Experts believe that the Internet of Things (IoT) is a new revolution in technology and has brought many advantages for our society. However, there are serious challenges in terms of information security and privacy protection. Smart objects usually do not have malware detection due to resource limitations and their intrusion detection work on a particular network. Low computation power, low bandwidth, low battery, storage and memory contribute to a resource-constrained effect on information security and privacy protection in the domain of IoT. The capacity of fog and cloud computing such as efficient computing, data access, network and storage, supporting mobility, location awareness, heterogeneity, scalability and low latency in secure communication positively influence information security and privacy protection in IoT. This study illustrates the positive effect of fog and cloud computing on the security of IoT systems and presents a decision-making model based on the object’s characteristics such as computational power, storage, memory, energy consumption, bandwidth, packet delivery, hop- count, etc. This helps an IoT system chooses the best nodes for creating the fog that we need in the IoT system. Our experiment shows that the proposed approach has less computational, communicational cost and more productivity in compare with the situation that we choose the smart objects randomly to create a fog.
System (2.1) is an organic growth model, that is to say, there is no intervention manage- ment on system (2.1). Obviously, the dynamical behaviors of system (2.1) is very simple. As a matter of fact, the mankind more and more devote themselves to investigate and empolder the ecosystem with the development of society. Bases on the ideology, we develop (2.1) by introducing releasing the prey and harvesting the predator and prey at dif- ferent fixed moments, that is, we consider the following impulsive differential equation
In light of the features and requirements of the semantic description methods of Internet of Things services, and then discusses the resource representation model and resourcemanagementmodel with the network virtualization. This paper focuses on the network resources optimization design algorithm matching with the service behaviours of users and the resources optimization-based virtual networking mapping algorithm under the environment establishes the Internet of Things services-oriented 3S virtual network model. Finally, the proposed scheme realize the optimization of resources distribution in the user-side network under the environment of Internet of Things and thus provide a nice solution to the large scale application of Internet of Things.
As employee involvement of different organizations and countries may be influenced by different factors, each organization needs to be studied within its own surrounding for the best results. Employee involvement may be directly or indirectly influenced by several factors, which makes it important for studies on employee involvement to be focused on determining both the direct and indirect impacts. This will make sure that appropriate interventions can be implemented. In order to understand the behavioral and attitudinal aspect of the employees in an organization, studying the spiritual and local beliefs that they practice may help. Understanding the history and culture the way they do is important in order to have an idea on the human resourcemanagementmodel of the nation which includes its philosophy and process as well as the problem. Since Malaysia comprises different religions and races, the employee involvement study conducted has to take into account the local cultures in order to get an accurate view on the employee involvement concept that is being practiced in this country.
One WSN application that can benefit from the proposed free market economy model is the problem of multi- hop packet relaying. Figure 1 illustrates the basic problem being addressed. At the start of a time frame, each node v ∈ V needs to establish a price p(v) that node v will charge in order to relay a fixed-size packet of data through itself. There are also a set of packet communication requests R. Each request r ∈ R includes a source node s(r) ∈ V and a destination node d(r) ∈ V. If s(r) has a direct wired or wireless communication link to d(r), then there is no cost for communication request r. However, if such a direct connection does not exist, then a multihop path to d(r) is used provided such a path exists. In order to use this multipath path, node s(r) must pay each intermediate node that it uses the relay price charged by that node. For example, in Figure 1, if a node v 1
K ELLY et al. proposed a Utility function which represents the utility of a single user of the network , in order to allocate the available network resources in a fair, distributed and stable manner among the clients. This is also known as network utility maximzation (NUM) . An extension of the NUM approach is described in , where the original mas- ter problem is decomposed into several smaller subproblems which can then be solved on their own. To do so, the master problem allocates a fraction of the existing resources to each subproblem. In  the modeling of computer networks has been separated into a macroscopic and a microscopic view. The macroscopic view is also referred to as static routing and aims at an efficient resource usage of the network as well as an optimal flow of the data. An example of this level of granularity are the Autonomous Systems of the Internet. The microscopic view is also referred to as dynamic routing and optimizes TCP windows sizes as well as the routing of each individual packet at each hop.
