Hallam Law aims to replicate as closely as possible the legal practice environment. For example, it has: its own secure part of the building, to which only Hallam Law students have access; a reception area; a library; case management software; hard copy and electronic files for each client; a precedent bank; client care letters and terms of business; and even its own brand/marketing strategy. The benefits of clinical legal education in terms of practical skills and student engagement are clear 43 and there is no doubt that these more than justify the presence of what some might class as an overly practical module on an academic course. By working on real cases, students experience first- hand what it is like to work in a law firm. Hallam Law not only enables students to legitimately claim that they have legal work experience (a claim which has value of itself) but it more importantly equips them with a range of skills that employers are looking for, such as: legal research; client interviewing; case management; letter writing; drafting; negotiation; and teamwork. Although some might argue that it is the role of the vocational stage of training to develop such skills, the reality is that
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An online questionnaire was developed to evaluate the student learning experience of a level 5 RiT activity (RiTe II). The questionnaire design was informed by a previous online questionnaire used to collect data from a level 4 RiT activity (RiTe I), although some questions were amended or added to elicit responses based upon knowledge transition from level 4 to level 5 . The questionnaire was piloted with five students not in the cohort being evaluated to ensure that participants would interpret questions in the same way. No adjustments were made prior to administration. Some questions were negatively worded in order to reduce acquiescence bias. The questionnaire was delivered online using the Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) website (https://www.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/). It contained 20 closed questions with a free text option to allow students to expand upon their responses. The closed questions were divided into 3 constructs - Student Experience of the level 5 RiT activity, Teaching and Learning within the level 5 RiT activity and Research Skill Development and the level 5 RiT activity. A five point Likert rating scale was used, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
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3. You will be divided into two enquiry-based collaborative learning groups and undertake your research within the university’s imaging facility using either the LUNGMAN or pelvis anthropomorphic phantoms. You should pilot your methodology (e.g. radiographic positioning and technique) to ensure consistency and use your acquired images to analyse the image quality and calculate the effective dose.
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Digging deeper into these findings, we thought it would be interesting to examine why some tutors might choose one definition of RIT over another. As seen above, the focus on teaching one’s own research was less popular that the view of all teaching being underpinned by some research. So we suspected that an individual’s own research focus or ambitions might play a role here. If someone is more research active, they may have a greater desire to disseminate that research to students, and a greater belief in the importance of students receiving that content. Using the survey results, we examined the correlation between research outputs in the last two years and listing teaching one’s own research as a priority for RIT. Figure 5 graphs the relationship as estimated using a logistic regression. When outputs over the past two years go up, the expected probability of the
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Results from both OFGs agreed that RiTe supports student understanding of the theory behind x-ray exposure factor manipulation and the effects of this on image quality and dose optimisation. Both OFGs also agreed that RiTe develops and supports student research skills, which is important in working towards a research culture in line with the aims set out by the CAHPR and SCoR [20,21]. However, the CPE OFG did feel that students were demonstrating ‘soft’ clinical skills and raised concerns that students were not necessarily applying all the knowledge gained from RiTe in clinical practice (theory- practice gap). This could be due to a lack of student confidence in articulating what they had learnt during RiTe when in clinical practice or full appreciation by CPEs of the objectives of RiTe. The further involvement of CPEs with RiTe could help to support its development within the curriculum and thereby help students to applying RiTe in practice; this is a key action point for the researchers and programme team.
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According to this ‘final rule’ , researchers should consult representatives of the community from which the subjects will be drawn before the start of the study. This provides the opportunity to express one’ s views on the proposed study. The IRB must then take these views into account when reviewing the request for the consent waiver. After IRB approval, researchers should publicly disclose the risks and benefits of the study before it starts and after its com- pletion. These risks and benefits should be reasonable in relation to the patient’ s condition. It should be made clear that incapacitated individuals may be enrolled without consent from a proxy. The researcher should, however, attempt to contact the patient’s legally authorized rep- resentative within the therapeutic window to determine whether they object to participation. If this is not possible, the proxy or patient should be informed as soon as pos- sible, and if the study is still ongoing at that moment, con- sent should be asked to continue participation. Further, the study’s sponsor should establish an independent data moni- toring committee. This committee must exercise oversight of the study, and may recommend continuing, modifying, or stopping the study, dependent on its progress. Moreover, there should be evidence from prior research that the intervention has the potential to benefit patients, while the available treatments are unproven or unsatisfactory.
