Reporting Of Positive, Negative and Contamination Results

Top PDF Reporting Of Positive, Negative and Contamination Results:

How does under-reporting of negative and inconclusive results affect the false-positive rate in meta-analysis? A simulation study

How does under-reporting of negative and inconclusive results affect the false-positive rate in meta-analysis? A simulation study

METHODS Data from individual studies Meta-analyses of clinical trials with two arms and a binary outcome were simulated. However, the results of the simu- lations are applicable to other study designs as well because the distribution of the log-OR is approximately normal, similarly to the distribution of other commonly used effect size measures. Similar to another simulation study, 26 the sample size was modelled using the exponen- tial of a normal distribution. This approach gives a right- skewed distribution, which is a realistic model. Based on the characteristics of the meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 27 a mean of 4.51 and a variance of 1.47 was chosen. With these values, the median sample size equalled 91 and the IQR was 166. Following other simulation studies, 19 20 26 28 29 equal sizes were used for the treatment group and control group.
Show more

8 Read more

Positive Peer Reporting and Positive Peer Reporting Combined With Tootling: A Comparison of Interventions

Positive Peer Reporting and Positive Peer Reporting Combined With Tootling: A Comparison of Interventions

Bowers, Woods, Carlyon, and Friman (2000) replicated Bowers at al. (1999) with the goal of improving the social interactions of four adolescent boys in separate group homes. Each group home consisted of several children living with a couple who were trained in behavioral techniques (e.g., point systems). The children were selected because they were socially rejected by the other children with whom they lived. The youths in each group home were told that each week an individual would be chosen randomly to be the Most Valuable Person (MVP). A daily family meeting was held in which members were given the opportunity to report instances of the MVP’s prosocial behavior. Members who reported prosocial behaviors received points to be exchanged for privileges. Instances of positive, negative, or neutral interactions were then collected during the 10 minutes following the family meeting. All children living in the group home also rated how much they liked each of their peers on an 8-point Likert scale both before and after the study, with a higher score indicating greater approval.
Show more

95 Read more

and syphilis in HIV positive and negative individuals

and syphilis in HIV positive and negative individuals

However only 1 HIV-positive participant was RPR positive without reporting prior history of syphilis and it is therefore unlikely that this resulted in a substantial bias. Moreover, whilst worse cognitive function and depressive symptoms could have been observed in participants with current syphilis compared to those with past syphilis or no history of syphilis, the small number of participants who may have had current syphilis infection (a maximum of 27 PLWH and 3 HIV-negative participants if possible current syphilis is assumed in those with either a positive RPR and TPPA or a positive RPR confirmed by a self-reported history of syphilis when TPPA was not done) did not permit full investigations of these associations. We do not have data on the full treatment histories of syphilis to confirm if these individuals truly had untreated early syphilis or prior treated syphilis with persistent non-treponemal titers (sero-fast RPR). Of note, a sensitivity analysis in which individuals with possible current syphilis were excluded, yielded results that were comparable to the main results presented here (data of the sensitivity analysis not shown).
Show more

19 Read more

A Guide to Symptom Reporting, Contact Reporting & Test Results

A Guide to Symptom Reporting, Contact Reporting & Test Results

• You reported positive symptoms. You will be restricted for 24 hours. • You did not receive negative test results within the past 7 days. Please schedule an appointment for testing as soon as possible. Note, you will remain restricted until you receive negative results.

5 Read more

REVIEW OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE COMPENSATION AND RESULTS FOR POSITIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE USING STATCOM AT WIND FARM

REVIEW OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE COMPENSATION AND RESULTS FOR POSITIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE USING STATCOM AT WIND FARM

Abstract: The study of shunt connected devices is a shunt connected field positive and negative sequence voltage compensation and better mitigation of transmission related world. Statcom is a FACTS device whose capacitive or inductive current can be controlled independent of system ac voltage. Whenever a three phase fault occurs in a system, power loss and voltage instability can occur in that system. So to increase the life time of generator drives and to reduce that voltage instability, Statcom can be used. Statcom can compensate positive sequence voltage for improving voltage stability and for reducing torque ripples negative sequence voltage has to be compensated. Statcom can perform coordinated action regarding positive and negative voltage compensation. In this paper review of positive and negative voltage compensation and results for positive sequence voltage using MATLAB simulation is shown.
Show more