From a managerial perspective, the findings of the current research provide significant suggestions for improving the management of e-HRM platforms more effectively. Thus, managers should take these findings into consideration, in which all variables are important factors for HR professionals to enhance their attitude regarding e- HRM implementation. Furthermore, apparent ease of use, user satisfaction and apparent usefulness are all essential indicators that reveal the attitude of HR professionals regarding e-HRM usage, thus user education and support are essential processes in e-HRM implementation. These findings are also valuable when developing methodologies and schemes for change management, because involvement should be considered particularly to meet the requirements of the organization, in terms of the e-HRM platform implemented. The current study also has experimental implications, particularly for the HR division‟s role in administrating change management policies in relationship with other organizational divisions. The results of the current research have contributed to the existing literature, by providing data on the various issues that affect attitudes towards e-HRM application, in different organizations in a cross-national context. It is apparent that, e-HRM is not necessarily a general procedure, it may be suitable for certain types of companies and not for others.
Information technology companies and academic researchers offer different definitions of cloud computing, with individuals defining cloud computing from different angles. Cloud computing is more than the internet; it is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources, such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and services. Moreover, cloud computing offers benefits for organisations and individuals. However, there are also privacy and security concerns. When considering a cloud service, users should think about how their personal information and that of their customers can best be protected. Users should carefully review the terms of service or contracts and challenge the provider to meet their needs. For organisations looking to move to cloud computing, it is important to understand the different aspects of the technology and to decide which solutions are appropriate for their unique needs. Since cloud computing is not always an appropriate solution, users should study and evaluate its requirements before adopting this technology.
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are crucial to the Malaysia economy as it takes up 98.5 percent of all businesses, which contributes to 37.1 percent of GDP and provides 66 percent of private- sector employment (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2018). Hence, the enormous numbers of SMEs signify that they have an important impact on the environment. SMEs are part of our civilization and they play a significant role in environmental sustainability (Hitchens, Thankappan, Trainor, Clausen & De Marchi, 2005). In addition, SMEs are the main contributor to carbon footprint as 60 percent of carbon emissions are produced by SMEs as reported in the Marshall Report (1998). The current business practice has shifted from procedures that exploit the environment to environmentally sustainable procedures. SMEs need to reduce the impact on the environment to compete in the global economy (Tikul, 2014). This shift can lead to the changes in corporate cultures that set of policies of environmental sustainability concept in an organization’s functional units such as green marketing, green supply chain, green management, and green human resourcemanagement practices.
The interrelationship of human and organizational capital has the empirical and theoretical foundation. The human resource system as organizational processes and element of organizational capital contribute significantly to worker’s role behavior, as element of human capital (Arthur, 1992; Arthur, 1994; Sun et al., 2007; Biswas et al., 2007; Nishii et al., 2008; Uen et al., 2009). The impact of human resource system’s investment to organizational performance can be bridged through human capital (Ulrich, 1999). Individual behavior is an important mediator through which human resource system contributes significantly to organizational performance (Becker et al., 1997; Pfau & Cohen, 2003; Wrigth & Haggerty, 2005; Biswas et al., 2007; Nishii et al., 2008; Harris, 2009; Messersmith et al., 2011; Piening et al., 2013). Employees will provide a different attribution to organization’s human resources system, which then manifests in their work behavior (Sun et al., 2007; Nishii et al.). Worker’s attribution to an organizational human resource system can leverage positive behavior of employees, whether in-role or extra-role behavior. Policies and practices of human resourcemanagement which are concerned with worker’s commitment, quality of work and welfare of workers were able to bring psychological bond inside workers, which in turn is realized in the form of role behavior, leading to organizational effectiveness. On the contrary, causal relationship between elements of intellectual capital empirically validated (Wang & Chang, 2005). There is an interrelationship between human and organizational capital. Human capital as the most important element of Intellectual Capital has a significant effect on organizational performance through the organizational capital.
