replica move towards eventual consistency

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Merging By Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

Merging By Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

ACM [27] happens when users insert concurrently the same content at the same position. During the merge procedure, the merged document may contain a duplicated element. OT algorithms (described in section 2.2) can be used to avoid these conflicts. They detect during the transformation phases the ACM cases and might transform them to noop operations (nil value). To ensure consistency of the document when two concurrent operations made in the same position, TTF and other OT algorithms use site id as a priority [41, 48]. Using this solution with ACM transformation may create a divergence as presented in Figure 15. Three sites shared the same document initially "ABC" . Site 0 and site 2 inserts concurrently the same element "X" at position 1 and produce "AXBC" document. While, site 1 inserts concurrently "Y" at position 2 and produces "AYBC" document. To avoid the ACM conflict, when site 0 receives the operation from site 2, it does not execute the operation since both users insert the same content at the same position. However, when site 0 receives the operation from site 1, it detects that both operations have the same position. Since OT algorithms give the priority to replica number, op2 is transformed with op1. It is transformed to insert at position 2 instead of position 1. Finally, site 0 produces "AXYBC" document. On the other hand, when site 1 receives op1 from site 0, it is not transformed, since the priority is given to site 0. Thus, site 1 produces "AXYBC" document. Afterward, when site 1 receives the operation
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A Framework for Performance Evaluation of Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

A Framework for Performance Evaluation of Decentralized Eventual Consistency Algorithms

Operational Transformation (OT) Algorithms: The Operational Transformation approach was introduced to overcome the problem of divergent copies in syn- chronous collaborative editors by serializing concurrent operations [8, 27, 34, 46]. It has been successfully employed in the massive context of GoogleDocs [13] which uses a centralized variation of the Jupiter algo- rithm [23]. The OT approach transforms a remote oper- ation against its concurrent operation, i.e. ones that have changed at the same time the state of the object. It is based on the syntactic properties of the operations to preserve the user intentions. OT replicas store the history of all operations received. These histories are not necessarily the same, since the order of reception of concurrent operations is different for each replica. To ensure eventual consistency the transformation func- tions should satisfy some properties known as C 1 and
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File Heat-based Self-adaptive Replica Consistency Strategy for Cloud Storage

File Heat-based Self-adaptive Replica Consistency Strategy for Cloud Storage

The study on replica consistency aims at achieving synchronism among multiple replicas. There are two replica synchronism strategies [2]: strong consistency and eventual consistency. Strong consistency means that when data is updated, all replicas are updated simultaneously and that all replicas are consistent. Eventual consistency means that unnecessarily all replicas are kept consistent with each other and that a certain replica is updated only when it is accessed, hence no need to transfer updated data to other replicas for each update. Strong consistency helps timely access to the most updated data, but increases network bandwidth consumption due to frequent updates. Eventual consistency, on the other hand, reduces network bandwidth consumption but results in prolonged access time lag and relatively low file access efficiency.
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Europe's science and technology: towards the 21st century. Europe on the move 1994

Europe's science and technology: towards the 21st century. Europe on the move 1994

An important step forward for the future of Europe Through the impetus given by Professor Antonio Rubeni, Member of the European Commission responsible for research, development, educati[r]

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Cashless Transactions and Its Impact   A Wise Move Towards Digital India

Cashless Transactions and Its Impact A Wise Move Towards Digital India

The trend towards use of non-cash transactions and settlement began in daily life during the 1990s, when electronic banking became popular. By the 2010s digital payment methods were widespread in many countries, with examples including intermediaries such as PayPal, digital wallet systems operated by companies like Apple, contactless and NFC payments by electronic card or smartphone, and electronic bills and banking, all in widespread use. By the 2010s cash had become actively disfavoured in some kinds of transaction which would historically have been very ordinary to pay with physical tender, and larger cash amounts were in some situations treated with suspicion, due to some specific reasons, and actively prohibited by some suppliers and retailers, to the point of coining the expression of a "war on cash".
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Envisioning a future for young Balinese : the move towards sustainability in secondary education

Envisioning a future for young Balinese : the move towards sustainability in secondary education

