research-based spin-offs

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Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs

Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs

From an institutional perspective, firms operate within a social framework of norms, values and taken-for-granted assumptions about what constitutes appropriate or acceptable economic behaviour (Baron, Hannan and Buron, 1999; Davidsson, Hunter, and Klofsten, 2006; Di Maggio and Powell, 1983). Strategic choices such as resource selection and accumulation are constrained not only by economic factors, but also by socially constructed normative rationality (like norms, habits and customs) and institutional factors (‘the way things are done around here’) (Oliver, 1997). By applying the institutional perspective to our context of research-based spin-offs, we suggest that the resource accumulation choices (initial capitalisation) of the young firms, depend on their institutional background. Since the firms are at the start-up stage, having just emerged out of a ‘parent’ PRO, institutional background in this context would be the ‘nurture’ they received from their parent – more specifically the type of their parent PRO and the nature of the parent-spinoff relationship. In other words, we argue that different types of PROs, and different types of relationships between PROs and the spin-off firms, will have an impact on the initial capital of the firm. We test the effect of three ‘nurture’ variables that are already established in the literature on academic entrepreneurship: The type of incubation model of the research institution, the formal (versus informal) transfer of technology and the extent of inventor’s involvement with the company.
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Spontaneous processes of reproduction of family-based entrepreneurship: an empirical research on the cognitive nature of the spin-offs

Spontaneous processes of reproduction of family-based entrepreneurship: an empirical research on the cognitive nature of the spin-offs

One of the nodal stages of the empirical research was the identification of the target audience. The research was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 and involved the administration of an interview carried out in the form of a semi- structured questionnaire with both closed and open questions. The sample consisted of active enterprises with headquarters in the Italian region Campania, the provinces of which have distinctive homogeneous features with regard to family business spin-off processes (Del Giudice et al. 2011). The study started from an al- most total absence of data on the number of family businesses in Campania. It proved to be particularly difficult in the initial development and definition of the research modelling. Therefore, the starting point was the sample selection. Active enterprises were extracted from the database of the Chambers of Commerce of the five Campania provinces (Naples, Caserta, Avellino, Benevento, and Salerno). To simplify the research process, an analysis was conducted on the master data and the balance sheets (if available) of 50 partnerships and corporations, the business names of which could be related to a surname (e.g., ‘ Amarelli Ltd.’), chosen from each of ten industries deemed representative by the management literature and the regional statistics:
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Dynamic Externalities, Universities and Social Capital Formation in the EU Biotechnology Industry

Dynamic Externalities, Universities and Social Capital Formation in the EU Biotechnology Industry

In fact, universities and their research centers play a “catalytic role” in the process of regional development and thus influence knowledge-based economic development (Ketikidis et al., 2016). Most of the knowledge universities produce may flow and spill over to the local economy by means of university-industry transfer projects, university spin-offs, and the mobility of university graduates and researchers to industry and social networks. Trained science and technology (S&T) graduates look for their first jobs in an area of the university. In fact, Bekkers and Freitas (2008) conclude that labor mobility is very important for the transfer of academic technological ‘breakthroughs’ into the biotechnology industry in Dutch universities (PhDs and academic staff). Zucker, Darby and Armstrong (2002) report that biotechnology firms that collaborate with ‘star’ scientists are more likely to be productive in terms of a number of patents. On the one hand, doctoral S&T graduates of pharmaceutical or engineering industries employ their academic knowledge in industry; on the other hand, they learn from their training in laboratories in large corporations.
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University Spin offs' Market Orientation Development

University Spin offs' Market Orientation Development

As mentioned before, Narver and Slater (1990) continued the work of Kohli and Jaworski (1990) on the concept of market orientation, which Narver and Slater (1990) defined as the degree to which a company engages in competitor orientation, customer orientation, and interfunctional coordination. In their study, Narver and Slater (1990) found a positive relationship between market orientation and business profitability. Roberts (1990) came to a similar conclusion in his study amongst 114 technology-based spin-offs from MIT. Roberts (1990) found that the character of these firms evolve over time towards a more market oriented way of doing business, and these changes were manifested in many ways, such as increased formal commitment by the entrepreneurial founders to marketing and sales activities, and an increase in the use of direct sales forces and sales representatives. Although Roberts’ (1990) study appears very similar to this research, there is one major difference; this study has the market orientation concept of Narver and Slater (1990) at its foundation, whereas Roberts (1990) uses his own model based on his hypotheses, with more focus on the entrepreneur(s) who started the company. This study will research if there is a change in the orientation of university spin-offs and will try to understand the process.
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Spin-off as an indicator of regional innovation network development

