Also termed direct instruction, explicit instruction refers to an instructional method that constructs interactions between the student and the teacher. The practice involves the teacher guiding the student through predefined instructional sequences to instill strategies used by effective learners to master concepts (Kroesbergen& Van Luit, 2003). The instructor begins by stating the learning objective, after which follows the sequence of instructions. Though each step of the sequence, an evaluation is performed to assess what the learner already know about the subject. Information obtained from these analyses is used to customize subsequent instructions, which may involve repetitive practicing of the skills learned in the curriculum. Importantly, the pace of the sequence and associated repetitive task must be determined by students’ progress and how they understand each phase. With this approach, instructional sequences involve allocating enough time for the learner to process what has been taught so that they may provide feedback on the same. Responses are frequently solicited as a means of monitoring the effectiveness of the specific strategy chosen by the instructor.
Stahl (1994) explains that using cooperative learning requires students to become active learners. Furthermore, Stahl (1994) believed that, “cooperative learning provides opportunities for students to learn, practice, and live the attitudes and behaviors that reflect the goals of social studies education” Using various teaching techniques is considered by many a best practice, and numerous studies conclude positive results with regard to the use of various instructional methods. Dow (1979) concluded that direct observation, data gathering, reading, role-playing, constructing projects, and watching films are all excellent ways to provide students with new information. Using film to enhance social studies instruction has been found to be an effective instructional method (Russell, 2007; Russell, 2008; Paris, 1997). In 2006, researchers concluded that using simulations heightened student interest and increased understanding (Russell & Byford). As well, researchers have found that the discussion method is a valuable method for teaching social studies (Harwood & Hahn, 1990; Byford & Russell, 2007). In 2006, researchers concluded that 85% of the 8th grade teachers who participated in the study used whole class presentation (lecture) as a method of instruction. As well, the researchers concluded that 64% of teachers had students reading textbooks and 54% had students complete a worksheet as part of the class activities. This data exemplifies that teachers utilize lecture-based instruction and non-engaging activities despite numerous research findings.
There are 369 Research articles were identified from the content page of the source journal . The collected data were arranged according to: Year wise contributions of Research articles, Average number of Research articles published in each volume, country wise contributions, Indian /State wise contribution of articles.
Brazil, and one in South Africa, this automated electronic archive covers research papers in physics, mathematics, non-linear sciences, computa- tional linguistics, and neuroscience. The arXiv database contains about 140 000 free full-text research papers, of which about half are in astrophy- sics and high-energy physics.This pioneering e¡ort is easily one of the most innovative and successful experiments to date in scholarly communication. Another physics database is the SPIRES HEP literature database, where one can search more than 450 000 high-energy physics-related articles, in- cluding journal papers, preprints, e-prints, technical reports, conference papers and theses, comprehensively indexed by the SLAC and DESY li- braries since 1974. The Digital Library for Physics, Astrophysics, andInstrumentation [http://adswww.harvard.edu], hosted by the Har- vard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics and funded by NASA, main- tains four bibliographic databases containing more than 2 6 million records. ResearchIndex (or CiteSeer), the full-text archives for compu- ter science, founded by Steve Lawrence of NEC Research, Princeton, NJ, is a scienti¢c literature digital library that aims to improve the dissemination and feedback of scienti¢c literature, and to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, e⁄ciency, and timeliness. ResearchIndex uses search engines and crawling to e⁄ciently locate papers on the web. Authors need not submit their papers in any special format. It is the largest e-print archive with more than 400 000 papers. The full source code of ResearchIndex is available at no cost for non-commercial use. Cogprints, the archive for cognitive sciences founded by Steve Harnad at Southampton University, United Kingdom, is an electronic archive for papers in any area of psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, and many areas of computer science, philo- sophy, biology, medicine, and anthropology, as well as in other ¢elds perti- nent to the study of cognition. Clinmed [clinmed.netprints.org], launched in December 1999 as a collaborative venture of the BMJ Publishing Group and Stanford University Libraries’ HighWire Press, is a website that pro- vides a place for authors to archive their completed original research into clinical medicine and health before, during, or after peer review by other agencies. There are similar services in economics (RePEc) and com- puting (CoRR).