Students writing down comments on the comics Discussion with whole group on environment, development, modernity and tradition in Bali 24110 Outdoor session: Sanur Beach 6 Preparation at [r]

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Skill Development in India: A Move Towards Realization of  Benefits of the Demographic Transition

Skill Development in India: A Move Towards Realization of Benefits of the Demographic Transition

training in the country by creating a sound quality assurance framework forskilling, applicable to all Ministries, States and private training providers. iv) Build capacity for skill[r]

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Prospects of Liquefied Gas in Bangladesh Economy as a Move towards Fuel Diversification

Prospects of Liquefied Gas in Bangladesh Economy as a Move towards Fuel Diversification

One way of guaranteeing energy security could be being self-sufficient in the production of energy resources. However, being self-sufficient in it is a humongous challenge which encourages the prospects of Cross-border Energy Trading (CBET) as a potential option to resolve the energy crisis in Bangladesh (Amin and Murshed, 2016). Engagement in CBET is pretty much in line with the energy diversification mechanisms. A possible mode of undertaking energy diversification policies via CBET could be through the introduction of liquefied gaseous energy resources in Bangladesh’s energy sector, mainly in the form of imported Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Both these energy resources can be exemplary in mitigating Bangladesh's energy poverty and simultaneously attribute towards the development of the economy. Adoption of LNG and LPG in the national energy framework of Bangladesh is expected to be beneficial to the economy in three particular ways. Firstly, it would help the nation to get over its mono-fuel dependency whereby it would no longer have to be reliant on the use of indigenous natural gas. As a result, natural gas usage in the economy can be lessened which would ensure its reserve to last beyond 2031. Therefore, it can be said that LNG and LPG usage can contribute to secure natural gas security in Bangladesh, keeping its supply for future generation uses. Secondly, LNG and LPG can relieve the nation from the fiscal burdens arising from crude oil imports. These two liquefied gaseous energy resources are relatively cheaper sources of energy compared to imported fossil fuels and as a result, importing LNG and LPG instead of crude oils can effectively cut down the nation’s import bills. Finally, LNG and LPG, being relatively environment-friendly energy resources, can befittingly reduce the emission of harmful greenhouse gases keeping the environment clean. Lowering carbon emissions is extremely important for Bangladesh following the nation’s vulnerability to natural calamities arising from environmental degradation. However, the ultimate goal of incorporating LNG and LPG in the national energy framework of Bangladesh is to partially diversify its energy resource usage which would ensure energy sufficiency and foster economic development of the nation.
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A learning framework for higher-order consistency models in multi-class pixel labeling problems

A learning framework for higher-order consistency models in multi-class pixel labeling problems

Semantic pixel labeling problems [Shotton et al., 2006] have presented a big challenge to computer vision researchers: how to assign correct labels to each pixel. Many pre- vious works on this problem were built on pairwise CRF models with densely sam- pled local features. But pairwise models cannot ensure good estimation along object boundaries because the fundamental structure of connections is limited to neighbor- ing nodes. To overcome the locality of pairwise models, higher-order CRF models have been proposed employing a wide range of interdependence. One successful approach [Kohli and Kumar, 2010; Kohli et al., 2009, 2007] which used lower linear envelope potentials, encouraged consistent label assignments to variables over pre- defined cliques. These consistency models are capable of annotating an object, or coherent parts of an object with the same label, and showed some improvements in pixel labeling. However, the models did not show how to define good cliques nor conduct any experiments with various real data sets for comparison.
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Rethinking the PPP strategy concept : Towards consistency in discourse and management

Rethinking the PPP strategy concept : Towards consistency in discourse and management

The size of the discussion groups varied across the different locations between a maximum of seven and a minimum of three people. The reason behind this small number of participants was based on Morgan’s (1997) statement that conducting small group discussions provides a clearer sense of each participant towards the discussion’s topics since participants have more opportunity to speak. It also facilitates management of the conversation, with less potential for disruptive dynamics such as uncooperative participants, “experts”, or friendship pair disruption. The researcher was committed to minimising her involvement and consequent potential for bias in her moderator role and focused on gaining the participants’ views, own words, understanding and interpretation of the schedules questions and topics. In addition, any possible preconceived or expected ideas of what could emerge from the research discussions were hardly avoided in order to not limiting information gathering to just those views supportive with the research targets areas but also compelling any opposing data to the original research thoughts and assumptions.
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A Move Towards Autonomy: Individualized Education Plans for Effective Materials Use

