Abstract — The experience curve effect has always challenged technology-related decisions. In the electricity sector, new renewable electricity generation technologies have shown a considerably high learning rate up to now, which could differentiate the profitability of energy generation technologies in the near future. The scope of this work is to investigate the effect that the Experience Curve of the renewableenergy technologies may have on the orders for new electricity generation technologies and therefore, on the future electricity generation mix of Greece. The official renewableenergy generation targets are considered as a constraint of the system, and the learning rates of the various technologies are included in the calculations. Three scenarios of learning rates have been applied, to examine the experience curve effect on renewableenergypenetration. The national electricity generation system is modeled for long-term analysis and a linear programming method is applied, in order to come up with the optimal generating mix that minimizes electricity generation cost, while satisfying the national emissions reduction targets. In addition, two scenarios for future emission allowance prices are considered, in order to examine the effect of changes in this very volatile parameter. Furthermore, an investigation is made to identify if a point should be expected when renewableenergy will be more profitable than conventional fuel electricity generation.
The results of the offshore wind farm scenario can be seen in the Figure 7 and Table B4 in Appendix B. PHS and CAES systems are the most suitable for storage in future offshore wind farms in UK. Their power and energy range can fully cover the needs of this scenario and these two technologies have been applied on large scale power systems. Adiabatic CAES achieves the highest AI score but its low TRL score does not allow it to be considered as a suitable storage for that application. In this scenario, the power demand of the storage systems has been raised signifi cantly and for this reason most technologies have been moved to the left-direction of the x-axis. So, when it comes to large scale systems, it is obvious that only PHES and CAES along with HESS can offer a reliable storage solution. Molten salt is also an interesting ESS but in real life applications this technology should mainly be coupled with solar power plants. This is the fi rst case study where the
Power industry has shown great growth in the past decades. The demand for newer and environmental friendly power sources are in large demand in order to decrease the emission of carbon dioxide. The introduction of renewableenergy which supplied through distributed generation (DG) into the power system has changed the power flow complexity. DG mostly installed in the point of distribution and these changeso effects the reliability of the present protection system. This paper focusing on the impact of connecting distributed generation to the protection system at the level of distribution. The impact investigated is protection blinding and the condition is demonstrate by using Inverse Definite Time Relay (IDMT). The model are simulate using ERACS software with different values of DG injected to see the effect on distribution protection system. This study aimed to prove that DG is causing protection system problems which may lead to more dangerous events.
In the isolated power system, consumers are traditionally supplied with electricity produced by diesel generators. Conventional diesel generators demonstrate robust and efficient operation when connected to electrical grids with slowly varying loads. With the introduction of intermittent and stochastic renewableenergy sources, such generators may not be responsive enough to retain the stability and reliability of the system. The problem becomes especially acute in cases when diesel generators are required to operate at a low load. Regulating devices (e.g. energy storage systems and/or dump load) used to improve the system reliability, increase system complexity and incur additional expenses or energy losses. This paper investigates low load diesel technology as a potential solution to high level renewableenergypenetration. The focus is made on the engine time delay and the generator inertia constant that should be considered during the design of the isolated hybrid power system.
The power system on the Kinmen Island is presented. The renewable generation is sited at various locations around the Kinmen network, and includes wind turbines and inverter-connected PV systems. Several simulations were performed in this research to study the impact of the wind farm and PV generator integration on the dy- namic behavior of the Kinmen’s power system. The con- sidered grid disturbances are the trip-off of a diesel ge- nerator and the wind farm. Simulations have shown that deviations of the power system frequency and voltage would be unacceptable under several system incidents. However, it is still possible to operate the power system of Kinmen with a high level of renewablepenetration maintaining a high level of security if adequate spinning reserve and unit commitment scheduling are available. Therefore, this study has proposed a new unit commit- ment scheduling to cope with the high renewableenergypenetration.