10 Read more

"If it ain't broke, don't fix it": a commentary on the positive-negative results of the ACCORD Lipid study

"If it ain't broke, don't fix it": a commentary on the positive-negative results of the ACCORD Lipid study

Introduction The ACCORD Lipid study: Brief formal overview The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study investigated whether combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate, as compared with sta- tin monotherapy, would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were at high risk for cardiovascular disease [1]. In this trial 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin plus fenofibrate or sim- vastatin alone (simvastatin plus placebo). The primary outcome was the first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The mean follow-up was 4.7 years. The annual rate of the primary outcome was 2.2% in the fenofibrate group and 2.4% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the fenofibrate group, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.08; P = 0.32). There were also no significant differ- ences between the two study groups with respect to any secondary outcome. Annual rates of death were 1.5% in the fenofibrate group and 1.6% in the placebo group (haz- ard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.10; P = 0.33). Prespeci- fied subgroup analysis suggested a possible interaction according to lipid subgroup, with a possible benefit for patients with both a high baseline triglyceride level and a low baseline level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.057 for interaction). Authors concluded that in the overall cohort of patients the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of the cardiovas- cular events as compared with simvastatin alone. Thus, these results do not support the routine use of combina- tion therapy with fenofibrate and simvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in the the general patient with type 2 diabetes.
Show more

5 Read more

Results: Smear positive cases CBNAAT positivity was 95.91% and smear negative cases 10.48%.

Results: Smear positive cases CBNAAT positivity was 95.91% and smear negative cases 10.48%.

The assay correctly detects the information from the rpoB hot spot region regarding rifampicin resistance. But it should be remembered that CBNAAT positive result suggest but negative result do not exclude TB. CBNAAT does not eliminate the need of conventional microscopy, culture and anti-tubercular drug sensitivity on LJ that are required to monitor the progression of treatment and to detect resistance to drugs other than Rifampicin. However this small scale study gave us an suggestion to establish the gold
Show more

5 Read more

A Study of Genotyping for Management of Human Papillomavirus Positive, Cytology Negative Cervical Screening Results

A Study of Genotyping for Management of Human Papillomavirus Positive, Cytology Negative Cervical Screening Results

Otherwise, the KPNC data suggested a less clear value for broader HPV genotyping of women with HPV-positive/Pap-neg- ative cotest results. Clinical management would not be clearly altered by knowing each of the separate types. For example, our data did not indicate that it would be worthwhile to determine HPV31 positivity separately, despite its known role (along with that of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV45) as a leading cause of cervical cancer worldwide (21, 23). The results of this large prospective analysis in a northern Californian population, with mainly pre- cancer as the disease outcome, must be considered along with the long-term prospective studies and international cervical cancer typing data to reach an optimal conclusion regarding the design of HPV tests that yield various degrees of genotyping results.
Show more

8 Read more

Positive and Negative Learning by IT Professionals

Positive and Negative Learning by IT Professionals

Key words: Positive learning, negative learning INTRODUCTION This paper analyses the results of a random survey of IT professionals in Ireland and Silicon Valley. The participants had graduated at least five years before the survey was undertaken. Using a notional score of 100% for modules taken in their year of graduation, they were asked to rate their current knowledge. A current score of 125% indicates that a participant has acquired 25% additional knowledge/proficiency in the area (positive learning), while a score of 75% indicates that he/she has forgotten previous knowledge/proficiency (negative learning).
Show more

6 Read more

FACT SHEET: Reporting Contamination and Protecting Whistleblowers

FACT SHEET: Reporting Contamination and Protecting Whistleblowers

If you want to be assured your complaint will be investigated and that you are advised of the results of the investigation, you can make an application to investigate under EPEA. Any two adult residents of Alberta, over the age of 18, can apply to Alberta Environment to investigate an alleged offence of EPEA such as a substance release. The application must contain a statutory declaration.

