Reproductive phase

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of their leaves during the reproductive phase as a result of leaf senes­

of their leaves during the reproductive phase as a result of leaf senes­

The number of leaves seilesced or the percentage of leaf senescence during monsoon was significantly more than in postmonsoon season indicating the high incidence of leaf rust and [r]

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STUDIES ON GROWTH PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO SEED YIELD IN NON-SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA (L.) CZERN (COSS.) A.K. YADAV AND HARI SINGH

STUDIES ON GROWTH PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO SEED YIELD IN NON-SEGREGATING POPULATIONS OF INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA (L.) CZERN (COSS.) A.K. YADAV AND HARI SINGH

Partitioning the genotypic correlation between growth attributes an seed yield further indicated that LAI at reproductive phase followed by CGR, harvest index and net assimila[r]

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Some Aspects of the Biology of Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. in AwkaTown, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Some Aspects of the Biology of Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. in AwkaTown, Anambra State, Nigeria.

week 7 and it stopped on week 13 (Figure 1). The vegetative phase lasted for 8 weeks (Table 3) before the appearance of flower buds (week 8), which marked the beginning of the reproductive phase. The mean height of the plant at this date was 31 ± 10.5 cm, while the mean number of leaves of the plant was approximately 41 ± 17.8 (Figure 1). The appearance of flower buds lasted for a mean of 20.2 ± 1.1 days (Table 3) before the opening of the flower buds on week 11. The mean height of the plant at this date was 78.2 ± 10.7 cm, the mean number of leaves was approximately 95 ± 32.7 and the mean number of branches of stem was 17 ± 3.6 (Figure 1). The opening of the flower buds lasted for a mean of 13.2 ± 0.6 days (Table 3), before the appearance of parachute of hairs containing seeds on week 13. The mean height of the plant at this date was 92.8 ± 20.7 cm, the mean number of leaves was approximately 113 ± 27 and the mean number of branches of stem was 19 ± 3 (Figure 1). The production of new branches of stem stopped at the start of the fruiting stage (week 13). The appearance of parachute of hairs lasted for a mean of 7.2 ± 0.6 days (Table 3), before the plant shed its fruit (fruit maturity). The minimum number of seeds per plant (a mean of 477 ± 162 seeds) was produced on week 15, while the maximum number of seeds per plant (a mean of 2519 ± 2216 seeds) was produced on week 19. Flowering and fruiting period (reproductive phase) lasted for a mean of 139 ± 14 days before the plant withered (Table 3). Observations showed that V. cinerea flowers and fruits at any given time of the year. Observations of the vegetative growth characteristics of V. cinerea (Table 1) showed that the plant attained a mean height of 103.8 ± 34.4 cm, a mean number of leaves of 301 ± 130, a mean number of branches of stem of 19 ± 3 and a mean life cycle duration of 28 ± 2 weeks.
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Correlation and path analysis for yield and growth attributes in adzukibean

Correlation and path analysis for yield and growth attributes in adzukibean

Therefore, on the basis of study on correlations and path analysis, it can be concluded that aerial biomass at maturity, yield/day, yield/day with respect to reproductive phase, biomass/day to plant growth among the yield traits and AGR & LAD among the growth parameters and basic yield sub- component i.e.., pods/plant are the most important traits for making selection for yield improvement. Most of the yield traits as defined by Wallace et al. (1993) have come out to be the most effective traits for indirect selection for yield, of which capacity to synthesize total biomass, rate of yield and biomass accumulation are particularly significant.
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Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