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do not have access to it. Also, Oduma (2013) study was carried out in the Northern part of Nigeria found that ICT facilities are not available for students use and its findings collaborated with a findings of a similar research carried out in the Southern part of Nigeria. Similarly, Eze & Eze (2013) discovered a lack of ICT facilities and lack of trained personnel in schools to operate ICT facilities. This goes to show that the non availability of ICT facilities in tertiary institutions in Nigeria cuts across the country. Accordingly, Omoni & Ifeanyichukwu (2015), based on their findings concluded that business education students in Anambra State often utilized e-learning and they are competent in the usage of basic computer operations. Hamilton-Ekeke (2011) revealed that majority of education students are not using the internet in studying; also internet/internet facilities are not readily available to students of education; it was also discovered that students do not make use of internet in studying and research writing. Mahmood (2009) pointed out that, ICT use by students has expanded to Internet, e-mail, chat, programming, graphics, spreadsheet, online shopping, online literature searching, and other educational materials. One worth mentioning finding of the literature is that the students mostly use ICT for general purpose, i.e., communication, word processing, entertainment, etc. rather than educational purpose. It was supported by Uribe & Marino (2006) that, the most commonly used Internet sites on at least a weekly basis were: email (92.2%); and search engines (88.3%). However, a very few of about (21.1%) used the Internet to search for dental information for their studies. Also, Ogur (2004) noted the reasons for students to use computers included hooking up to the Internet (91.9%), listening to music (70.5%) and watching videos
After the subject matter has been determined by literature studies it will become a reference or reference which is used as a theoretical basis in finding solutions that can solve a problem. In this step journals from existing research or books are supporting research that is currently or will be running. 3) Data Collection
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The capacity to use words effectively, whether orally (e.g., as a storyteller, orator, or politician) or in writing (e.g., as a poet, playwright, editor, or journalist). This intelligence includes the ability to manipulate the syntax or structure of language, the phonology or sounds of language, the semantics or meanings of language, and the pragmatic dimensions or practical uses of language. Some of these uses include rhetoric (using language to convince others to take a specific course of action), mnemonics (using language to remember information), explanation (using language to inform), and met language (using language to talk about itself).
the right method of teaching while keeping in mind the capability of the students and the curriculum. Thus, method is a way of presentation of the content in the classroom. But, it is however very important to keep in mind that a method is not an end in itself but is used to achieve the set aims of teaching. You should also keep in mind that, same method should not be used at all times but there should be flexibility in using it as for as situations, circumstances, and condition in a particular case. You should use various methods depending upon demand of the situation. The method which in a particular class under a particular circumstance, may be a total failure for other teacher. The best methods of teaching science are Teacher-Centered and Pupil-Centered. The first type of teaching methods focuses on telling, memorizing and recalling information. The students’ participation is very limited wherein they only ask questions or answer questions. Most of the time, the students are passive listeners and receive the knowledge. The teacher is center of process that goes on in the classroom. The second type of teaching process emphasizes on need, requirement, interest and capability of students. The students are active participants where in their skills and abilities are developed. Teacher and students jointly explore the different aspects of problem. The role of the teacher is to create a problematic situation, have materials and resources available to the students, and help them identify issues, state hypotheses, clarify and test hypotheses and draw conclusions. If you are keen in making lesson plans which may help you in achieving your identified objectives, then they should be stated clearly. If objectives are not clearly defined, it is impossible to evaluate a student, a lesson, a unit, a course or a program effectively. This leads to teaching disaster. Unless you have clear picture of instructional intention, you will be unable to select test items in which the objectives are clearly defined and the students know which activities are relevant for success of the teaching and learning process. A meaningfully stated objective is that clearly communicate the readers the writer’s intention. It states the behavioral outcome of students after completing a certain topic. The most important characteristics of useful objectives are that it identifies the kind of performance that will be accepted as evidence Abstract
This continued increase in earth temperature has caused changes in weather patterns further resulting in melting of glaciers, rise in sea levels, desertification, extinction of species, spread of disease and changes in agricultural production. Hence climate change is directly affecting the human population as well as the flora and fauna of our planet. So it becomes abundantly clear from the discussion that if mother earth has so be passed on to the coming generations in a good shape, urgent measures are required from the leaders, scientists and common populace to curtail carbon emissions. If we look at the percentagewise break down of carbon emissions, we see that although electricity is only 13.5% of the global primary energy requirements, its overall contribution to the global carbon emissions are whopping 40% . This is mainly due to the cheap availability and predominant use of coal for generating electricity across the globe. With continued development in China and India, more and more coal fired thermal plants are commissioned International Journal of Engineering, Science and Metallurgy
