which pipeline accidents occur shows no significant change over the last 16 years. Based on an investigation by the Asia Development Bank, the leakage in water distribution networks in the Asia region ranged from 8% in Singapore to 62% in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The average leakage and unaccountable water losses are around 23% in 23 surveyed developing countries [1]. In developed countries, the situation is similar. Some North American cities have water losses of approximately 25%.
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Manual Rendering Techniques in Architecture

Manual Rendering Techniques in Architecture

The purpose of this rendering is to define the plan in a better and more understandable fashion; usually site is colored more detailed, but on rendering a site plan, don’t involve yourself with colors, because it shall take you much time. On technical rendering of plan, don’t use color inside of it, let there be completely clean and white. At most, you can apply shadows to walls [9]. Render around the plan so that it project itself. For minimum use of color and increased readability, don’t apply colors to both routs and spaces between; color just one of them. White segments of work leads to a more attractive and breathy product.
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Interactive non-photorealistic rendering

Interactive non-photorealistic rendering

Due to increasing demands of artistic style with Interactive Rate, we propose this review paper as a starting point for any person interested in researching of interactive non- photorealistic rendering. As a simple yet effective means of visual communication, interactive non-photorealistic rendering generates images that are closer to human-drawn than are created by traditional computer graphics techniques with more expressing meaningful visual information. This paper presents taxonomy of interactive non- photorealistic rendering techniques which developed over the past two decades, structured according to the design characteristics and behavior of each technique. Also, it covers the most important algorithms in interactive stylized shade and line drawing, and separately discussing their advantages and disadvantages. The review then concludes with a discussion of the main issues and technical challenges for Interactive Non- Photorealistic Rendering techniques. In addition, this paper discusses the effect of modified phong shading model in order to create toon shading appearance.
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Spatial Sound Rendering – A Survey

Spatial Sound Rendering – A Survey

Simulating propagation of sound and audio rendering can improve the sense of realism and the immersion both in complex acoustic environments and dynamic virtual scenes. In studies of sound auralization, the focus has always been on room acoustics modeling, but most of the same methods are also applicable in the construction of virtual environments such as those developed to facilitate computer gaming, cognitive research, and simulated training scenarios. This paper is a review of state-of-the-art techniques that are based on acoustic principles that apply not only to real rooms but also in 3D virtual environments. The paper also highlights the need to expand the field of immersive sound in a web based browsing environment, because, despite the interest and many benefits, few developments seem to have taken place within this context. Moreover, the paper includes a list of the most effective algorithms used for modelling spatial sound propagation and reports their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the paper emphasizes in the evaluation of these proposed works.
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Image-based crowd rendering

Image-based crowd rendering

Large-scale environments contain millions of poly- gons. Although we can display and visualize thousands of polygons at a real-time frame rate, delays appear between frames for a larger number of polygons, decreasing the visualization’s quality and the user’s abil- ity to walk through. There has been a lot of published work on this subject. In general, we can use three dif- ferent classes of methods to accelerate rendering of large environments: visibility culling, imaged-based render- ing, and level-of-detail representation. In our case, we need to reduce the number of polygons to display and take care of the avatars’ real-time animation. Visibility culling can be an efficient acceleration in urban scenes, but we would still need to render many polygons. For example, think about a crowded square. A user might visualize thousands of virtual avatars and view the sur- rounding city details. Even the additional use of level-of- detail techniques results in too many polygons to display. Considering these limitations, an image-based approach seemed more suitable for both the animation and the rendering of the avatars. We focused on the low- est level, when the viewer is at a certain distance from the virtual humans and potentially has many of them in view. In applications where users need to have a closer look, we can render only the close avatars with polygons. To minimize geometrical complexity, we represent each human with a single adaptive impostor. (See the “Model Sampling and Collision Avoidance” sidebar on p. 38 for more details.) We selected appropriate impos- tor images depending on the viewpoint position and the animation frame. A previous approach 1 has already pro-
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