Spin-off as an indicator of regional innovation network development

Spin-off is the institution which has a number of advantages for the study of the productivity of the interaction of universities with companies. Firstly, in market economy, spin-off is a common form of commercialization of research results. Powerful impetus to this was given in 1980 in the United States through the adop- tion of the Bay-Dole Act. In subsequent years, similar laws have been adopted in other countries too, including mechanisms to encourage the development of spin- offs. Secondly, creation of spin-off requires interaction of the four parties: inventor, research organization, entrepreneur, and venture investor. In order to avoid market failures, innovation development requires prior constant interaction among the innovation process participants, i.e., their integration into innovation network. Thirdly, it is possible to quantify the number of companies that are based on the R&D results, conducted in universities. As the technology which is the subject of commercialization, is created in the university, it must be disclosed in the office of technology transfer, which then will participate in spin-off creation. Of course, a researcher can create a company on his own, but with the help of a database of legal entities this fact can be identified. The same applies to students who have created a company on the basis of their own research results, as W. Hewlett and D. Packard did.
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REVIEWING AND APPLYING SECURITY SERVICES WITH NON-ENGLISH LETTER CODING TO SECURE SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS IN LIGHT OF SOFTWARE TRADE-OFFS

REVIEWING AND APPLYING SECURITY SERVICES WITH NON-ENGLISH LETTER CODING TO SECURE SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS IN LIGHT OF SOFTWARE TRADE-OFFS

checks, or key checks of functionality. Software developers suggested and employed many approaches to protect software such as: block and multi-block hashing schemes, the widely used hardware based approaches, obfuscation, Guards, cryptographic techniques, watermarking techniques. Information security concerns with protecting information availability, privacy and integrity. Computer database include highly business and individuals information which need to be kept confident, secret and not given for public (Wang, 2005; Koko and Amin, 2015).
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The Water Molecule with Conjoint Translational, Rotational and Spin Degrees of Freedom in the Gas and Liquid Phases

The Water Molecule with Conjoint Translational, Rotational and Spin Degrees of Freedom in the Gas and Liquid Phases

[13]. This innovation is based on an advantage that the sin- gle mathematical construction spans the translational, rota- tional and spin degrees of freedom of molecule. Each of three types of movements undergoes qualitative modifica- tions. The molecular center of mass has the capability to move, according to rules of classical mechanics, along only straight lines in 3D-space. Quantum rotational energy states of molecule lose their 2L+1 degeneracy corresponding to the projection on the z axis of laboratory coordinate system. The concept of the nuclear spin symmetry peculiar to the spin sys- tem of free molecule disappears since the superposition of states of two spin moments known as singlet and triplet with m=0 do not exist now.
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Dutch University Spin Offs and the probability to receive governmental funding : a study of entrepreneurial orientation and human capital key determinants

Dutch University Spin Offs and the probability to receive governmental funding : a study of entrepreneurial orientation and human capital key determinants