We use computers for banking and investing to shopping and communicating with others through email or chat programs. Computer and network of computer become the very important part of companies, organization and government sector. A lot of important information is stored in computers and transferred across networks and the internet. Unauthorized users may try to break into systems to have access to private information. This brings the need of a system that can detect and prevent those harmful activities. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) monitor networks and/or systems to detect malicious activities. That helps us to re-act and stop intruders. There are two types of IDSs, network-based IDSs and host-based IDSs. A network-based IDS monitor’s network traffic and activities to find attacks, and a host-based IDS monitors activities in a computer system to detect malicious actions. This thesis is a research on using Bayesian techniques in implementing a network-based IDS that can tell us a computer process is normal (harmless) or abnormal (harmful). We combine three techniques to build a IDS. In our system k2 algorithm is applied which main purpose is to incrementally add a node to a network, it means start with a single node than add another node to complete a network. Bayesian methods utilize a search-and-source procedure to search the space of DAGs, and use the posterior density as a scoring function and finally to construct a data structure called a junction tree which can be used to calculate any query through message passing on the tree. In a past a lot of research is done on a IDS but for a wireless network is little. We have combine three techniques to make sure that network is safe from unauthorized access and attacks.
Links between an entry page and an index page or between two index pages are referred as index URLs. Links between an index p age and a thread page are referred as thread URLs. Links connecting multiple pages of a board and multiple pages of a thread are referred as page- flipping URLs. A crawler starting from the entry URL only needs to follow index URL, thread URL, and page-flipping URL to traverse EIT paths that lead to all thread pages. The challenge of forum crawling is then reduced to a URL type recognition problem. In this paper, we show how to learn URL patterns, i.e., Index-Thread-page-Flipping (ITF) regexes, recognizing these three types of URLs from as few as five annotated forum packages and apply them to a large set of 160 unseen forums packages. Note that we specifically refer to “forum package” rather than “forum site.” last section, we draw conclusions and point out future directions of research.
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Watering plants is a job that is usually done every day, both for private plants at home, plants that exist in city parks and along sidewalks and plants that are made for cultivation. Watering these plants is one of the monotonous and routine work and usually this work is done manually by paying employees to do watering at certain times. This manual work usually experiences various problems when the work is done. One of the most serious problems is the problem of water quantity. How much water is needed by a plant that is treated so that the water used is not too much wasted, so that it becomes a Mubadzir. If this monitoring is not carried out, it can happen that the treated plants may experience excess or lack of water, resulting in plant death. Such monitoring cannot be completed with an ordinary control system, because the normal control system is regulated only when the water pump is started without taking into account the condition of the previous plant. Though the work faced can be more complex than that. The problem will be even more complex if the plant being treated is a plant that requires more specific treatment. For plants that need more intensive care, not everyone can do it, except for only those who have special expertise. Thus a special control system will be needed. In this case a fuzzy logic-based method will be applied which has 2 main parameters, namely air temperature ,  and soil moisture. It is expected that this method can regulate the flow of water needed by the plant. Information base knowledge must come from an expert in the field of plants.
IoT is vast collection of inter-dependent and independent systems working in parallel. Data mining forms the crux of identifying the useful knowledge of the whole Internet eco-system and share and build it effectively. Each data mining tool can scale well in one scenario and underperform as well, it’s important to identify model and corresponding tool suite that could seamlessly be part of IoT as a whole. Research in fields of IoT and data mining can guide the tools development and performance in time. With web services, grid and cloud support it is possible to scale the existing tools, still hidden application and domain specific issues will remain yet to be explored on real grounds.
According to the Research Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) on 2015, Indonesia is ranked 63th from countries in the world, it shows that the development of education is currently progressing significantly. But the development and growth must still be followed by a supervisory function . Educational institutions are responsible for learning activities both academically and non-academically . In terms of carrying out the duties and functions carried out only can be monitored by two parties, namely related institutions and parents. One of the factors as a reference for monitoring is attendance.