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It should be noted that, in the documents studied, the meshed “disease individual” was not seen in consent forms or information letters. It was exclusively found in grant applications. However, even its presence there should raise questions about informed consent. If the phrase is commonly employed by geneticists, it is reasonable to assume that it will eventually be found on documents intended for research participants or patients. More importantly, we must consider the significance of the gap in language between consent forms and other scientific documents. While the meaning of “disease individual” is unclear to me, it is obviously used by the authors to describe a specific concept. The “disease individuals” were, after all, the focus of the research described. The omission of such language from consent forms may represent an inadequate description of the research being conducted. Surely, if the language is important in describing the project to grant committees, it would also be important in the description provided to potential participants. Individuals may rightly want to know that, for the purpose of a study, they are specifically considered “disease individuals”.
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However, there are many researchers have made reconsideration on the role of grammar in second language learning. A large body of research pointing to the inadequacies of teaching approaches where the focus is primarily on meaning- focused communication and grammar is not addressed. Extensive research on learning outcomes in French immersion programs by Swain (1989) and her colleagues showed that, despite substantial long-term exposure to meaningful input, the learners did not achieve accuracy in certain grammatical forms. This research suggested that some type of focus on grammatical forms was necessary if learners were to develop high levels of accuracy in the target language.
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ments associated with exchange. Depending on the exact relational perspective adopted these could include adaptation, flexibility, sharing, trust, intimacy and protecting the interests of the part- ner. The metaphor has also been useful in terms of offering a new perspective on the brand–con- sumer interface and demanding that the focus of research be extended beyond single, isolated exchanges (Houston and Gassenheimer, 1987). This has required the adoption of a more holistic perspective best illustrated in the work of Fournier (1998). However, Aggarwal (2004, p. 89) cautions that ‘given…obvious differences between social relationships and consumer–brand relationships, it is important for researchers to not overextend the relationship metaphor when studying con- sumer behaviour’. The use of a metaphor is also subject to certain limitations (Arndt, 1985). First and foremost, it ‘always emphasises some aspects, de-emphasises others, and hides still others’ (Van den Bulte, 1994, p. 413). While the interpersonal relationship metaphor has highlighted the long- term nature of exchange and the positive charac- teristics of ensuing relationships, it has resulted in only a partial truth. In many ways the metaphor is too powerful. That is, many advocates have for- gotten that it is a metaphor that is being used. BCRs have been reified and researchers have treated them as though they really were interper- sonal relationships (Bengtsson, 2003). The reifica- tion of BCRs has led to an almost exclusive emphasis on concepts from SET in their descrip- tion and explication. However, there are a number of conceptual difficulties associated with transfer- ring concepts from the interpersonal literature into commercial situations. For example, discus- sions of trust (particularly in marketing) suggest that it is generally relevant only in situations involving vulnerability. However, as Cowles (1997) suggests, the existence of population and organisa- tional level safeguards (that is, legislation, war- ranties, guarantees, returns policy, etc.) reduces consumers’ vulnerability in commercial situations. Consideration of BCRs may be further questioned because of their implicit emphasis on the individ- ual and his or her dyadic interactions. While this focus on the dyad has been insightful where both parties to that dyad have agency, it may be less so when one party is a conceptual entity managed by a corporation for its own gain. In other words, while the consumer may act and react, ‘a brand
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We identify the difficulties illustrated earlier in e-learning and with current standards as a lack of pedagogically-relevant metadata content and structure. An approach to dealing with this difficulty is to take a general, pedagogically-neutral model of learning and teaching and to use the model to suggest relevant metadata content and structure. Figure 1 illustrates the E-Learning SYstems Engineering (ELSYE) model of the “learning transaction” , based upon the “conversational” theory of Laurillard .
