Albania records 300 sunny days of typical sub tropical/Mediterranean climate. 70% of the mountainous regions may pose not-so-suitability for typical cultivable agricultural food crops so there are possibilities to look at non- food crop sectors to harness renewablebiomass energy for better livelihood of Albanians, the country marching towards renewable biomasses and estimates that by 2025 the penetration of family market heaters alone shall be of an average of 80% yield. On the contrary Albania is faced with soil erosion due to overgrazing and removal of forests through illegal logging in the hilly mountain regions. The authors after a crucial study suggest to go in for cultivation of thornless and flowerless Bamboo for sustainable renewablebiomass energy as biofuels to harness not only electricity but also as gasification and as ready briquetts for cooking and water heating purposes. As of now the country is progressing with reforestation programs with economically viable option. According the authors cultivation of bamboo has two other purposes as soil rejuvenation by the enormous leaf fall that undergo natural decomposition to re-make of forest soils and to enter into faster reforestation programs by employing rural communities having tradition knowledge (tk) for economically sustainable cottage industrial programs for economic as well as socio-cultural improvements. The estimated energy potential from biomass residues from agricultural residues and animal wastes was calculated at approximately 43,000 GW and 12,700GJ respectively and of urban wastes was calculated as approx. 405.615Toe. However, these bulky organic residues must be re-processed back through aerobic composting and/or vermicomposting (rather than burning out) to feed back to the cultivable lands to enhance organic matter in the soil for the balance of soil-microbe relationships and thereby to enhance better harvests as has been the scenario in India. As of now farmers are not aware about using the renewable energy production as resources to increase farm income since they are also facing big challenges to produce food crops. Sustainability through cultivation of thornless bamboo as renewable fuel biomass has been the current trend in India.
The use of a geometric optimization technique has been introduced for synthesis of reactor structures to minimize residence time (reactor volume) and maximize yield during catalytic oxidation of renewablebiomass into carboxylic acids. This is the ﬁ rst study indicating the usefulness of attainable regions in catalytic oxidation of Cocoa Pod Husk into carboxylic acids. Kinetic models are developed to describe the production of four di ﬀ erent carboxylic acids, acetic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid and gluconic acid. Parameter estimation using non- linear regression shows that the model predictions agree well with experimental data for four carboxylic acids and for all the operating experimental conditions.
In this study, we aimed to delve into metabolic pheno- types of S. cerevisiae strain EJ4 (that was engineered to simultaneoulsy catabolize xylose and cellobiose) using various carbon sources from renewablebiomass includ- ing lignocellulose and red macroalgae. To this end, intra- cellular and extracellular metabolites of strain EJ4 grown on glucose, galactose, xylose, or cellobiose were compar- atively profiled. As expected, different metabolic patterns were identified depending on the carbon sources added to the culture media. However, promiscuous activities of the heterologous enzymes, the coding genes of which were present and functionally expressed originally to catabolize xylose and cellobiose in strain EJ4, were unex- pectedly observed from our intracellular and extracellu- lar metabolite analysis. The promiscuous activities were found to lead to metabolic rerouting which could result in a low yield and productivity of a desired product due to the unintended formation of other metabolites. This is Fig. 3 A PCA scatter plot generated from the 73 intracellular
solid products or torrefied biomass, and increase in yield of condensables products as both temperature and reaction time increased (Table 5). Loss of solids was pronounced between 245 and 295°C regardless of moisture content of samples. This was likely due to higher reactivity or more extensive devolatilization and carbonization of hemicellulose fraction above 245°C. Along with degradation of hemicellulose, initial reactions of cellulose decomposition might occur in this temperature regime, as proposed by other researchers (Koukious et al. 1982). Particle size did not have a significant effect on the torrefaction of dried coconut leaves in the 2-10mm range. Residence time did not considerably affect the product yield. There is only 5% in average weight loss when 60 min residence time was employed. It was observed that torrefaction time was less significant than temperature.