A Move Towards Autonomy: Individualized Education Plans for Effective Materials Use

After several eight-week sessions of using paper versions of the IEPs, the SALC staff decided to move the forms online in order to reduce the amount of paper waste and facilitate teacher access to the forms. Additionally, the online form had built-in logic that “tracked” students into two different surveys based upon their level (Appendix E). Students in levels I-III (beginner – lower intermediate) received a simplified survey and students in levels IV-VI (high intermediate – high advanced) received a more detailed questionnaire. Students were also asked to enter their email twice at the end of the survey to indicate that they would follow through to make an appointment with SALC staff. The process of making appointments also moved online, and students were directed to a link at the end of the survey, which allowed them to directly email the SALC coordinator (co-author Servais) to schedule an appointment. The purpose of these extra steps was to reduce the number of no-shows.
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Has the European ICT sector a chance to be competitive? Bruges European Economic Policy (BEEP) Briefing 14/2006

Has the European ICT sector a chance to be competitive? Bruges European Economic Policy (BEEP) Briefing 14/2006

ƒ The systemic nature of innovation; the latter, in order to be successful, may require the presence of complementary assets (Teece, 1986). For example, the failure of EMI, the inventor of the scanner, to be the market leader in the 70’s, is explained by the difficulty for this company to get access to decision makers in American hospitals and the Congress. This difficulty has allowed well entrenched competitors (in particular General Electric) to catch up and overcome EMI. In that case, Schumpeter Mark II may prevail on Mark I: incumbents controlling key complementary assets can maintain their position even in front of innovative new entrants. Sometimes the complementary assets may be “non market”, involving institutional mechanisms and rules. In the case of EMI, GE initially lobbied the Congress to limit the use of scanners for safety reasons. Hence the evolution towards Schumpeter Mark I or Mark II may be conditioned by the interrelatedness between market and institutional evolutions. ƒ The interplay, as in many “high tech” industries, between public and private research,
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Guidance for inspectors How to move towards restraint free care

Guidance for inspectors How to move towards restraint free care

Environmental restraint is designing the environment to limit people’s ability to move as they might wish. This could be through locking doors, using coded electronic keypads, complicated door handles, narrow doorways, not providing corridor rails, steps or stairs, poor lighting or heating etc.

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Fabrication and Experimental Analysis on L&D Ratio of Vortex Tube

Fabrication and Experimental Analysis on L&D Ratio of Vortex Tube

acceleration helps the vortex to move along the circumference. Now as this vortex move towards the end where we have placed the control valve, rotation of the air almost stops. So there is the generation of stagnation conditions in the tube. Due to this pressure inside the tube starts to rise and when it becomes greater than the outside pressure i.e. atmospheric pressure, a flow in reversed direction is generated. This flow moves to the opposite direction of original flow from vortex chamber. This reversed flow is also known as forced vortex flow.
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An Approach for  Replica Creation & Replica Placement using MCDM

An Approach for Replica Creation & Replica Placement using MCDM

Dynamic replication technique is used for flexible availability of data replication. According to the access frequency of the data items no. of replica can be generated and replica can be placed to the appropriate place. Dynamic replica creation technique improves the performance of the system. In static replica creation replica are created in advance & no. of replica required or not but the replica have to be created so unnecessary storage is acquired. Dynamic replication can be applied considering the following criteria to Minimize Risk, minimize expected utility, Best Client, minimizing time, Maximized performances, Time utility and so on. Replica are created to those nodes where the expected utility is lowest. For Each criterion, the replica placement technique is different.
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IMPROVING DATA ACCESSIBILITY RATE BY EFFICIENTLY USING SELFISH NODES IN REPLICA ALLOCATION OVER A MANET