In this paper, the Erlang capacity achieved by different resourcemanagement mechanisms typically employed in the literature to mitigate the effects of call interruptions (i.e., spectrum adaptation, buffering for new or inter- rupted secondary data calls, channel reservation, select- ive interruption, and preemptive prioritization) is evaluated and compared when they are employed either separately or jointly in heterogeneous traffic CRNs. The evaluated Erlang capacity of the cognitive radio system refers to the maximum offered traffic load of secondary users for which the QoS requirements are guaranteed. In our previous work , the Erlang capacity of a CRN was analyzed but only VoIP traffic was considered. In , neither different service types nor the individual and joint effect of each strategy on system performance was studied. In the present paper, service differentiation between real-time and elastic traffic is considered ac- cording to their different delay tolerance characteristics. Also, several strategies that jointly employ different re- source management techniques to take advantage of the flexibility and delay tolerance features of elastic traffic are analyzed and evaluated. The studied strategies in- clude as special cases other adaptive assembling strat- egies that have been recently reported in the open literature [10, 14]. Additionally, a general teletraffic ana- lysis for the performance analysis of the considered strategies in heterogeneous traffic CRNs is developed. A major characteristic of the proposed mathematical ana- lysis requires less state variables than the one proposed
“When you see what’s happening in terms of the proliferation of Antarctic bases around the continent you really have to wonder what the objectives for that are, is this really for research? Or is this a way of actually claiming a stake of Antarctica? … That whole proliferation of research bases I think is not being well managed. The assessment of activities which is required under the Madrid Protocol tends to be rather superficial …. There’s an interesting and quite challenging paper… which compared the number of research bases compared to the quality of research produced, and this showed that there was little relationship between the number of bases [and the quality of the science produced].” (C3) In terms of environmental management of stations it was noted by interviewees that bases in the Ross Sea Region are significantly better managed today than in the past, particularly McMurdo Station (C2, C4, C6, C7, E1, G1, G4, I1, I2, S2, S4, S5). A scientist with 25 years of experience in the Ross Sea Region explained previous rubbish disposal methods: “they just used to put stuff on the sea ice and let it drop into the ocean, that was the way they disposed of their rubbish” (S5). Now she noted “the US and the Kiwis cleaned up their act and started to take that whole conservation very seriously.” (S5) Two interviewees from the conservation stakeholder group mentioned there has been “a lot of work to cleaning up the historic contamination” (C4) and that most countries are “more considerate of environmental impacts than they used to be” (C6). It was also noted that there was a shift towards building more sustainable bases with Belgium highlighted as a leader in that regard (C4, G2). Changes in environmental attitudes, rules and regulations for scientists in the field, as well as for oil storage were mentioned as positive changes in Antarctic logistics over the years. One scientist noted this attitudinal change:
The employer brand originated from the Best Employers competition held by Fortune magazine in the 1980s. In 1996, Ambler and Barrow drew lessons from the brand theory in marketing and defined employer brand as a combination of functions, economy and benefits brought about by employer relationship . In recent research on innovative behavior, more attention has been paid to the in- fluence of salary, position and reward, or to the external support of innovation, while neglecting the research on the individual initiative psychological factors of employees’ innovative behavior. Lee took employee innovation behavior as de- pendent variable and brand identity as independent variable, and constructs a model to reveal the effect and mechanism of brand identity on employee inno- vation behavior. Based on a questionnaire survey of 946 employees in 81 enter- prises, a multi-level linear model was used to analyze the sample data. The re- sults showed that brand identity positively affected employees’ job well-being and innovation behavior . Omri took employee’s perception and inner expe- rience of brand building as the breakthrough point, and explored the internal mechanism of employer brand’s influence on employee’s innovative behavior in technology-based enterprises. It has important theoretical value and practical significance for promoting employer brand building and employee innovation in domestic technology enterprises . Helm conducted project analysis, factor analysis, independent sample T-test, variance analysis and correlation analysis with the help of SPSS statistical software through questionnaires. It was found that there was a significant positive correlation between brand identity and em- ployee innovation behavior. Each dimension of brand identity affected employee innovation at different levels, and individual variables significantly affected brand identity and employee innovation behavior. Therefore, enterprises can enhance employees’ innovative behavior through the construction of brand identity, and adopt corresponding strategies according to the characteristics of dif- ferent employees to increase the frequency of their innovative behavior . Edú used employer brand theory, competitiveness theory, ecology theory, co-evolution theory and other theoretical tools to comprehensively and systematically study the impact mechanism, complex adaptability and co-evolution of employer brand in high-tech enterprises, taking employer brand in high-tech enterprises as the research object .
