Research that the effects of war has on education attainment for males

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Understanding the gender and ethnicity attainment gap in UK higher education

Understanding the gender and ethnicity attainment gap in UK higher education

A further variable identified in a study by Ridley (2007) was the impact of less effective forms of study behaviour within BME student groups. Ridley’s research suggested that black students were more likely to use a ‘surface approach’ to studying when compared to white groups, and use of a surface approach was found to be negatively correlated with marks in exams and coursework. Another study (Dart et al., 1999) suggests that male students are more likely to adopt a surface learning approach so this may provide a partial explanation for attainment gaps. Claims have also been made that exams favour males and coursework females (Martin, 1997), and the increasing move toward coursework could be a contributory factor to the gender attainment gap. At the University of Oxford, where many courses are assessed on the basis of exams at the end of the final year, the gender gap is reversed - at least in terms of the proportion of students achieving first class degrees (Trigwell & Ashwin, 2003).
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Against the Grain: Lingering Parental Education Effects in Graduate Student Attainment.

Against the Grain: Lingering Parental Education Effects in Graduate Student Attainment.

Parental education and graduate attainment has been explored using the same B&B dataset, however in a limited fashion. Zhang (2005) set out to observe the effect of college quality and undergraduate major on graduate enrollment, yet results included one model examining institutional, demographic, family, and academic variables predicting degree attainment. Similar to enrollment, undergraduate institution and (undergraduate) academic performance were strong predictive factors of receiving a degree, however first-generation status was not significantly associated with attainment. This further reinforces the argument that parental education ceases to matter in this life stage, however this analysis only followed respondents four to five years after graduating college. Research considering a longer time frame would allow more variation in the attainment variable and provide a more reliable measure of graduate student attainment. In order to extend Mullen et al.’s (2003) and Zhang’s (2005) findings, the following analysis uses the same dataset with a subsequent wave to retest potential mediating effects on who actually completes graduate programs once enrolled. Specifically, undergraduate experiences, attitudes and expectations, and graduate program field are investigated as potential mediating factors in the relationship between parental education and degree attainment over a ten-year period.
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A review of educational attainment measures for social survey research

A review of educational attainment measures for social survey research

Nations like the United Kingdom have education systems with a wide range of qualifications. In addition to the school leaving age increasing and school systems being reorgan- ised, there have also been dramatic changes in school-level qualifications (Bolton, 2012). Noah and Eckstein (1992) highlight that in the period since the end of the Second World War new qualifications have emerged and later disappeared. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level (O’ Level) was introduced in the 1950s and was the normal examination, at the end of compulsory education, for pupils attending gram- mar Schools. The Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) was introduced in the 1960s and was designed for pupils per- forming at a lower level, but its highest grade was considered to be equivalent to a low grade O’ Level. These qualifica- tions were replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in the late 1980s (Department of Education, 1985; Mobley et al., 1986; North, 1987).
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Groundwater arsenic and education attainment in Bangladesh

Groundwater arsenic and education attainment in Bangladesh

Choosing a sub-sample of individuals to study for ar- senic’s effects on years of education required judgment. Tube wells were far from ubiquitous in Bangladesh in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Schoenfeld [33] found some urban areas in which under 40 % of households used tube wells in 1977, and clinical reports of physical effects did not begin until the early 1980s [2, 3, 27]. Thus, we did not know exactly which birth cohorts were fully exposed to the groundwater arsenic levels mea- sured in the NHS. Estimates of arsenic’s effects based upon individuals born before the general use of tube wells would underestimate those effects, but estimates based upon individuals too young would miss the full ef- fect of arsenic on education. We estimated, by sex, well- water arsenic’s effects on education attainment for youths who were aged 19 through 21 when sampled for the 2006 MICS, i.e., individuals born between 1985 and 1987. Of these ages, there were 7451 males and 9270 fe- males in the 2006 MICS; one seventh of these youths were in sub-districts for which we had no tube well data and were therefore omitted from our analysis.
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The Effects of Preparedness on Career and Technical Education Student’s Program Performance and Vocational Attainment

The Effects of Preparedness on Career and Technical Education Student’s Program Performance and Vocational Attainment

