Abstract: The research process is complex, involving many conceptually different steps that require a variety of skills. For instance, early on in the research process the task of identifying and articulating a suitable research problem often involves, amongst other skills, a high level of creativity and critical thinking, whereas later on in the process, application of a suitable research method would require deep knowledge of the state of art in that methodology. As the techniques used by researchers to iterate between current discipline theory, subject knowledge and research methodology gets increasingly specialized, it is also becoming more opaque to people outside the research community. Management students with little or no exposure to research find this puzzling because they are being encouraged to do something creative and original, and at the same time they are expected to build on existing knowledge using a set of conventions associated with the chosen methodology. Businessstudents in their 1st year face many new situations. Most of them have little experience of what research is about or the various elements that are necessary for a successful project. The teaching at school level mostly focuses on imparting subject knowledge and instilling basic numeracy and literary skills. It does not prepare them so well for setting their own goals and working independently - the core of research. Traditional teaching methods can help them acquire the relevant subject knowledge and basic researchmethods. But putting these together in a piece of practical research requires in depth understanding and creative thinking. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a way to help UG students at the beginning of their research attempts to develop the mindset and skills needed. This paper makes the case for introducing Critical Thinking skills to Business Management students in their 1st year, using a problem- based Learning (PBL) approach. It assesses what was involved in developing and delivering such a course. Both staff and students found the experience challenging, but the overall response was positive establishing that the approach taken was fundamentally effective.
The subject has developed from what are fairly weighty academic debates about how research should be carried out. Whilst these issues are unquestionably relevant at higher levels of academia, the relevance for undergraduate dissertation students is less apparent. Owing to the highly academic nature of the discipline, the language associated with the subject can be fairly weighty and certainly distracts from the concepts being considered. It is also the case that most businessresearchmethods have been ‘adopted’ from the social sciences, and as such many aspects remain considerably underdeveloped in a business discipline context. Ethnography is an excellent case in point. Few, if any, texts explain satisfactorily the relevance of this methodology to undergraduate businessstudents. A further barrier is that there is a distinct reluctance to admit this lack of development, hence such ideas and concepts are presented as the finished article, whilst in reality they are not. 3.3 Widespread and differing views A third problem is that everyone has an opinion and in many cases an entrenched view on what should be taught in a researchmethods course. This ranges from the diehard positivist to the deep-rooted constructivist and all points in between. The problem is exacerbated for the RM lecturer because the ‘products’ of their labours are served up across a wide range of colleagues through honours dissertation supervision. The student can therefore become further confused as project supervisors advise differently on research issues.
Each student is placed in a tutorial group of between 12 to 16 students. The ten sessions of the module are entirely run by the student group supported by a tutor. Student groups set their own learning goals and these differ each week. They are based on each week’s Hailo case problem and the relevant chapter set from Chatfield’s book (both of which they should have read prior to the session). The group is expected to identify Hailo’s current problem, brainstorm possible solutions, determine what knowledge is lacking within the group and then decide learning goals together. During the following week, each member is responsible for addressing the learning goals, so as to come to the following week’s session ready to share their learning and review and perhaps change the solutions proposed for the previous week’s problem. Hence each tutorial session has two parts: the first part deals with the previous week’s learning objectives. In the second part the group goes on to deal with the week’s Hailo case problem and set the next set of learning objectives.
Table 5 Linking methods to student outcomes  Paksi-Petró  deals with teacher-oriented, student- oriented and self-directed forms of teaching. Her research shows that self-education has a great importance but the need for conventional forms of teaching still remains. Likewise, Bidabadi et al.  offer a mixed approach (student-centered together with teacher-centered) plus educational planning and previous readiness. They concluded that the teaching method must help the students to question their preconceptions and motivates learning by putting them in real situations.
Process Analysis is also a way of developing ideas in a paragraph or a complete dis- course. Process analysis is a “how-to” Essay. It is a step-by-step way of executing a course of action   . Analyzing or breaking down a process step by step helps explain how something has been, or can be accomplished . It is a way of explaining how something happens or happened . Every day we perform many activities that are made up of processes. They include: making an omelet; fixing a flat car tyre; writing a research proposal; making a popcorn; diapering a baby; taking someone’s tempera- ture; and driving a car. The central feature of process analysis therefore is chronological sequence. Without it, the explanation would be chaotically done. In presenting a process in a sequential order, every paragraph should discuss an idea; and it is also palpable that transitional markers play pivotal role so that the reader or the listener might not lose focus on the chronology of activities presented   .