in the juvenile phase (i.e., apices of one-month-old seed- lings); shoot apices in the reproductive phase (i.e., 1-year- old plants producing tendrils and flower meristems), flower buds of different sizes (1–3 mm, 2 cm, 3–4 cm), bracts, flower organs dissected from flowers in anthe- sis including sepals, petals, corona filaments (including inner and outer filaments and the operculum), stamens, carpels and the androgynophore column. Additionally, total RNAs were also isolated from whole green fruits of approximately 4–5  cm in diameter and from pericarps of colour break (ripening) fruits. The mature leaves, tendrils and bigger flower buds were removed from the shoot apex samples. The RNA was isolated using TRI- zol (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA) according to the manu- facturer’s recommendations. For root and fruit material, the TRIzol was ineffective and RNA was isolated using the CTAB method as described by Chang et al. [52]. The RNA samples were treated with DNase using TURBO DNase (Ambion by Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) fol- lowing manufacturer’s recommendations. After the RNA integrity was checked on a 1% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide, 1 µg of RNA was used as a template for cDNA synthesis (SuperScript III ™ First Strand Syn- thesis, Invitrogen, San Diego, CA). Primers for qRT-PCR were designed to amplify fragments in the C-terminus region of PeAP1 and PeFUL genes, using Primer3Plus [53, Additional file 3: Table 1]. The primers were certified for amplification efficiency (E) using a cDNA dilution series as templates. The efficiency was calculated using the slope of the linear regression line generated in Micro- soft Excel 2010 with the following equation: E  = 10 [(−1/ slope)−1]   ×  100 [Additional File 3: Table  1]. The specific-
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Phytosociology and Floristic Composition of the Infesting Community in Rice Crop Waterlogged

Phytosociology and Floristic Composition of the Infesting Community in Rice Crop Waterlogged

The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the floristic composition of the weed community in the rice crop waterlogged in the municipality of Arari-MA. The botanical material was obtained in three areas by randomly a hollow rectangle of 0.50 m × 0.30 m by forty five times in each plot. The aerial parts of weeds were harvested, identified, counted and oven dried with forced air ventilation at 333.15 K to 343.15 K. These data were used to determine the phytosociological parameters and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was also calculated. A total of 6607 plants were collected, being 4115 (62.28%) in the vegetative phase and 2492 (37.72%) in the reproductive phase. The mo- nocotyledonous group obtained the largest number of plants, 2882 in the ve- getative phase and 1535 in the reproductive phase. The Cyperaceae family recorded nine species and four genera and the Poaceae, seven and four species in the vegetative and reproductive phases, respectively. The species of higher IVI in the vegetative phase was E. sellowiana in the area A1 with 82.86%, and in the reproductive F. dichotoma with IVI of 90.49% in the area A3. The indi- viduals density and species richness were higher in the vegetative phase of the culture and the monocotyledonous group predominated with the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families, and the weed diversity among the areas was low.
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Keywards: Thiara lineata, Reproductive tract Index, Water percentage, Shell and Organ indices

Keywards: Thiara lineata, Reproductive tract Index, Water percentage, Shell and Organ indices

The water percentage in the whole body of animal was determined since June 2011 to May 2012. The Maximum water content in the whole body of animal was recorded during the months of August to October (88.22 to 89.33%) Afterwards it starts declining slowly, and the minimum water content was recorded in the months of Feb, March, April and May (75.22 to 78.22). Though the animal is aquatic, still the variation in water percentage is due to different reproductive phase. Water is the most vital and at the same time the most abundant component of the animal body. It constitutes about 65-70% in terrestrial animals Mitchell et. al.,(1945) and 80-90 % of the total body weight in aquatic animals Widdowson et. al.,(1951).
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Attainment of reproductive competence, phase transition, and quantification of juvenility in mutant genetic screens

Attainment of reproductive competence, phase transition, and quantification of juvenility in mutant genetic screens

The term “vegetative phase transition” is currently being used to character- ize both heteroblasty and attainment of reproductive competence, since the two developmental events occur dur- ing the vegetative growth that precedes the transition to the reproductive phase (Poethig, 1990, 2009). However, by assess- ing morphological characteristics, several plant species undergo the vegetative-to- reproductive phase transition while still displaying juvenile traits, and others in which floral induction does not occur, even if adult traits are appeared and the plants are treated with photo- and/or thermo-inductive conditions (Brunner and Nilsson, 2004; Poethig, 2010). This could indicate that estimation of the length of the juvenile phase based on morphological traits does not necessar- ily provide a reliable indication of when juvenility ends. Therefore, the use of the terms “juvenile vegetative phase” and “adult vegetative phase” in defining both the heteroblastic transition as well as the
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EFFECT OF LOW LIGHT DURING RIPENING PERIOD ON GRAIN YIELD AND TRANSLOCA nON OF ASSIMILATES IN RICE VARIETIES K.V. JANARDHAN*, K.S. MURTY and N.B. DASH Division of Physiology, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753 006.