Attewell et al. (2006) conducted a study of postsecondary remediation in order to assess what effect taking remedial courses had on students’ graduation rates and their time to complete a degree, including the significance of students taking multiple remedial courses; whether some remedial courses are more significant with respect to student attainment than others; and the relationship between students’ successful completion of remediation and degree attainment. Their research revealed that findings from previous studies regarding the negative effect that remediation has on student success and attainment are somewhat short-sighted. Attewell et al. concluded that students enrolling in at least one remedial course when entering a community college does not, itself alone, diminish a student’s chances of completing a degree. However, causal factors that do negatively impact students’ chances of completing a degree include low family socioeconomic status, being African-American, and entering two-year institutions having been inadequately prepared during high school. This was not the case concerning students entering four-year colleges and universities. Here, Attewell et al. concluded there was a moderately significant likelihood that remedial students were less likely to complete a degree when controlling for factors such as race, family status, and high school preparation.
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A review of the research literature relating to ICT and attainment

A review of the research literature relating to ICT and attainment

One view, while not critical of ICT in itself as a learning technology, is to argue that ICT has not yet found a role within education (Watson, 2001). The nature of ICT as a subject has also been the focus of discussion (Webb, 2002) and many of those active in the field have continued to note the difference between ineffective computer-assisted learning type use of ICT and more transformative approaches (Somekh, 2000). Most recently, critical writings (Cordes and Miller, 2000) have tended to focus on the supposed dampening effects of computers (rather than ICT) on the creativity of young learners. In this way, such critics have built on the pronouncements of previously published sceptics (Postman, 1995), and are at variance with those who seek to increase ICT use in education (Williams and Smith, 1994). The views of the critics have been at least partly refuted through responding journal articles (Abbott et al., 2001), although the sceptics continue to raise doubts from an opinion-based rather than research-led perspective (Stoll, 1995; Cuban, 2001). Cuban’s views found favour with researchers considering the Scottish perspective (Conlon and Simpson, 2003). They suggested that it is only home use of computers that can be truly educational, with much school-based use insignificant or peripheral to education, although it is perhaps surprising that it is word processing which they give as an example of non- educational use of ICT.
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The long-term effects of military conscription on educational attainment and wages

The long-term effects of military conscription on educational attainment and wages

To address this selection problem, we exploit a policy change that created a major dif- ference in conscription between birth cohorts. In 1979, the age that Dutch young men were called for military service was lowered from 20 to 19. The direct consequence of this policy change was that a whole birth cohort was exempted from military service. We identify the causal effect of military service by comparing the long term outcomes of this exempted birth cohort with the outcomes of those born in the adjacent years. This local comparison enables us to generate two types of estimates. First, reduced form estimates of the difference between the exempted cohort and the adjacent cohorts that received the regular treatment of conscription provide a direct estimate of the societal costs of a system of conscription. The societal costs might consist of a lower educated population with a lower earnings capacity. Second, instrumental variable estimates show the effect of conscription for males that actually served in the army. These estimates for the com- pliers provide insight into the private costs of conscription. This approach is related to earlier work by Imbens and van der Klaauw (1995). They introduced an instrumental vari- able approach that exploits all variation in conscription between fourteen birth cohorts for obtaining estimates of the short term wage effects for conscripts. We also apply their approach for testing the robustness of our main results on the long term effects of con- scription on three education outcomes and wages using micro-level data from 1997 to 2002. Moreover, data on educational attainment and earnings of women enable us to perform a placebo test about the influence of other time related confounding factors.
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A review of educational attainment measures for social survey research

A review of educational attainment measures for social survey research

Nations like the United Kingdom have education systems with a wide range of qualifications. In addition to the school leaving age increasing and school systems being reorgan- ised, there have also been dramatic changes in school-level qualifications (Bolton, 2012). Noah and Eckstein (1992) highlight that in the period since the end of the Second World War new qualifications have emerged and later disappeared. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level (O’ Level) was introduced in the 1950s and was the normal examination, at the end of compulsory education, for pupils attending gram- mar Schools. The Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) was introduced in the 1960s and was designed for pupils per- forming at a lower level, but its highest grade was considered to be equivalent to a low grade O’ Level. These qualifica- tions were replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in the late 1980s (Department of Education, 1985; Mobley et al., 1986; North, 1987).
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Effects of Badminton on Physical Developments of Males with Physical Disability