The vast majority of what scholars have uncovered emerged from laboratory experiments, observations and business-failure prediction models, with notable exceptions (e.g. Zhang and Alon, 2010). A number of studies have adopted bankruptcy prediction models such as logit model (e.g. Li, Lee, Zhou and Sun, 2011), case-based reasoning models (e.g. Li and Sun, 2009), neural networks (e.g. Tang and Chi, 2005) and decision trees (Li, Sun and Wu, 2010). These signify the appeal of such approaches to scholars. However, beneath this veneer of similarity lies the failure to capture how managers reacted to early warning signals and consequently learn from such action. Table 2 summarises the studies in this area and methods used.
Short Research Project with the Integration of an Interview in Brussels/Paris │ Study Trip Students develop a five-page research project on a topic related to their ISP (or another theme related to the SPS or IRMD seminars) with the integration of at least one interview carried out in Paris or Brussels. Special attention is paid to the identification of the research question, the selection of interview questions, and the integration of quotes in the research paper.
this discipline, with its large number of scholars, has gradually taken a greater importance as compared to the Economic History itself, as was pointed out by Franco Amatori and Geoffrey Jones, in an analysis dedicated to progress of the theme of “history of business enterprise and business systems” in recent decades (see F. Amatori, G. Jones, Business History around the World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). In this regard, should be highlighted the strong autonomy of the History of Japanese firm, noting that: «Keiichiro Nakagawa, the scholar behind the formation of the Business History Society of Japan in 1965, envisioned that the new association would foster dialogue between business and economic historians. In practice, however, participants adopted the methods and approaches of those U.S. business historians who had distanced themselves from economic history» (N. R. Lamoreaux, D. M. G. Raff, P. Temin, Economic Theory and Business History, 2006, p. 9, <http://www.international.ucla.edu/economichistory/naomipage/lrt,%20bus%20hist,%202%20aug%2 02006.pdf>, now in G. Jones, J. Zeitlin (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business History, New York- Oxford (NY): Oxford University Press, 2008). In Germany, according to tradition, the discipline has developed in the form of company history or entrepreneurial biography, or in a combination of these two disciplines. As noted: «business historians had mainly came out of political and social history, and they worked to make Chandler’s paradigm less abstract—for example, by opening up the “black box” of management and examining the social origins, training, and methods of operation of the professionals who staffed company hierarchies, as well as the role played by large German banks in financing and directing major enterprises (…). They were also preoccupied
framework explaining the frequency of both virtual cart use and the frequency of subsequent online purchasing. While there is an emerging stream of research on motivations for online shopping (e.g., Noble et al., 2006; Rohm and Swaminathan, 2004; To et al., 2007), to the authors' knowledge there are no studies explaining consumers' reasons for using online carts beyond immediate purchase intent. While managers intend, and perhaps assume, that their customers use carts solely as the place to store items prior to immediate online purchase, this research proposes other utilitarian as well as hedonic reasons for online cart use. These may include entertainment value of virtually acquiring desired items, wanting more information on an item, using the cart as a wish list of desired items, or taking advantage of a price promotion such as free shipping.
The previous results and implications should be interpreted within this study's limitations, each providing avenues for further research. First, this study's empirical part is exploratory. A larger sample size would allow using more advanced statistical techniques. Second, an interesting research opportunity would relate (changes in) IR management quality directly to shareholder value creation. For this purpose, additional research may measure investors' responses to a company's IR activities using four-factor ﬁ nancial models or event studies (Srinivasan and Hanssens, 2009). Third, this study focuses on relational market-based assets as one of the two categories of market- based assets Srivastava et al. (1998) identify. Intellectual market- based assets may be equally relevant, but are beyond this study's scope. Investor intelligence (gathering more information about their behavior and segmenting, targeting and positioning based thereon) may also improve IR practice. Fourth, future research may investigate possible interactions among the IR outcomes. Analyst coverage, for example, may also in ﬂ uence cost of equity capital. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of IR and the role of (relationship) marketing in this regard. IR merits a systematic management, in which relationship marketing (tools) complement existing knowledge and practice.