We will keep your records private to the extent allowed by law. Dr. Christine D. Thomas and Jacqueline Hennings will have access to the information you provide. Information may also be shared with those who make sure the study is done correctly (GSU Institutional Review Board, the Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP)). We will use your selected pseudonyms rather than your name on study records. The information you provide will be stored at Jacqueline’s house in a secured locked box as well as electronically on a password-protected computer. The audio recordings, documents, and journal entries will be stored in the lock box and computer to be kept until the dissertation is complete. After that time (December 2016), they will be destroyed. Your name and other facts that might point to you will not appear when we present this study or publish its results. In order to accurately tell your story, Jacqueline will provide you with copies of all transcripts and the final version of your story after data analysis for input.
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The dilemma for market researchers who seek to gather data from social networks, and for individuals who use and provide data to such networks, is aptly captured by the above quote. Social networks provide considerable value to their users, maintaining kinships in a world where traditional social connections based on work, family or religion are weakening (Bargh & McKenna, 2004). Yet social networks are also driven by commercial imperatives based around the exploitation of data upon which social value is generated. It is this misalignment between social and commercial goals that is the source of ethical challenges relating to use social networks as a source of data by market researchers. It is true that firms have long collected customer data, but data generated by social networks is both richer and broader in scope, including information about a wide range of personal preferences and interpersonal relationships. The combination of such relationship data with longitudinal gathering of data enables a much more granular form of data analysis; analysis which, thanks to new software tools, is now available to a broad range of research users and not just to statistical experts.
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Only a few studies have examined patterns of consent in relation to linkage of survey data with medical or admin- istrative records [2-8]. The findings of these studies indi- cate that consent is not universal, and that factors such as age [2-5,8], gender [2,3], health status [2-4,6-8], socioeco- nomic status [4-7], and ethnicity  may have influenced consent to record linkage. However, the direction of the relationship between these factors and the giving of con- sent remains inconclusive. For example, studies con- ducted in the USA [3,8], and Australia  suggest that older people are more likely to give consent, while studies in the UK [2,5] suggest the opposite, and still others  show no influence. These variations in data may be owing to differences in study design and the target population. Previous researches are, for the most part, limited to patients with a particular disease, specific demographic sub-populations (mostly the elderly or women), or to Western countries. No one has investigated this important issue for a general population in an Asian country, even though record linkage studies conducted in Asia play an increasingly important role in medical and health research. Due to cultural heterogeneity regarding confi- dentiality and privacy issues, the experiences in western countries may not be generalizable to Asian populations. This study aimed to explore how, in Taiwan, a newly developed Asian country with rich data resources, individ- uals in the general adult population who consent differ in important aspects from those who decline.
The ability to combine and share large datasets generated by genomic projects has contributed significantly to the success stories enjoyed by the genomic scientific communities. This is so because genomic techniques such as the agnostic search of the genomes of individuals with disease compared with those without disease (called a genome-wide association study, GWAS) requires large numbers of study participants, usually in the thousands, to have adequate statistical power to find an association if one exists. These large datasets containing demographic, clinical and genetic information are usually deposited in data repositories such as dbGaP  with two main types of access requirements - fully open or controlled-access. The fully open databases (such as the International HapMap Project and the 1000 Genomes Project  generated from non-identifiable samples) can be directly accessed and downloaded via the internet by anyone, without any restriction . Fully open databases are anonymized and do not contain clinical (phenotype) information except gender and ethnicity/ancestry. In contrast, controlled-access databases such as GWASs may contain individual-level demographic, clinical and genetic information; to access these controlled databases, investigators are required to obtain permission from a data access committee. Although these types of database are coded and de-identified and therefore do not contain information that is traditionally used to identify indivi- duals (such as name, address, and telephone and social security number), there is a possibility that someone may develop ways to link information contained within them to individual research subjects. Because of this possibility and government policies such as the NIH GWAS Policy  that require study subjects to be informed that their phenotype and genotype data will be shared for research purposes, the informed consent documents for these studies are expected to be tailored to contain appropriate language to enable study participants to make informed decisions regarding broad data sharing. Complications associated with the ability to withdraw from studies will become Table 1. Scientific, cultural, and social factors to consider in
evidence that families misperceive the process of randomization as a mechanism for triaging patients when a therapy is too scarce to offer to everyone . This feature of ICU research creates intense ethical conflicts for clinical researchers, and will be explored in more detail below. The second characteristic aspect of intensive care research that leads to unique ethical issues is the fact that very few of the potential research subjects are capable of engaging in a discussion of informed consent. Either patients are too heavily sedated to permit their participation in delib- erations about their care, or they are acutely ill and deci- sions about inclusion into trials need to be made on an emergency basis (eg trials of alternative modes of perform- ing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation). The former problem has had a relatively straightforward solution in the USA, where both ethics and law have almost uniformly recog- nized the legitimacy of surrogates to make medical deci- sions for incompetent patients, including in most cases providing consent for therapeutic research. This is often not the case in Europe, where surrogate decision-making remains more controversial .