EFFECT OF LOW LIGHT DURING RIPENING PERIOD ON GRAIN YIELD AND TRANSLOCA nON OF ASSIMILATES IN RICE VARIETIES K.V. JANARDHAN*, K.S. MURTY and N.B. DASH Division of Physiology, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753 006.

the effect of induced low light dur­ ing reproductive phase on grain yield and translocation of reserve assimilates (available carbohydrates and nitrogen) has been reported with [r]

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PHOTOSENSITIVITY AT VARIETAL LEVEL IN LINSEED G.S. SIROHI and K.G. WASNIK

PHOTOSENSITIVITY AT VARIETAL LEVEL IN LINSEED G.S. SIROHI and K.G. WASNIK

This suggests that photoperiodic sensitivity should be considered in relation to various components of reproductive phase such as number of flowers, pods, pod weight,[r]

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Strong, independent, quantitative genetic control of the timing of vegetative phase change and first flowering in Eucalyptus globulus ssp  globulus (Tasmanian Blue Gum)

Strong, independent, quantitative genetic control of the timing of vegetative phase change and first flowering in Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus (Tasmanian Blue Gum)

Vegetative and reproductive phase change in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus are most likely to be initiated by a form of developmental age related to the number of nodes set rather than absolute age or size. This has been shown for Eucalyptus tenuiramis (Wiltshire & Reid, 1992) and appears to be the case for E. globulus ssp. globulus (G. J. Jordan & B. M. Potts unpubl. data). However it was not practicable to count the number of nodes for the very large number of plants in these

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HORMONAL ANALYSIS OF JUVENILITY IN RICE S.C. BHARGAVA AND

HORMONAL ANALYSIS OF JUVENILITY IN RICE S.C. BHARGAVA AND

For studies of the juvenile phase and hormonal analysis during the shift from the juvenil~ to the reproductive phase, seeds of Basmati- 370 and BC-6 were exposed to con[r]

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Quranic Evaluation of Cedaws Reproductive Rights

Quranic Evaluation of Cedaws Reproductive Rights

The definitions of reproductive rights and charted articles touch on the notion of gender equality, and specifically that reproductive rights apply to all women. States need to ensure that women have priority and access to their health and care choices. For instance, the government or spouse has no right to intervene if a woman chooses to perform an abortion (See CEDAW General Recommendation No. 21). Furthermore, CEDAW‟s recommendation No. 21 touches on “equality in marriage and family relations” and points out that the responsibilities of raising a child can affect a woman‟s pursuit of education, employment, and personal development (Bustelo, 1995). Additionally, it asserts that spacing children would also affect a woman‟s physical and mental health, therefore, entitling them to make a decision that best suits them (Bustelo, 1995). The convention further adds that the decision a woman chooses cannot be influenced by any third parties, such as their spouse, parents, partner or a governamental body. It emphasizes that the “decisions to have children or not, while preferably made in consultation with a spouse and partner, must not be limited by a spouse, parent, partner, or government” (Committee of Convention on the Elimination all form of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 21).
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Three's Company: A Constitutional Analysis of Prohibiting Access to Three-Parent In Vitro Fertilization

Three's Company: A Constitutional Analysis of Prohibiting Access to Three-Parent In Vitro Fertilization

166. HGGM can occur at one of two times: prior to conception, through modifica- tion of a parent’s germ cells; or after conception, through modification of the fertilized ovum. See supra Part II.A. And according to established reproductive rights jurispru- dence, a fertilized ovum is not a legal person. See Planned Parenthood of Se. Pa. v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833, 839 (1992) (emphasis added) (“[A]bortion involves the purposeful termi- nation of potential life . . . .”). Therefore, at neither point in time is the “parent” modify- ing their “child”; they are modifying a “potential life.”
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Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study

Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study

Methods Study participants were women aged 40–65 years who had experienced a natural menopause from the UK Women’s Cohort Study between baseline and first follow-up. Natural menopause was defined as the permanent cessation of menstrual periods for at least 12 consecutive months. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate diet at baseline. Reproductive history of participants was also recorded. Regression modelling, adjusting for confounders, was used to assess associations between diet and age at natural menopause.