Case studies simulation has been used to assess the economic viability of variable speed diesel application for remote island electrification. The case study presented considers the island of Kondey, located within the Republic of Maldives. The Republic of Maldives represents a vast island nation consisting of 199 inhabited islands. The islands are formed on a chain of 26 coral reef atolls situated within the Indian Ocean, 800km due south west of Sri Lanka. Approximately a third of inhabited islands have populations of less than 1000 people . All islands are primarily serviced by diesel generation, with the more remote islands facing some of the highest cost and lowest reliability electricity generation. Cost for energy within the Republic of Maldives have historically exceeded $400/MWh, with smaller and more remote loads paying considerably more for diesel supply and transport . In recognition of increasingly volatile diesel fuel pricing, and the adverse impacts of climate change on the low lying atoll community, the Government of Maldives is planning to become a low to carbon neutral economy within the next decade . The most suitable technologies for the Republic of Maldives include wind and solar PV, however space is strictly limited in most applications, with communities tasked to maximise the capacity factor or efficiency of each installation. Within this context, variable speed diesel application holds the potential to increase both the efficiency of the existing diesel generation, but also to increase renewableenergypenetration from existing wind and solar assets. Importantly, the approach would not require any additional land area.
The results of the current debate on the 2030 framework for energy and climate to which this progress report contributes and the Commission's proposal to amend the renewableenergy and fuel quality Directives to improve the incentives for advanced biofuels rather than for first generation biofuels are also elements that will play a role in the years to come up to 2020 and are elements that need to be taken into account when looking at the 2011/2012 compliance with the trajectory. The Commission will also continue to examine Member States' implementation of the Directive and take legal measures wherever necessary. The Commission has already launched a number of infringement cases for Member States' non transposition of the Directive 20 ; further infringements will follow if implementation is incomplete. Complying with obligations under the RenewableEnergy Directive, the Commission has also assessed the implementation, effectiveness and impacts of the EU's biofuel sustainability regime and biofuels policy. Whilst Member States' implementation of the biofuels sustainability regime is too slow, the possible negative impacts of EU biofuels consumption do not appear to warrant further or specific policy intervention beyond proposals already made. In addition, the greenhouse gas savings as reported by member States (and not yet including indirect effects) appear positive.
Fracking has a relatively long history in the US. After a series of pilot projects in the early 1970s, in 1977 the US Department of Energy approved large-scale fracking in tight sandstone formations (Forbis & Kear, 2011). Since the late 1990s a natural gas “drilling boom” has been underway, which has led to considerable controversy due to the perceived risks associated with fracking (Negro, 2012). In 2010, Josh Fox directed the documentary film Gasland, in which he explored the experiences of residents of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Texas and other states in which fracking had been deployed. Through interviews with residents allegedly affected by fracking, Gasland attributed various chronic health problems and the contamination of air and water to fracking. Although the State of Colorado’s
A point absorber as shown in Fig 18 and 19 is a device which is very small compared to the incident wavelength. It can be a floating structure which absorbs energy from all directions through its movement at or near the water surface. It can also be submerged below the surface relying on pressure differential. In these devices, the direction of wave is not important because of their small size. They derive energy due to the relative motion of the buoy, transferred to subsurface components. They have low rating power, a few hundred kilowatts, due to their small size. Hence, in large power plants, hundreds or thousands of such units are to be dispersed in a very long and narrow array along the coast. These devices take advantage of the heaving motion.