As an effort made to this research, to identify the methods that have been done. In order to know the application of methods created by others approaching this research. So here are some studies that are close to the research that will be discussed. The results of M. A. Sudarsono and Krisnawati showed that to design and build Android Based Applications required some software and hardware, starting from system analysis to design the process of this application . Research A. Putranto explained based on the SWOT matrix, Regina Pacis High School Bogor can use the strengths to obtain opportunities. The way that can be done by SMU Regina Pacis Bogor, among others: make improving the competence of students and teachers by using existing facilities and technology; developing innovative learning methods by utilizing existing information technology channels (e- learning) and improving the quality of learning for students and teachers obtained from the technology channel . Other research Y. Astuti and D. I. Fahmasari Pinter Java website provides feature article posting for member Pinter Java website that can be used to exchange information about Java Culture, and So people who will learn Javanese culture do not need to come directly to the island of Java . From the previous research that has been described then it is necessary to develop to design sales applications in the analysis with SWOT, that is by adding feature product ranking into application design.
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In proactive schemes, also known as Table-driven approaches, every node continuously maintains the complete routing information of the network. When a node needs to forward a packet, the route is readily available; thus there is no delay in searching for a route. However, for a highly dynamic topology, the proactive schemes spend a significant amount of scarce wireless resource in keeping the complete routing information correct. E.g. Distance Vector Routing, Link State Routing.
Much has been written about diversity in the information systems (IS) research field — but what do we really know about it? We know that diversity has attracted a good deal of attention and that researchers differ on whether research diversity is good (Robey 1996) or bad for the field (Benbasat and Weber 1996, Benbasat and Zmud 1999). Some contributors to this diversity debate (e.g. Landry and Banville 1992, Taylor, et al. 2010) have used Whitley ’s (1984) schema which categorizes the intellectual and social organization of scientific fields by three key dimensions that are subject to diversity: research topics, research methods and political dependence of researchers. The IS diversity debate centers on research topics and, to a lesser extent, methods; while the third dimension, encompassing social processes that govern knowledge production, has been relatively unexplored. If the IS research field is characterized as a socio-technical system of knowledge production, then social aspects (such as the relationships between the researchers working within the field) and demographic aspects are not only important in their own right, but also because they shape the technical aspects of topics and methods, and vice versa. We believe that IS researchers should reflect more on the diversity of the field’s social and demographic aspects. In this paper, we intend to shed some light on these aspects and hope to stimulate the IS community’s increased interest in the important challenges thrown up by social and demographic diversity of the research field. We pose a number of questions related to the knowledge gap in this social domain: how socially diverse is the IS research field when examined through the lens of social networks and
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Abstract - PT Rumah Sakit Mary Cileungsi Hijau as a big company providing health care and had many employee’s. Those employee’s data had to well organized. Calculating and controlling the schedule working which is divided 24 hours each day. Efectivity and efficiency time schedule in payroll unit is question abled if not supported by an information system which is can control the schedule perfectly.Applying the quality and centered information system hopefully can support efficiency and efffectivity employee's working time schedule and can give an accurate information administration employee’s data for the leader to control hospital operation. One of company effort to support that goals is implementing the good computerized system, which is can give fast and accurate information.
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 Bilal Zahran Belal Ayyoub, Jihad Nader, Ziad Al-Qadi, Suggested Method to Create Color Image Features Victor, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, v. 14, issue 1, pp. 2203-2207, 2019.  A Waheeb, Ziad AlQadi, Gray image reconstruction, Eur. J. Sci. Res, v. 17, pp. 167-173, 2009.  Ziad Alqadi, Bilal Zahran, Qazem Jaber, Belal Ayyoub, Jamil Al-Azzeh, Enhancing the Capacity of LSB Method by Introducing LSB2Z Method, IJCSMC, v. 8. Issue 3, pp. 76 – 90, 2019.
The study of thermoelastic states of structures and their elements is an urgent problem of mathematical modeling. One of the main trends in the development of modern technology is the widespread use for the manufacture of various designs of composite materials consisting of structural components with various thermo- mechanical properties. The effectiveness of design solutions largely depends on the correct consideration of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the composite material under thermo-mechanical loads.