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A third consideration is that the research instrument was based primarily on the survey by Anderson, Mehta, and Strong (1997). Although additional steps were taken to ac- count for recent trends in sales training, it is possible that we missed some important training developments. For example, the questions dealing with Internet-based training might have been too general, as videoconferencing, leadership and motivational videos, and other types of training continue to migrate to an Internet platform. It is possible that our ques- tions were not specific enough to capture these nuanced ap- proaches. Future research should be more proactive by using specifically designed measures in an attempt to capture as much richness of a new concept as possible. Fourth, there are also limitations based on the type of data and the analysis per- formed. In particular, we relied on frequencies to understand current sales management training practices. Future research should further clarify whether the topics mentioned by sales managers significantly contribute to important outcomes, such as sales growth, as anecdotal evidence suggests there is significant return on investment when sales personnel access available training tools (Cron and DeCarlo 2009). Although the measurement and evaluation of training programs remains a challenging area (Attia, Honeycutt, and Attia 2002; Honey- cutt, Howe, and Ingram 1993; Leach and Liu 2003; Lupton, Weiss, and Peterson 1999), future research can help clarify the influence of sales management training on individual and company performance.
I also recommend that future research address the following questions: Would it have been better to record times to the sec- ond? Were the results skewed by primarily following heavy users of the EMR and CPOE like hospitalists? How would surgeons or different specialists do? Is there a difference in the kind of visit, i.e. regular rounding vs. admission or discharge? What would the numbers look like after a year? If we included time on the com- puter in the patient’s room, what effect would this have? Will grouping of physicians by gender change the results? And, final- ly, will general computer proficiency make any difference in the final result? Future research should also consider comparing the results from this analysis to previous research.
The above mentioned has led to major questions of the study, namely, which factors are educational gaps that affect the sales agents’ technology adoption? In addition to the factors studied and shown in the technology adoption models such as Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness, according to the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al., 1986 and 1989, cited in Yen et. al., 2010) and the Task-Technology Fit Model (Goodhue and Thomson, 1995 cited in Yen et al., 2010 or the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model (Venkatesh, 2003), will and how experience value of customers, widely accepted as a critical factor to business management nowadays and in the future, has any influence on sales agents’ technology adoption?
For example, Francisco’s specific problem pertains to the prevalence of self-injury behav- iors, such as cutting, and how they interfere with first-year college students’ adjustment to college. He identified a literature gap regarding effective treatments for eating disorders for young adults transitioning to college. Francisco’s researchobjective is to determine if a new type of group therapy decreases the frequency of depressive symptoms for first-year col- lege students. His research question pertains to whether a new type of therapy for first-year students with eating disorders leads to better adjustment to school. Francisco included a null and alternative hypothesis pair pertaining to decreases in depressive symptoms for col- lege students who attend a new group therapy compared to students who receive traditional individual therapy. The proposed research method is qualitative, and the research design is quasi-experimental. The research methodology is as follows: The proposed population and sample size is 20 students, 10 of whom are attending group therapy and 10 of whom are in individual sessions. Francisco proposes using an interview guide to collect and analyze narra- tive data about students’ reflections on how therapy is helping them to adjust to school. The data analysis plan focuses on discovering patterns and themes in the data.
Figure 1. H. P. Berlage, aerial view of the project for south Amsterdam, 1915. Source: Gemeente Amsterdam Stadsarchief (n.d.).
The principle of “satellite towns” was explored (un- der the influence of Unwin) in the districts of Frankfurt, where Siedlungen are proposed as alternative facts to the nineteenth-century city. We can make the hypoth- esis that the collection of satellite towns should have been connected by a network of roads and green corri- dors similar to the one that had already appeared, a few years earlier, in Eliel Saarinen’s constructs for Greater Helsinki. May’s framework can still be recognized in an image of present-day Frankfurt: among the “satellites” that Scheffler accepted “as the only positive and non- contradictory solution to the questions that the city asks itself” (Grassi, 1975, p. 18), large areas of free space create new continuities in the city. The relationship be- tween satellites and open space is not only functional and ecological: it defines new spatial and architectural characteristics. Giorgio Grassi gave a shrewd interpreta- tion of them that links designs such as that of the Nidda valley, Niddatal (see Figure 2), to a reflection on the role of open space in the construction of a city’s architec- ture. Again, linking Trabantenprinzip to an idea of em- bellissement, rather than modern functionalist thinking, Grassi on the one hand lost sight of an important rela- tionship, and on the other established and clearly con-
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In this research listening comprehension means the ability of the students to understand and comprehend the TV news program. The students understand general information, know what the topic of the news. Besides, they also can answer the specific information of 5W and 1H comprehension questions, i.e:
Table 5: MAS
As a result of filling in the framework with the three
architectures, several similarities emerge. All the architectures are built in a (somewhat) modular form. ERP and SOA can extend their functionality by adding modules to the existing architecture, while agents are modular by design. All the three architectures have similarities in defining communication within the systems. MAS and SOA define the protocols or interface more explicitly because it is key for these architectures that the different parts can interoperate with each other. ERP is more implicit since all the communication is within the ERP package.
The most students’ common error in using conditional sentences of the sixth semester in English Department is in type III. There were five questions which almost students could not answer well and from my research, the question number 10 of changing the sentence section is the hardest one for the students. Just one student from the total number of subject in this research answered correctly. It means there were 68 students could not answer the question truly. All of the students forgot change the infinitive verb to the past tense verb.