Renewable portfolio, carbon tax, auctions, mandatory standards, cap-and-trade, FITs and energy labeling are the most used policy mechanisms in the market-control category (De Mello Santana, 2017). These are demand-pull policy mechanisms because they increase private profits; moreover, they are also command-and-control mechanisms because they rely on regulation as permission, prohibition and standard setting. These policy mechanisms usually have a high potential to be effective in promoting clean energy technology. They usually create stable market conditions, decreasing risk perception. The renewable portfolio standard is a regulatory mandate to increase production of energy from renewable and/or clean sources at a given rate, percentage or amount. A carbon tax is a form of carbon pricing for emissions that are released into the atmosphere to promote clean energy sources, and it is a taxation established by the government. Auctions are used when a regulatory authority announces that it wishes to install a certain capacity of a given technology or suite of technologies, it is a quantity-based regulated instrument. Althought the price setting is market-based, auctions serve as a government mechanism to control the capacity expansion of renewables as well as the cost of support by setting either a budget, capacity or generation cap (Winkler, 2018) 2 .The bidder with the lowest offer is selected and can go ahead with the project. Usually the parties sign a long-term contract (power purchasing agreement). Auctions are similar to FIT, which also offer long-term contracts for energy producers and the costs are shared by customers. FITs are subsidies per MWh generated, paid in the form of guaranteed premium prices, and combined with a purchase obligation by the utilities. The main difference between the two is that in auctions the price paid is set by the market depending on the amount of energy traded, and for FITs the price is set by government, most commonly based on production costs. Mandatory standards can be effective mechanisms for limiting or promoting specified
Globally diesel generator sets account for the majority of generation into remote and off-grid power systems. While diesel generation has proven to be a reliable and accessible technology, its downside involves the expense and environmentally emissions linked to diesel fuel consumption. In response diesel generation alternatives are becoming available and cost competitive, via the integration of renewableenergy technology (RET). Hybrid power systems (HPS), those adopting both diesel and RET are increasingly employed to reduce cost and environmental emissions. As RET penetration increases within HPS a potential conflict arises, with diesel generation unable to lower output below minimum load set points. These load set points are predetermined to ensure engine efficiency and reliability. Under medium to high renewablepenetration, diesel load set points compete with renewable generation to produce surplus energy. This surplus energy must be absorbed by the system. Various ancillary technologies, such as demand management, energy storage and dump loads can perform this role; however such technologies are expensive and complex. This paper introduces low load diesel (LLD) as one solution to minimising surplus generation within HPS. Economic and power modelling is used to explore removal of energy storage (ES) under LLD application. Model validation, undertaken against both kW and MW scale operational diesel generator data sets is referenced to support the conclusion, that LLD is cable of reducing both system establishment and operational costs for medium to high RET penetration HPS.
[69, 70, 71, and 72]. The missing part of the literature is the development of the energy storage control with respect to feasibility bounds of interfaced converter, like SST in our case. The necessity of using storage becomes evident in situations when maintaining the desired voltage and current setpoints at the points of common coupling in MG networks is extremely important for the sake of steady-state electrical performance and locational marginal pricing. These setpoints are usually direct functions of the load demands and renewable generation, meaning that as those change periodically then the voltage and current setpoints require to be updated accordingly. In FREEDM system, IEM forecasts load demand and generation, solves power flow, and sends out new setpoints at an interval of every 15-20 minutes so that the primary controllers of each MG can update their setpoint settings to guarantee stable operation at the new operating point. The trouble, however, arises when a sudden large change in load/generation occurs in a completely unpredicted way at any time between the ticks of this 15 minute interval. If the deviation is small then droop controllers may still be able to maintain stability, but for large deviations neither will droop work, nor will the IEM have enough time to solve for the new controller setpoints. The role of the storage unit in such scenario is then to handle the difference in net power in the microgrid. Nevertheless, using just one single battery can be quite uneconomical.
Energy-related global CO2 emissions are increasing due to rising fossil-fuel use, with the major increases coming from emerging economies such as China and India and from the Middle East. Africa, and in particular Sub-Saharan Africa, only contributes to global CO2 emissions by a very small percentage, and would continue to do so even if the basic needs of the population, that is electricity for lighting and modern fuels for cooking were provided to all those who currently rely on traditional fuels. Renewableenergy systems do help address climate change, but for Africa they are essential to provide sustainable and secure energy. Protection against high oil prices further supports a focus on renewable technologies.