Deacetylated corn stover (DCS) was produced in a pilot scale batch paddle reactor. The impact of deacetylation on corn stover was described in our previous paper . As shown in Table 1, the native corn stover used in the current study contained approximately 37% glucan and 31% xylan, while acetyl and lignin content were approxi- mately 2.7% and 15%, respectively. After deacetylation, approximately 80% of the acetyl groups, 10% of the xylan and 2% glucan was solubilized along with 30% of the lig- nin and 80% of the ash. The DCS solids was analyzed and found to contain approximately 43.6% glucan, 33.0% xylan, 12.6% lignin, and 0.3% acetyl groups. The deacety- lated biomass was also significantly lower in ash content (approximately 0.6 %wt) compared to native corn stover. As would be expected of a mild alkaline pretreatment process, deacetylation significantly increases the digestibil- ity of native corn stover. A set of enzymatic hydrolysis ex- periments carried out at 2% (w/w) total solids with an enzyme loading of 32 mg CTec3/g cellulose and 5 mg HTec3/g cellulose showed that the glucose and xylose yields increase from 29% and 28% using native corn stover to 65% and 54%, respectively, after treatment. This indi- cates that partial removal of acetate and lignin can signifi- cantly reduce the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis. The significant improvement in biomass di- gestibility could also be partly attributed to swelling in the biomass that occurs when alkali is introduced, as observed in other alkaline pretreatment techniques .
the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases depending on the pyrolysis conditions. Bio-oil is a polar and high density oxygenated liquid that can be used as a fuel and for the production of chemicals (Yang et al. 2006; Senzor et al. 2006; Amin and Asmadi 2008; Misson et al. 2009; Khor et al. 2009; Razuan et al. 2010; Gou et al. 2011; Arami-Niya et al.2012). The advantages of using biomass rather than petroleum to manufacture chemicals include opportunities for less pollution, no net CO2 contribution to the atmosphere, more biodegradable and sustainable products and, in some cases, lower cost (Brigewater and Peacocke 2000; Xu et a.l 2008; Jin and Enomoto 2009; Sukiran et al. 2009; Rivilli et al. 2011; Melligan et al). It has been found that many biomass derived chemicals have economical advantages, particularly for some functionalized chemicals (Xu et al 2008).The most important driving factor which resulted in the gradual shift toward the use of renewablebiomass resources for chemical manufacturing is the implementation of the bio-refinery concept (Brigewater and Peacocke 2000; Yanik et al 2007; James and Fabien 2008; Xu et al 2008; Abdullah et al 2010; Brigewater 2011).
One existing problem is the high cost of transforming biomass into ethanol. A promising new method is being developed called countercurrent hydrolysis. In the first stage, biomass feedstock is loaded into a co-current reactor via conveyor. Steam is pumped in and raises the overall temperature to 180° Celsius; eight to ten minutes later, when about sixty percent of the hemicellulose is hydrolyzed, the feed exits the reactor. During the second stage, a reactor is heated to 225° Celsius and very dilute sulfuric acid is added. By using the countercurrent hydrolysis method, DiPardo predicts that glucose yields may increase up to eighty four percent and the fermentation yield of ethanol up to ninety five percent (DiPardo). This alternative method has the potential for a production savings of up to $0.33 per gallon produced.
The solid biomass resource availability shown in Figure 2.1 can be used to estimate the potential for installing any biomass conversion technology that uses a thermochemical reaction: direct combustion, carbonization, torrefaction, gasification, or pyrolysis (defined in Chapter 1 and Table 1.1). Maricopa and Pima counties, which house the large metropolises of Phoenix and Tucson respectively, generate the largest amounts of urban wood waste at about 20 million tons per year in each county. Navajo County has a significant amount of primary mill residues at 75 million tons annually, most of which likely originates from the Catalyst Paper Corp that supplies black liquor to the Novo BioPower plant. There are few secondary mill residues in the state, as much of Arizona’s enhanced woodworking products (e.g. furniture or pallets) originate from out of state. Despite the fact that Arizona has six national forests (Kaibab, Coconino, Prescott, Tonto, Apache-Sitgreaves, and Coronado), forest residue potential is low. On the other hand, crop residue potential is high in Arizona counties where agricultural activity is concentrated. The state’s top agricultural exports are dairy products ($871M), cattle ($816M), head lettuce
Focus groups were held with forest landowners in Boone and Dent County, potential sites for future woody biomass electrical plants, after the initial survey was created with the intention of having NIPFLs provide suggestions to improve overall comprehension of the surveys. The landowner’s were randomly selected from a data base generated by the Top of the Ozarks a year prior identifying landowners in the county whom possessed a minimum of 20 forested acres. During the focus group meetings, forest landowners were asked to complete the survey with no pre-knowledge of the survey’s contents, so as not to influence the landowners’ normal survey completion response behavior (Dillman 2000). No questions, comments, or suggestions were made until all participants finished the survey. Once completed, focus group leaders discussed each question with the participants to inquire upon their thoughts and opinions. These recommendations were taken, analyzed, and used to revise the survey instrument with the intent of creating a more user-friendly survey.