At the time of survey data collection, students from all Years were invited to consent to a semi-structured inter- view. The interview centered on three open ended ques- tions about the interviewee’s prior research experiences, and their perceptions of the barriers and of the facilita- tors to doing research during and after medical school. Purposive sampling of those who gave consent in the survey for further contact was used to sample views from all Years and levels of experience; from Year 1 stu- dents with no prior research experience to students who conducted doctoral research, to final year students who had completed the compulsory research program. This sampling strategy allowed for data across key variables, likely to affect the range of student experiences with re- search, to be gathered. Interviews were conducted by WH and SW between 2012–3, audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently reviewed by all authors for emergent themes, through a repeated process of reading for familiarization, identification and naming of a priori ideas as expressed by the interviewees, joint dis- cussion to describe all identified themes, and then where appropriate, to resolve and combine conceptually similar themes and develop detailed interpretive descriptions of the new themes. Divergent views were sought, particularly from students with different experiences, compared with
The need to collect objective, quantitative data about actual sensations efficiently and without being beholden to the subjects’ articulateness led to the development of the classical psychophysical methods (e.g. the method of limits). With some additional assumptions, the new (and presumably more direct) psychophysical method (sensory scaling and inter-modality scaling) was introduced. There is another dissatisfaction with introspection. Although interesting, an individual’s introspective account of sensations or emotions may not be relevant to researchers’ concerns. Hence, it seems necessary to provide a directive for subjects as to what to report. This is the beginning of the unstructured interview with open-ended questions. Before long, it is realized that there is the issue of comparability when more than one interviewee participates in the investigation with the unstructured format. For example, how can interviewers ensure that the same questions are asked in the same way of all interviewees? Moreover, the fruitfulness of this method depends too much on the interviewees’ articulateness. The issue of comparability may be dealt with by determining the exact set of to-be-used questions before the interview. The difficulty with differential articulateness among interviewees may be overcome if all interviewees are given the same set of response options. These solutions give rise to the structured interview. When the structured interview is conducted in written form, researchers are using a questionnaire.
The information collected from the students agrees with McCombs (2014) discussion. McCombs (2014) mentioned the importance of the connection between students’ motivation and self-determination. Motivation is related to the students’ opportunities to be autonomous and make important academic choices. Doctoral students, who are autonomous learners, will survive outside the sheltered environment of the classroom (St. Louis, R. 2003), and will successfully finish their doctoral program. Betts (2004), agrees with the authors of this paper when he mentioned that “the education of the gifted and talented is the development of the student as an independent, self- directed life-long learner. In other words, to help students develop as autonomous learners, with the appropriate skills, concepts, and attitudes necessary for their journeys.”
transformational effect. For example, the most recent National Student Survey results show that our undergraduates are the most satisfied in London while the most recent Research Excellence Framework results show that we have doubled the proportion of staff producing world-leading and internationally excellent research. We aim to continue to produce research recognised internationally for its relevance to contemporary intellectual challenges and for its influence and impact on the world in which we live. We have increased our number of doctoral students significantly over the last three years and in August 2012 we established the City Graduate School. Our Graduate School works in close partnership with our academic Schools and Professional Services to strengthen the University’s research student community, support research skills training and promote the enhancement of the overall research student experience at City. Look out for information on the City Graduate School and its growing programme of activities.
Essentially methods of research are same as in modern sciences, but are more complete in context of Vedas. However, most research in modern era as by British rulers whose only aim was to destroy Vedic cultures as declared in all books and Boden Chair in Oxford in 1831. Thus, they try to find contradictions and fallacy instead of general rule of harmony. In science, research starts with a hypothesis which generalizes our experience and tests it by experiment and form a mathematical model. In case of error, we correct the model and again test it by experiments. In Vedic ‘research’ reverse model is followed. Firstly, all texts of Vedas, Purāṇ as and other related texts of science are assumed to be false and without reading details, their interpretations start to suit a particular conclusion that these are false or foolish and imported by invading Aryans. Indian method also seeks harmony at much higher level. Then it is combination of Vidyā and Avidyā. Avidyā is classification in 5 stages. Then, the knowledge is united with harmony called Vidyā. Avidyā is generally thought lack of knowledge, but it is Aaparā-vidya (= collection of separate classes). These are also called Jñāna and Vijñāna (science). There are different schemes of classification in Brahma-sūtra, Bhāgavata, Vedas, Upaniṣ ad etc described here.