Since the system is client-server activities, it is built on the World Wide Web (WWW) framework. WWW provides a cost effective way of advertising goods, services and vacancies. The research work was carried out by an extensive review of related literature. A thorough study of the current method of recruiting applicants was carried out, and hence, understanding the inadequacies. Afterwards many recruiting organization were visited where personal interviews with staff were conducted. The design of the system was done using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) for authoring web pages and Microsoft Access Database management system for the design of the database tables. Actives server pages (ASP) running on internet information server was employed for the production and editing HMTL pages. CorelDraw and Corel photo paint were employed for the production and editing of pictures and images. A browser, internet Explorer was used at the client side to interpret contents got from the web server; the browser processes the HMTL and displays the web pages. The web designs runs on Windows XP as the network operating system. Real life data were used to test the system so as to ensure that the design goals were met.
water pollution, and encourage conservation. In other words, it simultaneously helps in ensuring water security as well as water governance. Water markets are witnessed in many countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, South Africa, etc. Water market is an artificial mechanism for water demand management strategy by selling or transferring water to users, for example, upstream countries sell water to the downstream dwellers. Proponents argue that these markets can efficiently allocate waters in dry areas as well as raise awareness about the wise use of this scarce environmental resource. Similarly, it reduces the water supply costs and infrastructure maintenance burden as well as address water scarcity challenges (Wheele et al., 2017). For example, proponents claim that water markets in Australia increased efficiency in the use of water without constructing any new infrastructures. ME proponents also argue in favour of liberalisation of the governance structure. They proclaim that liberalisation would ensure good governance, accountability, equity, economic prosperity, and environmental viability. Liberalisation of governance positively refers to the involvement of non-state actors, devolution of power in the decision-making procedures. This system encourages greater social learning and promote integrated water resourcemanagement (IRWM) in the line of Brandt. Commission‟s concept of „sustainable development‟ and Pahl-Wostle‟s (2006) „adaptive governance‟ system. IRWM refers to a system of water resourcemanagement which substantially incorporates issues of land use, surface and groundwater management
exploited during building construction as well as over the life cycle. The majority of global energy use and proportion of carbon-dioxide emissions are associated with residential buildings. In order to conserve the natural resources present manuscript aims at developing Sustainable Renewable ResourceManagement (SRRM) tool. The tool aims at the integration of technically efficient and economically viable methods of material, water and energy conservation. It uses LCC analysis approach and is capable of computing sizes, costs as well as carbon emissions. The tool capabilities are elaborated with respect to a specific case study of a residential township of 200 tenements. Integration of material, water and energy conservation technologies for housing scheme shows prevention of 2929.19MT of carbon emissions, saving of 2581545.41 m 3 of water and
The article begins with a brief introduction to Cloud Computing in universities, referring to the most important results obtained so far. Further, a starting point for universities to use Cloud Computing is provided, by proposing an adoption strategy. The strategy includes five stages, with emphasis on the evaluation of data and processes / unction‟s/ applications from several major universities based on some key criteria, while creating a correspondence between these aspects and the models/services/applications that exist on the Cloud market. The results obtained are encouraging and support the use of Cloud solutions in universities by improving knowledge in this field and providing a practical guide adaptable to the university‟s structure. In order to be applicable in practice, the proposed model takes into account the university‟s architecture and criteria such as mission, availability and importance of applications and also the data‟s mission, sensitivity, confidentiality, integrity and availability. Cloud Computing is among the recently developed architectures to result to cost effective and reliable way to access resources with the help of emerging technology of VMs i.e. Virtual Machines. In this paper we propose a cost effective way for the subscribers to invest for an e-learning system which otherwise is a very expensive venture. Cloud computing now is the most agile technology after Grid Computing with its limitations of course. The proposal is to use Cloud Computing at its best for the telecom industry. Mobile cloud computing is becoming very popular nowadays which is now removing the use of platform or infrastructure to run applications in their mobile rather use the Saas ,Paas and Iaas features of cloud computing. So in order to access the- learning system from mobiles the end-users depend on their subscribers. Hence the proposal is to give a cost effective way for the subscribers to give access of the e-learning system to their customers. Cloud Consulting combines open source grid computing for distributed cloud computing and