In the wake of the 1980 USA Bayh-Dole act, academic entrepreneurship (AE) and University spinoffs (USO’s) have received a considerable amount of attention in different fields of research (van Dierdonck & Debackere, 1988; McMullan & Melnyk, 1988; Rogers, 1986). The reason for this is that the commercialization of academic research through USO’s is beneficial to the (local) economy as it bridges the gap between academics and industry and so creates societal value (Abramson et al., 1997; Ayoub, Gottschalk & Müller, 2017; Perkmann et al., 2013). Amongst other fields, it contributes a great deal to high value jobs, innovation and leading edge research (Etzkowitz, 2002 as cited in O'Shea et al., 2005). The value of promoting commercialization of knowledge and research has globally been recognized and therefore, in recent years, universities have obtained the new role of facilitating and exploiting the research with commercial value. In the US, Europe and Asia different legislations have been adopted in an attempt to “enhance public- private research interaction, university patenting and, more generally, increase awareness of opportunities for commercialization of research” (Grimaldi et al., 2011). Nowadays universities are expected to be ‘entrepreneurial’ (Muscio, Quaglione & Vallanti, 2013) which, apart from the infrastructure itself, directly and indirectly affects people who work for or at universities. Instead of only transferring knowledge, these people are now also allowed and able to commercialize this knowledge, termed academic entrepreneurship. So called contract research, collaborative research, patenting and licensing options are available and scholars have the freedom to establish USO’s (Grimaldi et al. 2011; Muscio, Quaglione & Vallanti, 2013; Perkmann et al., 2013), the latter option being our field of study for this article. In order to be able to start a USO there should be incentives for scholars to engage in such ventures (O'Shea et al., 2005; Grimaldi et al., 2011). One of those incentives is that appropriate start-up funding is available as internal financial resources are often lacking in the early stages of commercialization (Wright et al., 2004).
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The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins.

The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins.

A seldom acknowledged trade-off that may occur when applying biochar to soil is that it is necessary to bury the biochar in order to prevent it from being eroded by wind or water. This is usually done by mix- ing the biochar into the topsoil, either mechanically or by hand. Such mixing requires disturbance and cultiva- tion of the soil, which promotes native SOM loss as well as potentially other side effects in those situations where incorporation is not part of on-going manage- ment. Therefore, wide-scale biochar application may trade-off against the benefits that no-till farming brings. Direct surface application (e.g., added to slurry or in muck spreading) is also possible, although such appli- cation techniques run the risk of the biochar being eroded by wind or rain (Rumpel et al., 2006). A possi- ble response to mitigate this potential trade-off is to combine biochar with minimum tillage conservation farming practices, and apply biochar, for example, in the hoe basins or rip lines where cultivation takes place (Hobbs et al. 2008; Giller et al. 2009). This would also reduce the amount of biochar needed for fertility effects (Cornelissen et al., 2013b) and so helps circum- vent some of the trade-offs that occur due to competi- tion for feedstocks. However, such a strategy is labour intensive and unlikely to be implemented in large-scale arable systems, unless it can be combined with applica- tion of manures which may already be part of on-going soil management.
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An integrated adaptation and mitigation framework for developing agricultural research: synergies and trade-offs

An integrated adaptation and mitigation framework for developing agricultural research: synergies and trade-offs

adaptation and mitigation; in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability... Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Pane[r]

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Research on the 3D imaging algorithm of spin target based on the Hough transform

Research on the 3D imaging algorithm of spin target based on the Hough transform

Since it was unavoidable that the scattering center of the spin target was seated in the back of radar sight, it was impossible for each scattering center to be shone by the radar beam. Therefore, the shielding condition in the scattering center should be considered. The range resi- dence time domain image after taking shield into consid- eration and transformational results of parameter domain were shown in Figures 10 and 11, respectively, in which the parameter of each scattering point was shown in Table 1. Within image observation period, scattering point ⑨ on the spin axis could always be seen, while the rest eight ones could be seen within half cycle close to radar. It could be seen from Figure 10 that owning to the influence of shield, the sine curve in the image domain was discontinuous, and at this moment, it was difficult to directly detect the curve. There was obvi- ous peak in the parameter domain shown in Figure 11, which was easier to detect the parameter.
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Informational approach of family spin-offs in the funding process of innovative projects: an empirical verification

Informational approach of family spin-offs in the funding process of innovative projects: an empirical verification