Effects of Badminton on Physical Developments of Males with Physical Disability

hand grasping power, and modified push-up parameters. Ergun and Baltacı [22] reported that sport could be used to gain coordination, freedom in movements, muscle control, and balance in disabled rehabilitation. Silfies et al. [24] mentioned that core stability has the ability to control the movement and position of the body during the functional activity. Tolfrey et al. [25] reported that cardiovascular endurance levels of the wheelchair players was correlated with body mass, adipose tissue, and body control. In this study, the abdominal power and endurance levels of the participants were examined, and it was determined that abdominal power values of both on foot and wheelchair badminton players were statistically significantly better. For abdominal endurance levels, it was determined that there was not a statistically significant difference compared to the individuals without sport; however, it was determined that they had better values than individuals without sport. In a similar study on amputee football players, positive correlation was determined between upper body muscle stabilization and upper body flexor muscle power, and it was mentioned that upper body stabilization, balance and upper body muscle power practices must be included in exercise programs [26].
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Analysis About the Education and Cultivation Approaches of the Undergraduates' Vocational Attainment

Analysis About the Education and Cultivation Approaches of the Undergraduates' Vocational Attainment

3.3 The Lack of Professional Organizations The universities lack of some professional service organizations of vocational attainment, and career plan. Nowadays, the work of employment guidance organization in universities mostly are employment procedure, employment information providing, and the guidance work of employment policies and systems, but the deeply aspect of vocational guidance service is not enough. Most universities in our country have not ran the institutions that develop vocational attainment training to undergraduates, and this kind of teachers are lacked, the vocational attainment and career plan education to students just through some classes and some job fairs. On the other hand, the students pay little attention on the vocational attainment education, and have a simple understanding of career plan. When facing the problems of employment, some students will look for advice in the employment guidance center, but some students don’t know how to do.
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Social Capital and Educational Attainment: A Study of Undergraduates in a Faculty of Education

Social Capital and Educational Attainment: A Study of Undergraduates in a Faculty of Education

The effects of social psychological variables and gender on the grade point averages and educational expectations of university students: A case study.. Measuring the cognitive domain [r]

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Where has all the education gone?

Where has all the education gone?

estimates of years of schooling from Kryiacou, 1990 and find the coefficient on growth of years of schooling was negative. 17 Lau, Jamison and Louat (1991) estimated the effects of education by level of schooling (primary versus secondary) for five regions and found that primary education had an estimated negative effect in Africa and MENA, insignificant effects in South Asia and Latin America, and was only positive and significant in East Asia. Jovanovic, Lach and Lavy (1992) use annual data on a different set of capital stocks and the NSD education data and find negative coefficients on education in a non-OECD sample. Behrman (1987) and Dasgupta and Weale (1992) find that changes in adult literacy are not significantly correlated with changes in output. The World Bank’s World Development Report on labor also reports the lack of a (partial) correlation between growth and education expansion (World Bank, 1995, figure 2.4). Newer studies using panels to allow for country specific effects consistently find negative signs on schooling variables (Islam 1995, Casselli, et. al. 1998, Hoeffler, 1999) 18 .
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Syria: Effects of War & Resettlement on Childhood and Education

Syria: Effects of War & Resettlement on Childhood and Education

Abboud, S. N. (2016). Syria. Cambridge: Polity Press. Alayan, S., Rohde, A., & Dhouib, S. (Eds.). (2012). Curricula, The Politics of Educaation Reform in the Middle East: Self and Other in Textbooks and. New York : Berghahn Books. Children's Living Nightmares. (2017). (Save the Children Foundation Inc.) Retrieved from Save the Children. Fazel, M., Reed, R. V., Panter-Brick , C., & Stein, A. (Jan 2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The Lancet, 379(9812), 266-282. Immerstein, S., & Al-Shaikhly, S. (2016, April 4). Education in Syria. Retrieved March 2017, from World Education News and Reviews: http://wenr.wes.org/2016/04/education- in-syria Labi, A. (2014, November 7). Scholars in Danger Join World's Refugees. Chronicles of Higher Education, 19. Ladika, S. (2017, March/April). Empowering Refugees Through Education. International Educator, 26(2), 32-39. Mansel, P. (2016). Aleppo: The Rise and Fall of Syria's Great Merchant City. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. Mettelsiefen, M. (Director). (2016). Frontline: Children of Syria [Motion Picture]. Ritzer, G., & Dean, P. (2015). Gloalization: A Basic Text. (B. P. Ltd, Ed.) West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Sinclair, M. (2011). Education in emergencies. Learning for a future: Refugee education in developing countries, 1-84. Timm, M. (2016). The Integration of Refugees into the German Education System: A Stance for Cultural Pluralism and Multicultural Education. JEP: EJournal of Education Policy, 1-7.
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Improving attainment? Interventions in education by the New Deal for Communities Programme