We used the reflective essay assessment as a tool within a student-centred pedagogy (i.e. enquiry-based learning) to determine how the researchmethods component of the research curriculum supported undergraduate students’ development as a researcher. The first important finding from this research is that we are able to realise both study aims, that is, the reflective essay provided evidence that students were aware that research was a continuous process and demonstrated how students situated themselves as developing researchers within the research curriculum. Further, the reflective essay revealed that through the enquiry-based learning approach, students became cognisant of the processes related to fieldwork, logistical issues and designing instruments and how they, as researchers, were able to recognise the relevance of these for their future research practice.
communities of practice” (Kobulnicky & Dale, 2016, p. 17) by organizing a group of research mentors from different disciplinary or research areas. The collaborative or community practice of this type of REU, in which a multidisciplinary and collaborative network of research ers provide mentoring for the participants, has the po tential to achieve more effective outcomes. For example, the summer HIV/AIDS Research Program offered by the San Francisco Department of Public Health was a multi component, inter-disciplinary, summer research experi ence (Fuchs, Kouyate, Kroboth, & McFarland, 2016). The participants also received work experience that could help them find jobs in the public health field, and the majority of student participants completing this pro gram expressed intent to pursue graduate studies (Fuchs et al., 2016). At the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, faculty from the Department of Biology and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry designed a lecture-based course and a summer program to attract students by providing them with an early opportunity to engage in research without having to wait until their final year in their program. This program reflected the collaborative efforts between multiple disciplines and provided students the opportunity to be involved in re search while developing future, independent researchers (Canaria, Schoffstall, Weiss, Henry, & Braun-Sand, 2012). All involved participants (both faculty and students) benefited from the collaborative nature of the program. Notably, faculty reported learning new literature and new tools by working with students from different sub- disciplines, while students expanded the boundaries of what they could have learned from their program by col laborating with their peers (Kobulnicky & Dale, 2016).
The historic signiﬁ cance of business combinations has gradually grown over borders of individual countries and has become an inﬂ uential factor of the development of the world economy and ﬁ nancial ﬂ ows. Cross-border combinations or also global business combinations have led to a creation of multinational corporations which can reach economies of scale more easily and gain a dominant position on markets with services and goods. At the same time, business combinations in this form stimulate direct foreign investments in target countries. If company transformations, in business terminology referred to as mergers and acquisitions (M&A), aﬀ ect the economy of a country, macroeconomic changes aﬀ ect business strategies based on the external form of growth, i.e. activities at M&A markets,to the same degree.
Companies conducting research in environmental or software areas were given the opportunity to express their level of interest in the services offered by the Colorado Federal And State Technology (FAST) program. 16% of respondents were interested in exploring rural Colorado as a business location and 20% were interested in assistance to locate a rural partner or licensee. As would be expected, the most popular service was introduction to investors (55.2%), followed by participation in an Industry SBIR Roundtable (51.5%) and Partnering Forums in local communities (48.6%). About 30% were interested in direct commercialization services, i.e. database research and
At first glance ResearchMethods may look like a technical course alongside the more abstract sociological subjects you have encountered thus far. In some sense, this is true –being able to do research is indeed a practical skill! However, an introduction to researchmethods must encompass more than practical know-how. This is because the domain of social research speaks to key issues around the production of truth. In fact methodology speaks to the heart of academic life, looking at the systems which scholars have come up with over time to gather information about people and social organisation. As you will come to see –methodology is itself a very complex field with many abstract questions which arise from the diverse ways in which new knowledge is produced. Research is an integral part of what C. Wright Mills called our “intellectual craftsmanship”. It is in this spirit that social researchmethods will be introduced!