Abstract—In some cities with high levels of urbanization, on the one hand, there is an urgent need for transformation and upgrading, and the land resources are extremely precious. On the other hand, the urban environment is overwhelmed. The construction land used for urban renewal has hidden environmental risks and the human settlement environment is relatively high. influences. Soil pollution may cause greater harm to human health, and it has become one of the prominent shortcomings in building a well-to-do society. In view of the problems existing in the quality of construction land, especially the pollution of construction land, many countries have formulated corresponding policies and governance techniques. Through reading a large number of documents, this paper summarizes the research status of domestic and foreign policies and technologies in the treatment of land-use pollution, for the relevant research to provide a reference.
Wind energy piezoelectric generator is an effective choice to achieve self- powered for micro-devices. In recent years, scholars have done a lot of research on various wind energy piezoelectric micro-generators and have achieved fruit- ful results. It has been successfully applied to wireless sensor nodes  , wireless wind speed monitoring node , TPMS  and so on. However, many wind piezoelectric generators still have some disadvantages such as large volume and high starting wind speed, which make it difficult to be directly ap- plied to self-powered micro-devices. Summarizing the current research status of wind energy piezoelectric generator, a lot of work still needs to be done to realize the miniaturization of wind energy piezoelectric generator for meeting self- powered micro-devices. Therefore, it is necessary to innovate design concepts, develop new materials and use new methods to research in depth towards the goal of miniaturization, lightweight and integration.
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The rapid development of MEMS technology has made MEMS accelerome- ters mature and the application range has been expanded. Many kinds of MEMS accelerometers are researched. According to the working principle of MEMS accelerometer, it can be divided into: piezoresistive, piezoelectric, ca- pacitive, tunnel, resonant, electromagnetic, thermocouple, optical, inductive, etc. Due to its outstanding features in terms of size, quality, power consump- tion and reliability, MEMS sensors are used in military applications and where high environmental resistance is required. MEMS accelerometers are developing rapidly and have good application prospects. In order to make MEMS accelerometers more widely understood, the advantages of MEMS ac- celerometers are expounded. The research status of MEMS accelerometers is introduced, and MEMS are analyzed. The application of accelerometers in real-world environments, and the development trend of MEMS accelerome- ters in the future. More scholars will invest in MEMS accelerometer research, pursuing high performance, low power consumption, high precision, mul- ti-function, and interaction. Strong MEMS accelerometers will be ubiquitous in the future.
Abstract: With the improvement of people's living standards, water heaters almost into the various households. In the energy-saving emission reduction has become the trend of the times today, saving energy and reducing carbon emissions is the most fashionable way of life. Air source heat pump water heaters are increasingly being used in people's lives. It is well known that it has many advantages, safety, energy saving, comfort, environmental protection, but there are some factors that affect its development and promotion. This paper mainly discusses the development history of air source heat pump technology at home and abroad, working principle, working flow, turbo technology at present stage, efficient heat exchange, and the research status of air source heat pump technology, such as new type refrigerant and dual frequency compression frequency conversion, then it discusses the application of air source heat pump technology, has the advantage, and finally discusses its application and the existence of two major problems and suggestions for improvement.
Many scholars such as Zhang Xiaodong, Yun Jinbiao  , Cao Ruicheng  , Chen Junliang  carried out deep research and analysis on tectonic evolution process in Hailaer basin . They think the hailaer basin belongs to a part of central Asia - Mongolia aulacogen, taking the Derbugan fracture as the boundary, the west belongs to Erguna fold system,and the east is of Inner Mongolia - the greater hinggan mountains fold system. Regional tectonic movement in Late Mesozoic, resulting in the pre-existence of deep fracture network and the tectonic stress field in basining epoch decide the formation and distribution in basin.Early for left-handed torsion stress field, hailaer basin in the middle and late Jurassic turned into dextral transtensional stress field, and in the Cretaceous period changed to the former.Different types of stress field formed in different tectonic belt and configuration.Accordingly,upwelling of deep mantle and the strong tension on the earth's crust caused Bayanshan uplift of the basin as the center, to the sides stretch tension, formed in Jalainur depression,Beier depression and Huhrhu depression. Overall hailaer basin belongs to pure shear properties of tensile basin.