The second problem we had with the hypothesis-testing approach is that for clinical and theoretical reasons we were interested in understanding the subjective experience of fathers, and because variables must be defined nu- merically in hypothesis-testing research, they cannot reflect subjective experi- ence. Even if the study yielded significant results, we would know very lit- tle about the fathers’ subjective experience, that is, what they actually felt about their children. In order to understand something meaningful about his affection for his child, we wanted the following and other questions answered.
Beyond the disclosed cases of rejection, ethnic preferences and numerous ad hoc actions regarding GDR citizens raised the issue of the trustworthiness of the government refugee policy, in particular after ratiﬁ cation of the 1951 Geneva Convention. Why did Igor and 17 other Czechos- lovakian citizens (some ethnic Hungarians) have to stop at the borders as they moved west? Why would one be frightened to be sent back to Czechoslovakia by the Alien Police because “there is no reason to emig- rate”? 41 And why are GDR citizens endangering order along the wes- tern borders of the Warsaw Treaty area? 42 How can authorities balance suspending implementation of bilateral treaty agreements to extradite friendly states’ citizens, provisions of non-refoulement, and individual evaluation of migrants in need of protection avoiding without Hungary becoming a massive emigrant transit zone? The reluctant period seeking answers these burning questions forced a lot of migrants to become irre- gular or illegal aliens in Hungary, however supporting to preserve the law enforcement and emergency driven approach to migratory move- ment and “always unexpected refugees”.
4.6.1. Quantitative versus Qualitative Research
Quantitative research in marketing is intended to produce tangible information about characteristics and behaviours of the population and usually deals with more objective measurement and analysis than qualitative research. It is different from qualitative research in so far that qualitative approaches involve finding out what people think and how they feel and are therefore a little bit more subjective than the quantitative approach, given that this kind of information involves feelings and impression rather than numbers In qualitative research, the measurement and analysis depend a little bit more on the insight and impressions of each individual researcher. In quantitative research, on the contrary, measurement and analysis are separated from the judgment of the researcher and are therefore carried out in a stricter way. As a result, the applications of quantitative research go further than hypothesis formulation. Quantitative approaches are often used with the objective to describe larger populations and to test hypotheses. Surveys, experiments, and simulations are the fundamental quantitative research approaches that are most commonly used in marketing research. (Bellenger & Greenberg, 1978, p. 199)
Figure 5: Adding the four design positions – developed from Rowe, 1978
3. The conceptual model – adding the questions
Having now developed a conceptual model to integrate aims I move towards presenting a set of researchquestions that relate to each paradigm (Figure 6). For this I draw from Roode (1993), who argues that researchquestions and methods can be developed for each of the paradigms. He identifies four researchquestions that could be asked: ‘What is; how does; why is; and how should?’ Although Roode does not say so himself I believe that his questions map directly onto Burrell & Morgan’s (1979) model. ‘How should?’ is an essentially positivist question that calls for an objective, prescriptive answer, while ‘How does?’ resonates with the subjectively descriptive, interpretive nature of the anti-positivist. ‘What is?’ relates to a society of radical change as it tries to uncover or take an abstract stance to a situation, while ‘Why is?’ tries to understand what the rules are trying to achieve in a society of regulation. The problem with a question such as ‘How should?’ is that it may lead to spectulation, and specifically in an objective environment one would prefer to have a question of a more strongly binary nature. I therefore propose that the question ‘How should?’ be replaced by ‘When does?’
Small degree of urbanisation
Friesland consists primarily of small town regions and rural municipalities. The average degree of urbanisation is therefore lower in the case of the Frisian students in the sample than in the case of students in the rest of the Netherlands. Because of this smaller degree of urbanisation the average level of the provision of facilities is likely to be lower in Friesland than in the rest of the Netherlands. As a result, some types of secondary education are not sufficiently accessible to all students. Often pre-vocational schools are in closer proximity than schools for senior general secondary or pre-university education. It is therefore assumed that some students in rural areas go to a pre-vocational school, whereas in fact they could have attended a higher level (Van der Vegt & Van Velzen, 2002). Population-wide figures have shown that Frisian students more often pass their exam in the theoretical learning trajectory of pre-vocational education (the highest level of pre-vocational education) and less often in pre-university education, and that they obtain a higher average exam grade in the theoretical trajectory of pre-vocational education than students in the rest of the Netherlands. These facts seem to confirm the assumption that students in rural areas attend pre-vocational education more often, whereas they are possibly capable of entering a higher level, given their higher average exam grade. The results of the multilevel-analyses of the exam grade confirm this hypothesis only partly. The stronger demotion to a lower type of education of the Frisian students explained only a small part of the difference in exam grade between Frisian students and students in the rest of the Netherlands. Also, the under-recommendation of Frisian students did not explain any difference.
This document brings together the commercial questions asked at Request for Information (RFI) and Request for Quotation (RFQ) stages of the procurement exercise. All suppliers were evaluated against this set of questions and their responses assessed to confirm capability to deliver against potential requirements under this framework agreement. As a result customers will not need to evaluate these capabilities during further competition ensuring a faster route to market.
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P2) may make the maintenance complex and lengthen this process. Moreover, there may be another city which may also want to expose data using an LDP having a similar design. Again, due to the tight coupling issue (cf. P2), it may not be possible to directly reuse the design and thus requiring the other city to re-encode the design in the implementation. If the design is completely decou- pled from the implementation, it becomes highly reusable and can be directly applied to another LDP. Applying this in the city scenario, diﬀerent cities may reuse a design, exposing data in the same way. As a result, generic smart city applications may be developed for diﬀerent purposes, such as finding parkings or transportation modalities. These applications may exploit any city LDP as long as the LDPs use a design and vocabulary known by the application.