impacts of climate change, acid rain and oil spills. The insurance industry, for example, concerned about the billion dollar costs of hurricanes and floods, has joined sides with environmentalists to lobby for greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Friends of the earth are campaigning for a more sustainable energy policy, guided by the principal of environmental protection and with the objectives of sound natural resource management and long- term energy security. The key priorities of such an energy policy must be to reduce fossil fuel use, move away from nuclear power, improve the efficiency with which energy is used and increase the amount of energy obtainable from sustainable, and renewable sources. Efficient energy use has never been more crucial than it is today, particularly with the prospect of the imminent introduction of the climate change levy (CCL). Establishing an energy use action plan is the essential foundation to the elimination of energy waste. A logical starting point is to carry out an energy audit that enables the assessment of the energy use and determine what actions to take (Kothari et al., 2011).
Potential for bio-based isobutanol and derivatives, including jet fuel, from cellulosic biomass
ENGLEWOOD, Colo. and Rivalta Scrivia, Italy – July 10, 2012 – Gevo, Inc. (NASDAQ: GEVO), a leading renewable chemicals and next-generation biofuels company, signed a Joint Development Agreement (JDA) with Beta Renewables, a joint venture between Chemtex and TPG, to develop an integrated process for the production of bio-based isobutanol from cellulosic, non-food biomass.
Technology adoption is in absorbing state as we are rarely observing a new technology being abandoned in a favor of old one (Hall and Khan, 2002). It is claimed that it will contribute to the economic development of a country and can act as a toll for competitive advantage to sustain with the development of an economy. However, Schumpeterian argue that the uncertainty about the benefits of a new technology slowing down the speed of diffusion for a larger size and strong market power due to multiple bureaucracy. Moreover, it is more expensive for a larger an older firm to adopt new technology because they have many resources and human capital (H. Rebecca and C. Kim, 1990). Besides, it is expensive to convert entire network to new technology. This dissertation is exploring in how technology adoption in biomass conversion to biofuel in Petronas, Malaysia. Biomass is uncommon in Malaysia. Therefore, it is required for researcher to consider the factors of biomass technology to be adopted in Petronas, Malaysia, the strategies that Petronas will proposed, and the innovative solution for the technology adoption to be occurred. The methodology used in this study is qualitative method. Questionnaires were distributed among 30 respondents which include Petronas’ staff, University Technology Petronas’ students, and residents in Tronoh. Petronas was chosen because this company had approached to green and sustainability in order to reduce the emission of Green House Gases (GHG). The finding of the study shows that the technology adoption for biomass is helpful to enhance the energy efficiency in Petronas, Malaysia.
Nigeria, records a population of over 82 million people out of its total population of about 187 million people with no access to electricity supply (Central Intelligence Agency, 2016). Approximately only 45% of its entire population is connected to the national grid and most of the people with access to grid electricity in the country are found in the urban areas thus leaving citizens in the rural areas with little or no access to electricity supply. This initiated the Rural Electrification Program by the Rural Electrification Agency of Nigeria in 2005 (National Council on Power, 2014). The program aims at providing reliable electricity to 75% of the population in the rural areas by the year 2020 with at least 20% renewable energy mix since grid extension alone will not be sufficient.
Alternative Compliance Payments (ACPs) gives electricity generating firms an option to pay a fixed amount per unit of RPS that they fail to meet in the event that costs of meeting the RPS get very high. Two important characteristics are that they are varied by renewable source and the ACP cost can be passed on to consumers through rate increases in most cases (Wiser et al., 2010, p 22-3). Calculations using DSIRE data suggest that the simple average of ACPs or fees for non-compliance – either of which would set an upper limit on the price of RECs – is $34.35 per million BTU. However, there are many unknowns, not least the potential that they vary by source. Some are adjusted over time, often for inflation, or vary by utility type. Moreover, while instances of no ACP in DSIRE imply no upper bound to the cost of mandate compliance, in reality some action might be taken if the cost does rise. Replacing zero values with $146.54 (equivalent to a high value but still less than the nearly $200 observed maximum), gives an average ACP of $91.85.