diagnosis of NTG is a kind of exclusion, which means that the diagnosis is used to exclude other possible etiologies of optic nerve cupping with or without visual field loss when NTG is suspected. The first step in diagnosis is to rule out chronic anemia, cardiopathies, acute blood loss, episodes of systemic hypotension, decreased cerebral blood flow, blood dysplasias, neurosyphilis, etc, from the medical history. The second step in diagnosis is to rule out other glaucomas through a reliable IOP reading, angle examination by gonioscopy, and the status of fundus. The third step in diagnosis is to perform visual field (VF) testing to confirm whether there are specific glaucomatous VF defects. 7
Because vanadium and titanium elements alone in the role of steel is relatively limited, is now beginning to increase the interaction of vanadium and titanium research. In the steel through the composite interaction of vanadium and titanium, can enhance the grain coarsening temperature of steel, The rate of coarsening of the grains after deformation is reduced, recrystallization temperature decreased, so that the austenite recrystallization temperature range, Can be used as high-temperature austenite area of recrystallization control rolling, in the economic aspects have the advantages. The total amount of alloying elements is less than 0.1% is microalloyed steels, and now widely used microalloying elements are vanadium, titanium, niobium, etc. These microalloying elements can be combined with nitrogen, carbon and carbon oxides in the steel to achieve precipitation enhancement and inhibition of grain growth by low temperature precipitation and high temperature dissolution in various environments. Hirosh Tamihiro  and others began to study vanadium, titanium, niobium and other micro-alloying elements in the role of steel mechanism. The results are as follows: precipitation can be produced at lower temperatures, which can hinder grain growth after recrystallization and recrystallization, and can inhibit the growth of the original austenite during heating .
Abstract: - This Paper First Introduces The Basic Structure And Basic Principle Of The Vibro Ripper, And Introduced The Advantages. Based On The Practical Operation Experiences And The Characteristics Of High- Frequency Vibro Ripper, Comebine The Research Of Traditional Hydraulic Hammer, The Vibro Ripper Broken Mechanism Is Proposed, This Paper Also Analyse The Current Research Matters Of Vibro Ripper，And Put Forward The Optimization Method Of The High-Frequency Vibro Ripper, And Prospect The Future Development Direction Of Vibro Ripper.
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105378 2 Open Access Library Journal It is currently recognized that four species of Babesia can infect humans, namely B. microti , B. divergens , B. duncani and B. venatorum . There are also three unidentified species of Babesia that are also infected with humans. They are CA strains, MO strains found in the United States, and KO strains similar to those found in Korea, B. ovine . In China, Babesia infections are rare. In the past 30 years, only 10 cases have been reported in China . However, the pre- vention and treatment of Babesia are urgent, and the domestic research on Ba- besia is still in the initial stage, this paper summarizes the research status of Ba- besia in recent years by summarizing the research reports on Babesia in terms of morphology, life history, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of Babesia in China.
A prior review of published research of schizophrenia caregiver burden found that, overall, this population expe- riences deteriorated health, with stress problems, anxiety and depression . The current study corroborated these findings, as informal schizophrenia caregivers reported higher levels of these health issues relative to non- caregivers and caregivers of conditions other than schizo- phrenia. Zendijidjian et al. (2012) found that caregivers of patients with affective disorders scored significantly lower on all SF-36 domains than caregivers of schizophrenia patients . The current study, however, found signifi- cant differences on the MCS, but not the PCS when com- paring schizophrenia caregivers and caregivers of other conditions. These differences could be due to the broader criteria provided for caregivers of other conditions in the current study. Papastavrou (2012), comparing schizophre- nia, Alzheimer’ s and cancer caregivers, on the other hand, found that caregivers of cancer patients experienced the highest levels of depression, while Alzheimer’s caregivers experienced the highest levels of overall burden (p <0.001) . Unlike previous studies of schizophrenia caregivers,
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The increasing reliance on knowledge in industry and services is generating strong incentives to develop more efficient ways to transfer the discoveries made in academia to business. This paper mainly focuses to identify the status and characteristics of university-industry (UI) collaborations at a research university. Moreover a quantitative research method was adopted in this study. The sample was selected from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). A total of 42 UTM centers participated in this survey. The findings demonstrate the type of existing UI collaborations and mobility at UTM. Furthermore, the result indicated the characteristics of university partners.