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INFLUENCE OF VARIED MOISTURE REGIMES AT DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES ON YIELD COMPONENTS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L)

INFLUENCE OF VARIED MOISTURE REGIMES AT DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES ON YIELD COMPONENTS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L)

The submergence to field capacity treatment was given to one set of plants (3 pots per set) during vegetative phase and at the rest of the phases 0. e., reproductive and [r]

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Racial Disparity in Social Spatiality: Usage of National Parks and Opera Attendance

Racial Disparity in Social Spatiality: Usage of National Parks and Opera Attendance

of reproductive justice issues has shifted over time. Does the disconnection between print press coverage and internal conversation still exist? Has the organization adapted to changes in the city’s demographics (i.e. new patient needs based on race, religion, and language)? 25 Perhaps an even more interesting research project would be to perform a similar study on Planned Parenthood affiliates operating in the same era in different parts of the country, especially if similar results were uncovered. The years in which the objects of analysis were published (1964-1972) coincides with the emergence of second wave, or mainstream, feminism, which has been criticized by modern day feminists as being to narrowly focused on the needs of middle-class white women and their assumption that their needs match the needs of all women. Mainstream reproductive rights activism in particular has been criticized as being white dominated and furthering racial, economic, educational and other injustices. If similar research demonstrates a trend of mainstream reproductive rights activists considering justice issues that non-traditional reproductive rights activists claim were ignored, other explanations would have to be explored to account for non- traditional reproductive rights activists’ perceptions of being “left out” of mainstream reproductive rights activism.
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Cluster randomized controlled trial protocol: addressing reproductive coercion in health settings (ARCHES)

Cluster randomized controlled trial protocol: addressing reproductive coercion in health settings (ARCHES)

In light of increased sexual and reproductive health concerns and care utilization among IPV victims, as well as the success of clinic-based interventions regarding other behaviorally-based health issues, [27–32] multiple calls for clinic-based interventions for IPV have emerged [33–38]. Unfortunately, screening and disclosure rates remain low; existing studies on disclosure indicate that only 5 % to 15 % of women have disclosed abuse to their providers [39–41]. Survivors’ preferences not to be pres- sured to disclose [42–44] and health provider discomfort with discussing IPV [45–47] compound the difficulties in identifying and supporting survivors [34, 44, 48–55]. IPV screening alone, in the absence of counseling inter- ventions, has not been found to be effective in reducing IPV or other related health outcomes for women [56, 57]. Thus, interventions that provide information and support for all women seeking clinical care and facilitate routine discussion of IPV within the clinical context are indicated [58, 59]. Evidence that abused women also face reproduct- ive coercion (RC) suggests the promise of integrating dis- cussion of RC within IPV assessment to facilitate women’s recognition of these interrelated issues. To our knowledge, the ARCHES intervention is the first to include formal as- sessment of RC for women seeking reproductive health services and to facilitate patient and provider discussion of RC and related abusive experiences.
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Corticosterone modulation of reproductive and immune systems trade offs
in female tree lizards: long term corticosterone manipulations via
injectable gelling material

Corticosterone modulation of reproductive and immune systems trade offs in female tree lizards: long term corticosterone manipulations via injectable gelling material

We tested three alternative hypotheses examining the effects of CORT on wound healing, an innate immune response, during reproduction; CORT action is either (i) direct, (ii) indirect or (iii) has no effect on wound healing during reproduction. To test these hypotheses we manipulated circulating CORT concentrations in both pre-reproductive and reproductive (vitellogenic) females in different energy states, and measured the affect on wound healing. First, if CORT has no effect on wound healing during reproduction, we would expect to find no differences in wound healing rate between CORT-treated and control animals. Second, CORT may act directly, in which case we would predict all CORT-treated animals to have suppressed wound healing regardless of diet or energy state. Lastly, CORT action may be indirect (e.g. dependent on energy state or resource availability), whereby only under energetically limiting conditions will CORT suppress wound healing to conserve resources. This last indirect hypothesis predicts that CORT treatment should result in suppressed wound healing only when resources are limiting, regardless of reproductive stage.
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Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question whether society may limit one`s right to be a parent through the use of reproductive technologies has become a crucial legal issue.
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