IMPROVING DATA ACCESSIBILITY RATE BY EFFICIENTLY USING SELFISH NODES IN REPLICA ALLOCATION OVER A MANET

In contrast to the network viewpoint, the problem of selfish nodes from the replica allocation perspective is addressed. This problem is known as selfish replica allocation. The work was motivated by the fact that a selfish replica allocation could lead to overall poor data accessibility in a MANET. A selfish node detection method and novel replica allocation techniques to handle the selfish replica allocation appropriately have been proposed. The proposed strategies are inspired by the real-world observations in economics in terms of credit risk and in human friendship management in terms of choosing one’s friends completely at one’s own discretion. The notion of credit risk from economics to detect selfish nodes is applied. Every node in a MANET calculates credit risk information on other connected nodes individually to measure the degree of selfishness. Since traditional replica allocation techniques failed to consider selfish nodes, novel replica allocation techniques also proposed. Extensive simulation shows that the proposed strategies outperform existing representative cooperative replica allocation techniques in terms of data accessibility, communication cost, and query delay.
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An experimental study of social attraction and spacing between the sexes in sheep

An experimental study of social attraction and spacing between the sexes in sheep

Pérez-Barbería et al. (2005) performed binary choice indoor experiments to study the social preferences of Soay sheep. They detected that adults preferred the individuals of their own sex. In the present study we attempted to gain further insights into these mechanisms involved in social segregation by testing social choice in relatively freeranging outdoor conditions, i.e. sheep were observed in the pasture where they graze. For this purpose, we registered the movement of freely moving individual merino sheep Ovis aries in an open field arena. In order to rule out the effect of movement and social interactions by conspecifics (e.g. affinitive, agonistic), we restrained their movement in space. We also measured the distances because (i) proximity can reflect attraction and social discrimination and (ii) the sexes may differ in ‘social distance’, and finally to assess how unrestrained sheep regulated the distance to conspecifics over time. Three series of binary choice experiments were performed with sheep of both sexes. In all tests the attractiveness of conspecifics was assessed by recording the pattern of movement of the test sheep. If sheep can discriminate the sex of conspecifics at a distance, we expected that they would move more readily towards confined individuals of the same sex rather than towards opposite sex animals. If a choice occurs at closer distances, the time spent near the same-sex should be longer than near the opposite-sex peer.
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Investigating the Implementation of Team-Based Learning in a University Level Teacher Education Course

Investigating the Implementation of Team-Based Learning in a University Level Teacher Education Course

This study is an initial foray by the writers into the implementation of team based learning in teacher education courses at Malaysian universities. The experience in trying to implement the approach has been insightful and has highlighted the need to carefully construct an effective team structure within the classroom. This need is especially important due to the structured nature of TBL which places a high level of responsibility on the shoulders of the instructor. The results of this study indicate that although the respondents are generally positive towards TBL, they exhibit some tentativeness towards the approach. Two major areas of concern are group dynamics as well as the accuracy of assessment. This indicates that classroom team structure that needs to be established must address both these areas of concern. In this paper it is proposed that four courses of action, involving student sensitization to working in teams, team selection, provision of support as well as a balanced individual and team assessment format can be effective in ensuring the efficacy of TBL.
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The Narratives of Juliana Huxtable and DeForrest Brown Jr.

The Narratives of Juliana Huxtable and DeForrest Brown Jr.

Fiction that is presented as an alternative to a hegemony of knowledge and information with the purpose of reconfiguring an image of the real, arises from the recognition that Being is a world where you speak, and of which one speaks. Similarly, the construction of these fictions understand that what is communicated is constituted in relation to the others and becomes objective only through communication (Levinas, 2017, 205). Through a redefinition of a collective narrative, the images of a present and a future move towards the creation and distribution of previously absent images – the images that Samuel R. Delany referred to as the images of the future. Although ephemeral, the theatrical productions of its productions generate socio-cultural spaces, ruled by their own rules, and by a historical legacy that is strictly dictated by the artists.
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State curriculum control in Greece and England : a comparative study.

State curriculum control in Greece and England : a comparative study.

In the prevIOus chapter it was suggested that the curriculum reforms of the two countries signified an official move towards different models of pedagogic practic[r]

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