management of HR in agriculture. A comprehensive strategic view, however, not only includes the external changes in the Common Agricultural Policy, but also internal changes, which require that considerable focus should be placed on the professional training of managers in agriculture to acquire and develop their managerial skills at all levels of management. This implies fundamental work-related changes for HR managers. Thus, HR management becomes directed towards competencies, which is a response to highly dynamic environments, and also to changes in the characteristics of employees (Baptista 2012). The central focus of HR strategies, policies and instru- ments is directed towards employee performance. At present, this cannot be stimulated only by traditional instruments. The classical approach to meeting ob- jectives is not sufficient even in agriculture which is characterised by low-skilled workers. This sector has also become more focused on intellectual, emotional and social engagement (Conto et al. 2012). Employees are expected to exert efforts to identify with the tasks, demonstrate commitment and concentration on performance, since only such behaviour leads to innovation, or improved and efficient performance. Heightened employee engagement enables the organi- sation to acquire, manage, develop and reward people who have the ability to maximise their contributions towards achieving the objectives. Defining and shap- ing competencies enable individuals to mobilise and apply acquired knowledge in complex, diverse and unpredictable situations, since, at present, knowledge on its own is not sufficient; rather, its application and utilisation are the crucially determining factors (Noel and Qenani 2013). From the perspective of HR managers, engagement is seen as participation in the creation of a model of the core competencies of the organisation, which connects the strategic level, the level of management and the development of human potential, the level of performance, and the results for the clients. Such a model allows for the precise specification of measurable variables, and thus evaluates the attainment of the set objectives. Competencies are defined in the realm of managerial styles, skills, and client outcomes. It is necessary to adhere to explicitly formulated core competencies and their manifestations at all levels. Simultaneously, it is important to promote the entire process through mindful communication.
There is a set of core sustainability concepts and prin- ciples that are evident in the stewardship/sustainability outline. Sustainability and stewardship management plans focus on active and adaptive management that meets the forest owner’s management objectives and is consistent with the size of the forest and the scale and intensity of activities. There is an emphasis on complying with fede- ral, state, and local laws in Table 2. Timely reforestation and afforestation that meets the owner’s management objectives are in the sustainability outline. Table 2 strongly emphasizes protection of the environment (air, water, and soil) that considers state best management practices, integrated pest management, and that only uses prescribed fire in terms of management objectives. The second outline stresses protection of biodiversity (fish and wildlife). Outline 2 recognizes forest aesthetics, pro- tection of special sites (historical, archeological, cultural, biological, and ecological). Finally, timber protection is a part of both outlines, but in the second outline it is not predominating and, like in the first outline, all timber harvests are conducted in accordance with management objectives and consider other forest values.
Compared with the closed-loop access mode, the open access mode allows any user within the FAP coverage to access the network. The advantage of this mode is that the downlink can unload large amounts of traffic from the macrocell to the home base station cell, whereby the macrocell can release several channels for reuse, which is particularly useful at the cellular edges where the macro- cell coverage is generally poor. Although saving valuable macrocell resources, the open access system still has many problems. Because of the small coverage, if the user is mo- bile, the system has to undergo multiple handovers, so in- novative design methods are needed to minimize the number of handovers. In addition, the number of unregis- tered and unregistered visitors has become very high, reg- istered users may encounter traffic congestion in the home base station cell. There are also security issues, be- cause open access systems are inherently vulnerable, such as hacker intrusion, illegal monitoring activities, location detection, malicious node attacks, and so on. Effective measures must be taken to prevent malicious manipula- tion of embedded software, which will change the location information and so on, hindering network management.