Improving attainment? Interventions in education by the New Deal for Communities Programme

2.6. Much of the work on the relationship between disadvantage and educational attainment uses eligibility for free school meals (FSM) as a proxy for poverty. There are significant overlaps between household income (the criterion determining FSM eligibility) and neighbourhood of residence, but they are distinct. The evidence suggests that both indicators, operating independently, are associated with educational disadvantage. A DCSF study 12 explains the relationship between FSM and educational attainment: ‘… an FSM child has around three times worse odds of achieving good school outcomes than a non-FSM child at every critical point in their education after age five.’ 13 2.7. There are also inequalities of outcome based on gender, though this is not unique to the UK. According to one study, 14 ‘Girls outperform boys not just in England but also in most other countries’, and the gender gap is increasing. About 60 per cent of the ‘low achievers’ group identified in this study were boys; and the gap widens between primary and secondary school.
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The Effects of Credit Status on College Attainment and College Completion

The Effects of Credit Status on College Attainment and College Completion

estimation consists of a linear probability model with the dependent variable taking a value of one if the respondent has completed a four-year college degree; respondents with two-year de- grees are categorized as having some college and hence take a zero value for having completed a four-year degree, as do respondents currently enrolled in college and drop-outs. Table 7 reports the results. Note that those with a college degree includes those with post-graduate education. Our results indicate that credit status has a significant effect on completing a four-year college degree. In fact, the estimated coefficients are quite large. Young respondents with bad credit, for example, are 17.2 percentage points less likely to have a college degree than those with good credit. Being turned down for credit and hardly ever repaying credit card balance reduces the likelihood of having a college degree by 15.3 percentage points. Similar magnitudes are found for the older group, with all point estimates being significant at the 1% level. This contrasts to the results for some college attainment, which were less robust for the older sample. Importantly, the effects of credit status on college completion are much larger than the effects on attaining some college (Table 7). Thus, credit status has an economically and statistically significant effect on having a four-year college degree, and this effect is larger than the effect on having some college; it is also robust across credit measures and age groups. To date, this has not been documented in the existing literature and perhaps is our most important new finding. We add to the literature on the determinants of college investment that suggests skills, ability and human capital acquisition are far more important for college completion than attaining some college (Cameron and Taber (2001), Carneiro and Heckman (2002), Cunha and Heckman (2009), and Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner (2009)). An important observation in recent literature is that college investment is risky (see Restuccia and Urrutia (2004), Garriga and Keightley (2007), Johnson (2010) and Chatterjee and Ionescu (2011)). College preparedness and effort during college are ways of mitigating that risk and hence serve as important determinants of college completion (Manski (1983), Cunha et al. (2005), Cunha and Heckman (2009), Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner (2009), Bound et al. (2010) and Ionescu (2011)). Credit status may be one measure of some of the unobserved risk in college students. In addition, worse credit status may tighten credit constraints, making it less likely for college-going students to complete college. Perhaps declining credit status of college-going students could be part of the explanation behind declining college completion rates, as documented in Turner (2004) and Bound et al. (2010), for example. Either way, our results suggest that credit status should be listed among the
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Post war functions of commercial education

Post war functions of commercial education

The great lessons that we may learn from this rapid survey of the methods of our competitors may be summed up as follows: — From Germany, so to intensify our methods of teaching, both as[r]

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A fast forward look at tertiary education attainment in Europe 2020

A fast forward look at tertiary education attainment in Europe 2020

We construct country-specific forecasts by following the same two steps described above. 16 One caveat though relates to the importance of country heterogeneity in the context of a future probable convergence process in higher education. If this were to be the case, a country starting from a low level but with significantly faster than average improvement in education attainment would have an underestimated forecast based on a model that omits the linear time trend from equations (2.1)-(2.2) or, equivalently, the country-specific constant from equation (3). The first argument that stands against this interpretation is that our estimated fixed-effects specification did not pass the required autocorrelation tests. By not including country fixed effects in the preferred model specification, extending the model to other countries becomes more straightforward. As a second argument, we provide additional evidence to substantiate the use of our econometric model to construct country-specific forecasts. In particular, we compare our conditional forecasts to an alternative set of forecasts derived from a cohort-based approach. As described in greater detail in Appendix B, this cohort-based model uses country-specific data on tertiary enrolment, duration of studies and completion rates. Being built on two different sets of modelling assumptions the two approaches are completely independent. Due to data limitations, we are able to provide country-specific forecasts of the tertiary education attainment of the 30-34 years old for a limited number of years and countries. By comparing the two sets of forecasts, we find no evidence that the forecasts from the econometric model are systematically biased due to the omission of country-specific characteristics.
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A REG?ONAL STUDY ON THE INFERTILITY OF IRAQI MALES UNDER WAR ?MPACT FROM 1980 TO 2013