Ben Light's Teaching Company Scheme with Career Management Consultants Ltd. was successfully completed in December 2002. Debra Howcroft and Frances Bell were co-investigators on this project. The TCS Associate employed on the project, Ms. Marie Griffiths, will continue to work at CMC offices whilst continuing with her postgraduate research degree.
This study was concerned with Reflective Practice in the professional practice of university teachers. One hundred Teachers from the University of Ghana, and the Wisconsin International University College were evaluated for the extent to which they understood and engaged in reflective practice teaching adult learners in the university. Study instruments comprised seventeen items representing the diversity of available definitions of ways in which reflection is used in the literature on the professional development of university teachers. Opinions of teachers were sourced from their understanding of reflective practice and its relevance to their practice. A five-point Likert scale was used. Results showed that majority of teachers associated relevance of reflective practice to evaluating the effectiveness of one's teaching practice, examining teaching from the perspective of the learner, conscious and self-awareness deliberation on professional practice, making changes to one's professional practice in the light of experience and deepening their understanding in their role as professional teachers. Above all, they embraced teaching and learning support that is informed by an understanding of how learners develop knowledge and learning skills, allowing themselves to be challenged by some of their deeper, social, and cultural thoughts, feelings and reactions.
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disciplinary groups. Only a handful of these were active researchers, with some groups not having a research voice at all. It was challenging half way through an academic year to find a time that would be able to accommodate all staff due to timetabling structures within the institution and as a result only 12 out of the 18 people who wanted to participate were able to attend the whole event. However, the development of the COP and mechanisms to facilitate subsequent activity has ensured that all members have felt part of the community and enabled additional staff to join the initiative at later dates.
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in some cases the nature and focus of effective research leadership were delineated by default, through examples of where it was perceived to be absent or ineffective, resulting in what were identified as missed opportunities for research capacity enhancement. One such example was provided by a lecturer who identified shortcomings in his institution’s research leadership in relation to guidance and advice about available choices. Left to his own devices, he complained, without the benefit of advice from more experienced senior colleagues, he had made what - with the benefit of hindsight - he now considered ill-judged decisions about which kinds of activities to prioritise. This left him vulnerable in terms of being enterable for REF 2014 since his unive rsity’s policy was to enter only those with publication profiles deemed to average at least 4x 3*-rated outputs:
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Secondly, in a very similar way to recording expert or academic knowledge, video ethnography can capture personal narratives; giving special insight into lived experiences recorded in people’s own words and in their own domains. The decision to include substantial examples of individual narrative was made for several reasons. Video narrative records are a powerful visual form bringing an authenticity of lived experience to the teaching of race and ethnicity. Critical Race Theory (CRT) notably, recognises the power of individual voices to provide a ‘counter story’ to expose and challenge consensus (Ladson-Billings 1985, Delgado 1998). These theorists have argued that storytelling can reflect the experience of racialised minorities, an experience which is essentially different because it takes place within the frame of racism. Therefore, to move outside hegemonic whiteness and better understand the oppression experienced, these voices need to be heard and understood in their own terms. Similarly to Muecke’s view of the restrictive lexicon of white Australia (see Text 1, ppl9, 100, 140, 165) CRT seeks to rupture this consensus and hence counter the commonsense understandings which are dominant. Les Back (pictured in Fig. 3 above) discussed the manner in which dominant meanings were imposed on our understandings of
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