practitioners of the faith under scrutiny, and the extent to which this may either undermine or enhance research practices. As this stands in contrast to what has become a normative sense of “methodological atheism”, many debates about insider/outsider status raise anxieties about research design and methods (McCutcheon 1999; Arweck & Stringer 2002; Knott 2010; Bell & Taylor 2014). This special edition takes a different starting point: that of research experience rather than design or methodology. It emerged out of a successful roundtable we convened at the BASR Annual Conference in 2014. The conference theme concerned the “cutting edge” in Religious Studies. So a little anxiously we proposed a discussion on the “insider/outsider debate” aware that some would question how such a longstanding debate might still be considered “cutting edge”? We suggested that it remains at the forefront of our research as one of the most vexing questions researchers face in the field and even amongst their colleagues. In fact, this roundtable was conceived because it continues to be a formative part of our own research experience. Although working in vastly different research settings – with British Witches, Polish Catholics and Eastern Rite Christians and in the London based Secular and Humanist communities – the questions we faced from our research
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An important insight from the work presented was the trust in the medical profession. While this was both pleasing and reassuring, the premise underlying this trust seems to include that the physician “will do what is in the best interests of the patient”. This however, belies the fact that often we simply do not have high quality evidence for many of the interventions that are commonly employed in acute care and emergency medicine, and the optimal therapeutic approach is often speculative and left to the whims and preferences of individual clinicians. The medical profession traditionally does not publicise uncertainty, presumably for fear of undermining the public’s trust. Yet, greater transparency with the public about the paucity of high-quality evidence in emergency medicine may lead to increased support for emergency care research, with improvements in health and research literacy of the community. This may facilitate and encourage research in this important area.
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ions per second. Reaction cross-sections of 100 fb require several months of beam time to reach the one-event cross- section limit for the desired isotope. Therefore, the avail- ability of higher beam intensities and the related necessary upgrades of the separation and detection techniques are de- cisive steps for the future research in this field. As a mid- term project we plan a technical upgrade of SHIP where the main point is an increase of the angular acceptance. As a long-term project, GSI plans a new superconducting con- tinuous wave LINAC  for ion beams at Coulomb barrier energies. The beam intensities are expected to be 10 to 50 times larger than the presently available currents. Within this frame, we are developing a concept for a new sepa- rator which allows a strong suppression of primary beams with intensities up to 10 14 particles per second. In paral-
The importance of ethnobiological studies has been rec- ognized, especially among conservation biologists, only in the last 20 years, primarily due to increased appreciation of the strong human influence on biodiversity (see [5,7,8]). Ethnobiological studies are currently being conducted not only by anthropologists (who were pioneers in the area) but also by researchers in other fields, such as botany, zoology, ecology, and agronomy. The involvement of these researchers reflects the academic growth in the field of ethnobiology and its multidisciplinary character. The multidisciplinary characteristics of this science allow a broad spectrum of approaches and applications as well as the appearance of various areas of knowledge related to ethnobiology, such as ethnobotany, ethnozoology, ethnoecology, ethnomedicine, and ethnopharmacology. Recent reviews have demonstrated a notable increase in the number of publications on ethnobiology in Latin America (see [5,9-11]), mainly in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. These studies have had a significant impact on scientific production in Latin America. However, an in- tegrated analysis of the ethnobiological studies produced in these countries is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects using a broad concept of ethnobiology that covers all the sciences listed above, although there are different views of this concept. This study is based on the following questions: How many studies have been published per country and per area of knowledge? How has the number of publications varied over time in dif- ferent areas of knowledge and in different countries? Does any variation exist in the numbers of citations and international collaborations with regard to the number of publications per country or area of knowledge?
Although from this study we cannot assess the functional status of RECs in the 18 countries that reported their exist- ence, we are more concerned about the remaining ten countries that did not have a national ethics committee in an era in which biomedical research (and science in gen- eral) has become increasingly globalized. This is quite dis- concerting in a Region where 39% of the adult population is illiterate and 44% live below the international poverty line of US$1 per day . They thus are largely unaware of their basic human rights, including the right to refuse to participate in health research. In the absence of any checks and balances due to lack of functional RECs, the populations in these countries run the risk of being abused by unscrupulous researchers [1,2,12].