The UK energy system has undergone significant structural change over the last century which has had implications on the accessibility, ease of use, flexibility, convenience, reliability, consistency and acceptability of energy services. The accessibility of energy, particularly electricity and gas supplies, increased due to a number of factors including legislation, post World W ar Two developments and the discovery of significant natural gas resources. Before the Electricity (Supply) Act 1926, electricity was produced on a small-scale and locally close to the point of demand. Some interconnected distribution networks were developed, providing electricity to a number of industrial applications (Eden and Evans, 1986). Electricity was a new form of energy and high electricity prices combined with limited applications resulted in a low demand for electricity. At this time, the bulk of urban energy needs were met by coal and town gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which provided domestic and industrial consumers with energy for lighting, heating and cooking. The Electricity (Supply) Act 1926 established the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to control and centralise the production of electricity and develop a national grid system to link generation plants to points of demand. Following the Second World War, the national grid system was established which delivered electricity to the vast majority of the population. Electricity was produced in large power stations, away from the point of demand. A national network connected production to demand, therefore increasing the accessibility of electricity throughout the UK. The discovery of large natural gas
India is a giant country and home to surplus cultures, ideas, religions and a diligent economic sphere. India is on track to increasing its economic pace to become a superpower in the near future. The massive growth in the economy is putting a severe stress on the energy sector. Even with vast resources of certain conventional fuels, such as coal the country is deemed inefficient and not at the level necessary to provide services to the growing economy of the country, which is showing in various reliability reports about India. Indian policymakers have finally accepted the growing need of reforms should shift from conventional approach to a modern smart grid approach is progressing taking inspiration from the advanced western countries. The strategy consists of an approach to achieve various goals by tapping into more readily available resources, rather than putting a pressure on the mining industry of the country. Various Missions have been introduced such as the JNNSM and the National Mission for Wind Energy, that is helping shed the conventional ideas and to embrace a modern approach totally targeting non-conventional sources of energy.
Romania can develop production systems for all the types of renewable sources, depending on the specifics of each geographical region in the country. Following the studies that were made in our country, the green energy production potential is of 65% biomass, 17% wind power, 12 % solar energy, 4% micro hydro power plants ş i 2% voltaic and geothermal.
Hydrogen energy technology takes advantages of separating and generating hydrogen that exists in the form of composites such as water, organic materials and fossil fuels. It does not emit contaminants other than minimum amount of nitrogen when hydrogen is burned. It can be conveniently used as fuel for direct combustion and fuel cell, and can be made from water which is infinite. Also, it can be easily stored and transported in a gas or liquid form. Hydrogen can be easily gained by water electrolysis but economics of hydrogen energy is extremely poor compared to input energy (electric energy). To cope with this, studies are being carried out to develop manufacturing technology using improved catalyst or an alternative power source.
3. low voltage level in battery its indicates the voltage level not generate more energy, then this case power flow from gird to load (grid to load) In this condition SPDT relay 1 is ON its indicate power is taking from grid then another relay 2 is turn OFF its indicate power is not generated excess power. Working done by ARM automatically then taking pulse counting by ARM by using LDR1 and meter1. Then meter2and LDR2 Is not working in this case. Update the recorded counted pulse real time send to company website of data base of the user. Battery voltage is low below the threshold voltage in this case energy taking directly from the grid to load. counting the how much energy consumed by load its billing price high different compared to excess energy turns to given to grid. These pulses are fed to the same ARM processor for calculating the energy.
RECs represent the social and environmental benefits of energy generation by generating energy from renewable sources. By unbundling these merits from the energy that is delivered through the electrical grid a separate product becomes available. These green attributes can be unbundled and sold separately. RECs market usually have geographic boundaries due to the many different standards. RECs are used for voluntary or mandatory purposes, where the latter are imposed by renewableenergy regulations. Market transactions are usually traded over-the-counter and on forward basis and price disclosure is usually not available (Eckhart 2006, Bayon 2007). Figure 35 visualizes the risk of shortfalls on the expected revenues from RECs sales. A fixed price ensures a stable income from RECs, although in a bullish market
For the purpose of calculating the share of renewableenergy in heating and cooling, final consumption of energy from renewable sources is defined as the final consumption of renewableenergy in industry, households, services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries for heating and cooling purposes, plus district heating produced from renewables. The total final consumption for heating and cooling is the final consumption of all energy commodities, except electricity, for purposes other than transport, plus the consumption of heat for own use at electricity and heat plants and the heat losses in networks. Renewableenergy used in transport