In recent years, the increase in competitiveness, as a result of the economic globalization and crisis, has caused the bankruptcy of many Italian small family businesses working in traditional industries. Meanwhile, family firms that have been working in a perspective of process and product innovation have been able to maintain a durable competitive advantage. In particular, enterprises that have shown a particular vitality are spin-offs, founded by an innovator entrepreneur with an academic background: these have often found their funding in self-financing and family and public resources in the pre-seed and seed stages of the project. However, these spin-offs often have difficulty financing the start-up phase of the project with external resources due to risk and informational opacity related to innovative processes. The literature grounded on innovation funding has highlighted the informative opacity problem mainly caused by family entrepreneurs' difficulty to communicate innovation characteristics and commercial potential to financial markets and by the inability to identify individuals who are more available to finance innovative investments. Therefore, it is particularly difficult for investors to assess family small- and medium-sized
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Academic inventions outside the university: investigating patent ownership in the UK

Academic inventions outside the university: investigating patent ownership in the UK

This paper investigated the patent ownership of university invented patents. Prior research in the field has shown that academics in Europe are inventors on a large number of patents that are not assigned to the academic’s institution but to a private firm or the academic herself (Geuna and Nesta, 2006). Previous papers have argued that this may be due to appropriation norms that have allowed researchers or funding agents to maintain the rights to their inventions or due to universities’ difficulties in handling IPR. Changes in legislation and the continuing efforts of university administrations have led to a more rigid IPR regime for academic staff. However, even now the majority of university inventions are not assigned to the institution. For example, in the UK around 50% of university inventions are filed with a private firm and not the university (Sterzi, 2013).
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The Zone of trade-offs and Service Quality Dimensions: A Review on Concept and Models

The Zone of trade-offs and Service Quality Dimensions: A Review on Concept and Models

The study attempts to address the gap in the literature on the trade-offs using service quality dimensions particularly in the service factory. The study commences by explaining the concepts of trade-offs and service quality dimensions using previous studies. The papers uses a theory building approach to understand the trade-offs being practised by the service employees in the service factory. The paper reviews the literature on the trade-offs and service quality dimensions. It then, explains the trade- offs being practiced in the back stage operations at the service factory to uncover service employees performance gap when delivering various services to the customers. The body of literature is discussed on the rationale of studying the chosen topic from various perspectives of operational research. This section also critically reviews the early studies on this topic and justifies the importance of examining the trade-offs using service quality dimensions. Lastly, the study attempts to provide the framework for the future researchers to address the zone of trade-offs among service employees in the service factory.
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[N294.Ebook] Free PDF Cycles Sequels Spin Offs Remakes And Reboots Multiplicities In Film And Television From University Of Texas Press.pdf

[N294.Ebook] Free PDF Cycles Sequels Spin Offs Remakes And Reboots Multiplicities In Film And Television From University Of Texas Press.pdf

How if your day is started by reviewing a publication Cycles, Sequels, Spin-offs, Remakes, And Reboots: Multiplicities In Film And Television From University Of Texas Press Yet, it remains in your gadget? Everyone will still touch and also us their gadget when awakening and also in early morning tasks. This is why, we suppose you to also read a book Cycles, Sequels, Spin-offs, Remakes, And Reboots: Multiplicities In Film And Television From University Of Texas Press If you still confused ways to obtain guide for your gizmo, you could adhere to the way right here. As below, we provide Cycles, Sequels, Spin-offs, Remakes, And Reboots: Multiplicities In Film And Television From University Of Texas Press in this internet site.
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Sentiment Trend Analysis of Big Data

Sentiment Trend Analysis of Big Data

The datasets are divided into three subsets to gauge the effect that the selection of features from the mutual information on the working of categorization of polarity. These subsets are Test (20%), Tune (30%) and Train (50%). We keep a constant proportion of negative and positive documents for both datasets that have an unequal share of polarities. For reaching this goal, first step was to remove the features from training set and calculating their MI scores. For calculating these features, we use the settings of the run that are based on the best word, that is, the fifth run. Once the features are sorted in an ascending order, we choose top N for representing the documents in the Tune set. Here, N varies from the documents that belong to the top few to the feature space size. In the end, a value of N is chosen for each available dataset for maximizing the performance and we use the Test set for determining the performance of classifiers at this cut off. It is a possibility that because the features have been developed on different subsets than the ones that they are representing, their accuracy is affected negatively due to the mismatching vocabulary. This can especially be observed in the dataset that is smaller which is most accurate. Selection based on POS
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Specific IgE and skin prick tests to diagnose allergy to fresh and baked cow’s milk according to age: a systematic review