More than almost any other land mass, New Zealand’s biota has experienced substantial, almost schizophrenic, rates and amounts of ecological change. New Zealand’s natural environment has been through the freeze-thaw pendulum swings of the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, mountain building and erosion, frequent massive earthquakes, and some of the largest volcanic eruptions documented. The last 20 years of ecological research have greatly improved our understanding of how these disturbances shaped the New Zealand biota, including surprises such as the extent of maximum marine transgression in the Oligocene when it has been seriously suggested that all of Zealandia might have been underwater (Landis et al. 2008, but c.f. Tennyson 2010, McDowall 2010), accumulating evidence against the ancient Gondwanan ancestry of many New Zealand taxa (McGlone 2005), and the discovery of a fossil mammal from the Miocene (long after New Zealand’s separation from Gondwana) (Worthy et al. 2006; Tennyson 2010).
collaborative links with Finland is vital, in basic and ap- plied research as well as in science policy and strategy. Both the Academy of Finland and the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters are the EAS’s long-term part- ners, the former being its major partner in the scientific exchange programme and also an example for de- veloping science-policy tools, the latter being a good partner in organising joint conferences. There is a long tradition of collaboration with the Finnish Academies of Technology, in particular, in energy research and policy. The first international evaluation of Estonian research and research teams (in 1990s) was conducted through the support and direct involvement with the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Traditionally good links exist with the Latvian and Lithuanian academies of sci- ences.
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An extensive literature documents the existence of pervasive and persistent child health, development, and health care disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). Disparities experienced during childhood can result in a wide variety of health and health care outcomes, including adult morbidity and mortality, indicating that it is crucial to examine the in ﬂ uence of disparities across the life course. Studies often collect data on the race, ethnicity, and SES of research participants to be used as covariates or explanatory factors. In the past, these variables have often been assumed to exert their effects through individual or genetically determined biologic mechanisms. However, it is now widely accepted that these variables have important social dimensions that in ﬂ uence health. SES, a multidimensional construct, interacts with and confounds analyses of race and ethnicity. Because SES, race, and ethnicity are often dif ﬁ cult to measure accurately, leading to the potential for misattribution of causality, thoughtful consideration should be given to appropriate measurement, analysis, and interpretation of such factors. Scientists who study child and adolescent health and development should understand the multiple measures used to assess race, ethnicity, and SES, including their validity and shortcomings and potential confounding of race and ethnicity with SES. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that research on eliminating health and health care disparities related to race, ethnicity, and SES be a priority. Data on race, ethnicity, and SES should be collected in research on child health to improve their de ﬁ nitions and increase understanding of how these factors and their complex interrelationships affect child health. Furthermore, the AAP believes that researchers should consider both biological and social mechanisms of action of race, ethnicity, and SES as they relate to the aims and hypothesis of the speci ﬁ c area of investigation. It is important to measure these variables, but it is not suf ﬁ cient to use these variables alone as explanatory for differences in disease, morbidity, and outcomes without attention to the social and biologic in ﬂ uences they have on health throughout the life course. The AAP recommends more research, both in the United States and internationally, on measures of race, ethnicity, and SES and how these complex constructs affect health care and health outcomes throughout the life course.
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in particular, the authors’ employed approaches focused on preventing a “chilling effect” when directly inquiring about legal status. First, the collection of data can take place in a range of settings that allow participants to feel comfortable, including focus groups, interviews, participant observation, in-person surveys, and phone surveys. Second, in survey research settings, researchers can establish rapport prior to present- ing legal status questions. For example, some studies described their process to obtain legal status information: “During the latter part of the interview, after the woman had developed familiarity with the interviewer and the interview process, we asked a series of questions about immigration status ”  and, in another, “… [participants] filled out the questionnaire on their own, [researchers] read each question and response option aloud to the group” . In both of these studies, the surveys included explicit questions about whether or not the respondent was undocumented. Qualitative re- search settings similarly provide a context for establishing rapport prior to inquiring about legal status. Indeed, in two of the qualitative studies in our review, the authors were able to obtain measures of undocumented status because participants self- disclosed without prompting. This suggests that given rapport with researchers, some participants are interested in and willing to discuss undocumented status in research.
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