Globally, biomass fuel contribute to 10– 14% of total energy requirements. Biomass fuels contributed 90% energy in the rural areas and over 40% in the cities. Biomass contributes over a third of primary energy. Biomass energy constitutes wood fuels, crop residues, animal dung, municipal and industrial solid wastes. Environmental concerns like global climate change, acid rain, air pollution from the use of fossil fuels and improvements in biomass technology have revived the interest in biomass energy as a renewable and sustainable energy source. The use of biomass along with other renewable energy sources can help to meet growing energy demands globally. When biomass is converted into electricity, heat, power, or transportation fuels, it is called biomass energy, or bioenergy. Biomass is a renewable energy resource because trees and plants can be grown, harvested, and re-grown in a short period of time. In addition, this process continually produces residues, wastes, and gases.
Assessing the value of emission offsets is difficult, as no consensus exists over the “right” price for carbon, and the market-determined price of carbon in any given period will change as cheaper mitigation options are exhausted. This study looked at existing and projected prices for emission trading schemes in order to assign a financial value to the carbon offset. As a lower band, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) price of carbon was used. This has never climbed higher than €35 per tonne and has generally remained below €15 per tonne since the scheme was launched (Environmental Audit Committee, 2010), at some points with a value of close to zero. For medium and high band, values were derived from integrated assessment models of the emissions cost needed to limit carbon dioxide levels to 550 parts per million, from sources whose estimates ranged from USD$135 to $380 (€105−€295) by 2060 (International Monetary Fund, 2008). In order to illustrate how a cost-effectiveness assessment would vary under conservative and generous assumptions, low, medium and high values of €15, €50 and €200 were assigned. In the United Kingdom and Germany, it should also be noted that the EU ETS co-exists with each country’s national subsidies to promote renewable energy. This has led to criticism that renewable energy subsidies have simply reduced the price of carbon under the EU ETS, and so prevented emissions being achieved more cheaply elsewhere in the European Union. This study assumes no such effect and assesses the value of carbon reduced, assuming no leakage. 2
Students should be able to recognize that the shape of the pinwheel creates the rotation when a current of air strikes it. Ask students to suggest which one of the energy sources is more likely to run out of its supply, the non- renewable source such as coal, or the renewable source such as wind. In comparing the two energy sources, stu- dents should explain why they think one will likely run out and the other is not likely to run out.
Abstract. The article investigates the notions of «energy efficiency», «energy returned on energy invested (EROEI)», «net energy gain (NEG)», «Jevons paradox», the «EU Directive on energy efficiency». The difference in approaches of the performance management of renewable and non-renewable energy resource is considered. The definition of concepts related to energy efficiency, energy conservation, and also with complex energy efficiency measures for energy efficiency are clarified. Approaches to the definition of «energy efficiency» are generalized. The indexes of energy content in different fuels for final consumption are analyzed. It is proved, that the EROEI and NEG indicators are dynamic, and their change allows to conclude on general trends in the development of society, and, directly, the development of energy sector, and to evaluate the different energy resources for production process. It was proposed to to use the method of calculating energy efficiency in the researches according to recommendations of Directive 2012/27/EC, using indicator EROEI.
The most common application of biomass energy in developing countries is its use as a source of heat for cooking, sometimes called traditional biomass use. Industrial use of biomass combustion takes place in a combustor or furnace with the heat being used to in a manufacturing process, or to raise steam in a boiler which can expand through a steam turbine to generate shaft power in the so called Rankine cycle. Other prime movers that utilize the heat of combustion to provide power include gas turbines, Stirling engines and some direct conversion devices. The produced shaft power or electricity can be used directly to drive a mill or other machine. In combined heat and power (CHP) applications the most common variant is when the electricity is generated first using high grade heat from the combustor and the lower temperature heat is taken from the exhaust of the electricity cycle.