A REG?ONAL STUDY ON THE INFERTILITY OF IRAQI MALES UNDER WAR ?MPACT FROM 1980 TO 2013

One of the most serious social problems facing developed countries today is the declining birth rate, although it is generally not well recognized that the number of infertile couples is on the rise in these countries. While both social (i.e., social progress for women and the resulting increase in the age at which women marry) and environmental (i.e pollution and global warming) factors are behind part of the increase in the number of patients with infertility, infertility in the male partner contributes to approximately half of all cases. [1] Iraq is one of few developing countries faced a horrible long series of wars for more than three decades and still involving in this destructive civil wars.This series of wars resulting in elevation of so many diseases as a result of war impact. Male-factor infertility is a well- known health issue all over the world including middle east countries, Africa and other developing countries; it presents a particularly vexing clinical problem. [2] It has been estimated that infertility of couples affects 10-15% of the general population. [2] The prevalent rate varies between and within countries. For instance, in the United Kingdom and the United States of America it is estimated to be 6% and 10% respectively. [3] In Denmark, it is estimated to be in the region of 15.7%. [4] In Nigeria and some parts of sub-Saharan Africa including the Republic of Sudan and Cameroon, infertility rate could exceed 30%. [5,6,7] Some studies reported in South-eastern Nigeria, have demonstrated a 65% and 35% prevalent rate for primary and secondary infertility respectively. [8] Similarly, some countries, most notably Kenya, Gabon, Botswana, Zimbabwe and many other African countries, have shown a trend toward lower fertility. [5,9,10,11] However,we have not a national study in Iraq concerning infertility of couples, so the present study is an attempt covering part of Iraq to assess the changing picture of male infertility in a peculiar condition which is the series of wars.
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                        Working-class males and engagement with high school education

Article Working-class males and engagement with high school education

If a chart was used to present the findings from the more generic question about whether participants saw school as a waste of time, the results would be identical with the Figure 14. Surprisingly, though, a slight majority of participants were of the opinion that the work in lessons is not a waste of time, as well as school as a whole. This seems to conflict with Bourke's findings that 'working-class respondents felt that education was theoretical and had little practical bearing on everyday life' (Bourke, 1994, p120). A comment made by one participant stated that 'school will help me in the future but I don't like going. I only done education in jail to get me out of my pad', supporting the majority in terms of this particular idea. Bourke's (1994) study was conducted 20 years ago, so the shift may be understandable, although the following data would indicate that Bourke’s ideas are indeed still relevant today.
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Disability differentials in educational attainment in England : primary and secondary effects

Disability differentials in educational attainment in England : primary and secondary effects

2009; Shifrer 2013; Shifrer, Callahan, and Muller 2013). We expect to find similar secondary effects in the English context. Rather than focusing on disability-related factors such as school absence, already implicated in attainment and hence primary disability effects, we instead turn to the concept of stigma to explain the mechanisms through which disability- specific considerations influencing orientations and choices come into play. Following Scambler (2009: 441), we define health-related stigma as a social process ‘characterized by exclusion, rejection, blame or devaluation that results from experience, perception or anticipation of an adverse social judgment about a person or a group’. This judgment is usually based on an ‘enduring feature of identity conferred by a health problem or a health- related condition’ (Scambler 2009: 442). While recent years have witnessed increased interest in the role of stigma in influencing life trajectories (Link and Phelan 2001; Pescosolido and Martin 2005), there has been little effort to understand mechanisms through which stigma is translated into negative outcomes. We suggest that stigma experienced by disabled young people and their families (Gray 2002; Green 2003;) affects educational attainment through two main pathways that represent felt and enacted stigma. We suggest the first is captured by suppression of disabled young people’s educational expectations, and the second by increasing their risk of being bullied by their peers.
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