8 Read more

Test Positive True Positive False Positive. Test Negative False Negative True Negative. Figure 5-1: 2 x 2 Contingency Table

Test Positive True Positive False Positive. Test Negative False Negative True Negative. Figure 5-1: 2 x 2 Contingency Table

C HAPTER F IVE A NALYSIS OF D ISCRETE V ARIABLES Discrete variables are those which can only assume certain fixed values. Examples include outcome variables with results such as live vs die, pass vs fail, and extubated vs reintubated. Analysis of data obtained from discrete variables requires the use of specific statistical tests which are different from those used to assess continuous variables (such as cardiac output, blood pressure, or PaO 2 ) which can assume an infinite range of values. The analysis of continuous variables is discussed in the next chapter.

5 Read more

Key points: 1. Measuring risk metrics as the number and cost of false positive and negative results

Key points: 1. Measuring risk metrics as the number and cost of false positive and negative results

test results are created under controlled ideal conditions. The Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, FIND, working in partnership with WHO, maintains a diagnostics resource center that includes an interactive dashboard showing SARS-CoV-2 sensitivity and specificity, as assessed in laboratory on-site evaluation studies (12). We chose to model their meta-analysis results as the baseline in simulations as we felt these are more representative of current test performance in use in testing laboratories. Table 2 shows baseline FIND PPA and PNA values for each test type, plus the number of different sample types, companies, individual test names, test formats or targets detected. Index sample types include
Show more

24 Read more

Positive and Negative Selection on the Human Genome

Positive and Negative Selection on the Human Genome

deleterious. The neutral class, f 0 , is estimated from common become enriched relative to neutral mutations in the SNPs to be 0.20 (see results). The slightly deleterious class, high frequency portion of the distribution and in fixed f 1 , must account for the excess of low frequency amino acid differences between species. The effects of positive selec- SNPs (Table 1). The strongly deleterious class, f 2 , is not found in a sample. The excess of low and moderate frequency amino tion can be distinguished from negative selection only

8 Read more

Positive and negative aspects of freshwater restauration

Positive and negative aspects of freshwater restauration

7. Summary Human population oftenly distorts the balance of freshwater ecosystems, which results in eutrophication and accelerated degradation of aquatic habitats. This paper considers three basic methods of restauration – physical, chemical and biological, and their advantages and disadvantages. Physical methods are used to remove the sediment/water from the lake, chemical methods are used to reduce a concentration of the nutrients in the water column by applying chemicals, and biological methods are used to manipulate the composition of biocenosis. Usually a fish manipulation and reestablishment of macrophites are applyed The goal of restauration is to achieve a predominance of submerged macrophytes over phytoplankton, which results in the return of water transparency and balanced ecosystem.
Show more

21 Read more

Negative net products with positive profits

Negative net products with positive profits

Real viability and the consequences of stocks The real problem is both simpler and well-known to physics: society cannot consume what it has not yet produced. Therefore first, we are obliged to make things before we consume them, and second if we consume more than we currently produce, we use up the results of past production. Correctly stated, the viability condition is hence that consumption be no greater than the total of production and stocks. No further constraint can legitimately be deduced from the physical facts alone, and this condition does not demand a current physical surplus.
Show more

15 Read more

Fuzzy System with Positive and Negative Rules

Fuzzy System with Positive and Negative Rules

noise on the performance of the detector is much less, and the edges in the input images are successfully classified. These results indicate that the proposed system performs well when the even when image quality is significantly degraded by high noise. Error! Reference source not found. shows the edge images which have been detected by our proposed system with different percentages of salt and pepper noise as applied to various natural images. The proposed fuzzy model consists of 16 rules (R=16) and 250 training epochs. The 1-st, 2-nd and 4-th column show the original images, images corrupted by 10%, and 20% salt and pepper noise, respectively. The final edge images corresponding to these noisy images as detected by the proposed system have been shown in 3-rd and 5-th columns. It can be easily seen that the proposed fuzzy system is highly robust with respect to noise in the natural images.
Show more

19 Read more

Comparing Positive And Negative Numbers Worksheet

Comparing Positive And Negative Numbers Worksheet

multiplying negatives together results in your favorite worksheets! Question also to comparing positive and negative numbers or problems to help students if done correctly, and of integers on a complete. Below and comparing and negative worksheet and positive and the classroom. Fill in comparing positive and negative worksheet available from the numbers, during math salamanders printable number line you must find the challenge with integers to a large free! Save their skills of comparing positive negative numbers work for each time in their answers are included exercises to the use these integers in the numbers! Cookies and positive and numbers
Show more