Specific IgE and skin prick tests to diagnose allergy to fresh and baked cow’s milk according to age: a systematic review

Cow’s milk (CM) is one of the first causes of food allergy in the first years of life [1] and of food anaphylaxis in pediatric patients [2]. Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) has a prevalence ranging between 1.8 and 7.5% in the first year of life [3]. CMA diagnosis is often based on a compatible clinical history and on the results of specific IgE (sIgE) and/or skin prick tests (SPT). Specific IgEs and SPTs to CM extract or to the single CM allergenic proteins show a good sensitivity but a low specificity. Therefore, sensitization does not correlate well with allergy [4]. If the diagnosis of CMA were only based on sIgE or SPT results, a group of sensitized but non-allergic subjects would uselessly undergo a CM-exclusion diet. Hence, Oral Food Challenge (OFC) is still considered as the gold standard for CMA diagnosis, despite being expen- sive, time-consuming, and possibly causing allergic reac- tions which may even result in anaphylaxis.
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Comparative Analysis of Customer Value Dimensions

Comparative Analysis of Customer Value Dimensions

yet research into consumer value is still underdeveloped (Sparks et al., 2008). Research by (Graf & Maas, 2008; Gallarza et al., 2011) trace the concept of value in the literature and provide a wide range of definitions and opinions about this concept. Even so, the concept of value suffers from a prevalence of diverse definitions, which fail to give a clear picture of it. The concept of customer value and its increasing recognition as an important focus in research and practice has attracted attention of market researchers and practitioners over the last three decades (Blocker et al., 2010). Although there is an extensive theoretical literature emphasizing its importance, there are few empirical studies available in this area, due to the absence of reliable measures (Lapierre, 2000). In addition, remarkably few firms have the knowledge and capability to assess the connection between their industrial practices and the perceived value of their customers. Since firms define themselves in the context of their supply chain, it is critical for them to link and align their supply chain practices with expectations of their end customer (Maleki & Cruz-Machado, 2013). Truly understanding of customer value is fundamental to marketing and customer behaviour theory. However, because value is an abstract concept with many overlapping meanings, it is challenging to study and analyze it (Chen & Quester, 2009; Gallarza et al., 2011). There is no consensus on the definition of customer value (Graf & Maas, 2008), but generally there are two identifiable theoretical approaches which treat customer value from the company perspective and the customer perspective. The company perspective is closely related to relationship marketing, which aims to develop and maintain profitable business relationships with selected customers. The customer perspective focuses on value generated by a company’s product or service as perceived by the customer, and relates to the fulfilment of customer goals and desires by company products and/or services.
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Running Head: Adaptive movement patterns in springboard diving 1

Running Head: Adaptive movement patterns in springboard diving 1

variability in the approach and hurdle phases of take-offs completed post- training program 308. and less variability in pre- training program dive take-offs[r]

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Hild, Sebastian
  

(2016):


	Microscopy of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

Hild, Sebastian (2016): Microscopy of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik

For detection, we used both spin resolving techniques: positive and negative spin detection as each has different advantages (see Chapter 3.3.3). The pos- itive detection method allows for precise detection of the |↑i impurity, but nothing about the surrounding spin |↓i bath can be extracted. On the other hand, negative imaging reveals the parity distribution of the spin |↓i bath. However it does not distinguish between thermal excitation in the density sector (mostly doublons and holons) and the spin impurity. Post-selecting samples with only one empty site in the central region of the spin chain al- lowed to filter out a lower-temperature subset of the data. The temperature always corresponds to the temperature of the bath and should not be con- fused with the spin temperature which cannot be measured for the out-of- equilibrium initail state. The fidelity of preparing at least a single-spin flip is high enough such that this single empty site was with very high likelihood the |↑i spin impurity. Only if no spin impurity was created a single thermal excitation is mistaken as the spin impurity. We reconstruct each probability density distribution at a certain hold time by averaging over several exper- imental repetitions and averaging over the central 10-14 lattice sites. The second averaging is crucial as only this step permits to take measurements for several different configurations of lattice depth and evolution time due to the massive speedup.
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