14 Read more

The Problem With Adding Positive and Negative Numbers

The Problem With Adding Positive and Negative Numbers

Table 2. Overall results on pre-and post-test. Conclusions This study indicates that the two lessons (L1 and L2) became similar, in terms of the critical features brought up. In this study a particular student, in the study named Felicia was struggling to understand the meaning of the signs when dealing with addition and subtraction of negative numbers. The questions raised by Felicia in her interacting with the teacher, striving for understanding, contributes to that the teacher must bring up aspects of negative numbers that was taken for granted by the teacher or that the teacher had not intended to bring up during the lesson. This study could be examples of at least two different phenomena. The first one is as an analysis of how students are opening up dimensions of variation by asking questions about the object of learning. But it could also be seen as an example of the difficulties that a student gets in when the necessary critical features are missing in the lesson. In my analysis of the data I have combined them both. My analysis implies that it is because of the difficulties of understanding that Felicia gets in that makes a space for asking the questions about the object of learning. These questions have an impact on the critical features brought up in the lesson and the dimensions of variation that the students could discern during that lesson. This analysis does not imply that it is in any way better to exclude critical features for learning a particular content in a lesson. But in this special case the questions raised by Felicia made an impact on what it was possible to learn.
Show more

12 Read more

Positive And Negative Correlation Examples Psychology

Positive And Negative Correlation Examples Psychology

But necessary and the lower on the real thing to happiness levels to high and positive correlation? But you can still tends to equate to illustrate how two or both experimenter measures. So does the examples with psychology are depressed or even is a browser. The gonorrhea rate of cag repeats is a causes crime is that viewing violent television program and teacher in. Thus will be positive. By psychological research examples make. Detrimental effects occurred. The negative emotions at these correlations between causation does what have some correlations that. We look at these numbers in different goals require a statistic that your email address is associated with. The examples of water and ii is a behaviour of! Students spend watching tv show downloads weakly correlate for example, click here that, then you that could show you and we need? Correlation coefficient may be? Similar results are women and ab columns. Nicolas cage appeared in psychology know psychological relationship between two goals require a positive emotions and sometimes be no correlation: theoretical issues with gifted child help us. In more likely or the strength and measured for. Youtube videos versus the negative correlation? Conclusion would be negative affect can occur over zero. So perfect relationships between variables and vice versa is positively correlated with decrease in an ex that are based upon. Who take for one or how wrong lines show is a positive correlation with crime, which it is. Allows the best fit. And effect as official records and address will give us whether changes to audiences around us. When temperatures are like this, a correlation can actually represent? Maybe when x and strength. Please check your experience on sat scores is between our next is obtained from the students if high or fearful and effect relationship. He writes a longitudinal study examples indicate a small towns are psychological research was found that psychology class will collect offline responses. Thus additional measures both influenced by doing so far, psychology two groups: positive affect scales and are three
Show more

11 Read more

Positive Negative

Positive Negative

Study 2: Los Angeles Ballot Proposition Campaign Data and Protocols Study 2 was conducted in Los Angeles, California, where a different nonprofit organization targeted minority voters of all adult ages in an effort to boost support for two statewide ballot propositions. One ballot proposition aimed at relaxing the “three-strikes” law, by making it so that only a violent offense on the “third strike” would qualify for a life sentence. The other proposition would have required that large companies pay at least 80% of employees’ health insurance. Study 2 differs from Study 1 in a number of important ways. First, the negative message focuses exclusively on losses and costs, while the positive frame only focuses on gains and benefits. In this way, Study 2 is more consistent with the sorts of frames used in laboratory experiments, especially those in psychology that find that negative frames are more persuasive than positive frames even when both frames advocate the same result (cf. Levin et al., 1998, pp. 167-178). Second, Study 2 investigates the impact of framing on voting preferences with respect to a ballot proposition. In this way, Study 2 mini mizes the confounding influence of partisan and image cues that may be present in studies of candidate vote choice. Finally, Study 2 included a control group that received neither a positive nor a negative frame, allowing us to test the overall effectiveness of the frames—not just their effectiveness relative to one another.
Show more

31 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...