of the genome and therefore could generate inheritable and persistent (“genetically assimilated”, to borrow a word from Waddington) alterations in the control of gene expression. These memorized changes in regulatory networks might be inherited by progeny, accounting for the well-known “epigenetic” inheritance. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the mutational event responsible for the melanism in the British peppered moth during industrial environmental changes is the insertion of a transposable element (Van't Hof et al. 2016), raising the possibility that environmental changes may have led to the generation of a novel regulatory gene network mediated by this transposon transposition. Notably, a pollutant-driven hypothesis of peppered moth melanism, as a selective mechanism in addition to differential bird predation by crypsis, has been proposed by Riley (Riley 2013). Since melanin has been shown to be able to chelate metal ions, an increase in melanization has been suggested to produce a localized accumulation of metals and potential cytoprotective effects in moths exposed to toxic levels of heavy metals (Riley 2013). In addition, it can be hypothesized that the non-random genome editing mechanisms induced by pollution could have selected both novel response elements for melanin gene transcription directly dependent on heavy metal presence and mutated melanin forms able to more strongly sequester heavy metals. The consequent addiction to heavy metals of the mutated melanin transcription and therefore of the peppered color of the moth would be consistent with the recent and rapid reversal of the process (the decline in the frequency of peppered forms) associated with a reduction in atmospheric pollution (Cook 2013).
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simultaneously changed by 50%, 150%, and ±2°C, and the interactions and direct effects of individual versus simultaneous variable changes were analyzed. For the model setting and the prescribed environmental changes, results from the first set of experiments indicate: (i) Precipitation changes were most sensitive and directly affected yield and water loss due to evapotranspiration; (ii) radiation changes had a non-linear effect and were not as prominent as precipitation changes; (iii) temperature had a limited impact and the response was non- linear; (iv) soybeans and maize responded differently for R, P, and T, with maize being more sensitive. The results from the second set of experiments indicate that simultaneous change analyses do not necessarily agree with those from individual changes, particularly for temperature changes. Our analysis indicates that for the changing climate, precipitation (hydrological), temperature, and radiative feedbacks show a nonlinear effect on yield. Study results also indicate that for studying the feedback between the land surface and the
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as biochemical data, indicate that functional coupling between LHCI and PSI is largely lost at this iron concentration. Based on the observation that the PSI subunit PsaK is more strongly af- fected at the onset of iron deficiency than other PSI subunits, Moseley et al. (81) proposed that this disconnection is mediated by a change in the physical properties of PsaK in response to a change in plastid iron content. This is in line with the fact that PsaK is a peripheral PSI chlorophyll-binding subunit (65) and functions in the connection of the Lhca2/Lhca3 heterodimer to PSI (62, 63). Interestingly, PsaK is largely depleted from the PSI complex in the crd1 mutant grown under normal conditions. The crd1 mutant was originally described as a copper response defect mutant (80) that has a strong chlorotic phenotype under condi- tions of copper deficiency, where it loses PSI and LHCI (80). The crd1 gene product is an iron-dependent aerobic oxidative cyclase. C. reinhardtii contains two isoforms of this protein, Crd1 and Cth1, which display a complementary pattern of expression de- pendent upon oxygen supply and copper nutritional status (82). These cyclases are supposed to function in the chlorophyll bio- synthetic pathway, as shown for a bacterial homologue (93). Given the fact that PsaK is affected by a change in cyclase activity, Moseley et al. (81) proposed further that the chlorophyll-binding sites of PsaK are sensitive to flux through the chlorophyll biosyn- thetic pathway, which in turn is affected by the activity of the Cth1/Crd1 enzymes (Fig. 3). Consequently, a drop in the plastid iron levels would reduce cyclase activity and thereby result in a functional uncoupling between LHCI and PSI (Fig. 3). Adapta- tion to more severe iron-deprivation results in remodeling LHCI, leading to degradation of the Lhca polypeptides and possibly to the induction of novel LHC proteins. Mass spectrometric analyses demonstrated that one of these new LHCI subunits is actually an N
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colithophores exhibit a complex and significant influence on the global carbon cycle (Rost and Riebesell, 2004). Of all coccolithophores, Emiliania huxleyi is the most widely distributed and the most abundant species (Winter et al., 2014), with the capacity to form spatially extensive blooms in mid- to high latitudes (Raitsos et al., 2006; Tyrrell and Merico, 2004). Evidence from in situ and satellite observa- tions indicates that E. huxleyi has been increasingly expand- ing its range poleward in both hemispheres over the last two decades, and contributing factors to this poleward expansion may differ between regions and hemispheres (Winter et al., 2014). For example, warming and freshening have promoted E. huxleyi blooms in the Bering Sea since the late 1970s (Harada et al., 2012), while temperature and irradiance were best able to explain variability in E. huxleyi-dominated coc- colithophore community composition and abundance across the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) (Charalampopoulou et al., 2016). Hence, empirical data on the responses of E. huxleyi to different environmental drivers would be critical for fully understanding the roles of this prominent coccol- ithophore species in marine ecosystems.
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The Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (Saccos) in the Nyeri County are invariably facing environmental challenges. These Saccos have to respond to the changes in the environment accordingly in order to guarantee their continuous existence. This study has therefore been designed to establish the pricing strategies being adopted by the Saccos. Responses were sought from Managers or executive committee members who have been in the firms for at least three years since these are the ones who are involved in the crafting and implementation of response strategies in their respective organizations. The data collected was analyzed by use of percentages, means and standard deviation and presented in the form of tables and charts. The major challenges that have greatly affected the growth of this sector include; employment laws, political instability, high interest rates, low economic growth rates, high population growth rate, poor age distribution, strong emphasis on safety, increase in automation and high rate of technological change. Despite these challenges, most of the Saccos in Nyeri County have remained in operation for over ten years with some of them having over 30 years of operation. The main pricing strategy employed in response to some of these challenges when setting charges by the Saccos is setting charges based on the market. The Saccos employ a cost leadership strategy in an effort to acquire a competitive advantage.
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Response strategies to environmental changes by Saccos in Nyeri County and in Kenya as a whole have become a phenomenal issue for the survival of the Saccos. This study has therefore been designed to establish the restructuring and marketing response strategies being adopted by the Saccos. The Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in the Nyeri County, like other organizations, do not exist in a vacuum. Their operating environment keeps changing continuously. These Saccos have to respond to the changes in the environment accordingly in order to guarantee their continuous existence. Responses were sought from Managers or executive committee members who have been in the firms for at least three years since these are the ones who are involved in the crafting and implementation of response strategies in their respective organizations. The data collected was analyzed by use of percentages, means and standard deviation and presented in the form of tables and charts. The major challenges that have greatly affected the growth of this sector include; employment laws, political instability, high interest rates, low economic growth rates, high population growth rate, poor age distribution, strong emphasis on safety, increase in automation and high rate of technological change. Despite these challenges, most of the Saccos in Nyeri County have remained in operation for over ten years with some of them having over 30 years of operation. The main response strategies which have enabled these Saccos to remain in business are: acquiring new companies/ business and opening new branches.
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This study intended to establish the response strategies being adopted by the Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (Saccos) in the Nyeri County. These Saccos have to respond to the changes in the environment accordingly in order to guarantee their continuous existence. This study was intended to establish the market and product development strategies adopted by the saccos in Nyeri County, Kenya in response to these environmental changes. The main response strategies which have enabled these Saccos to remain in business are: targeting new market segments; identification of new potential users of their services; adding product features or product refinement and developing new products for existing market. The Saccos employ a cost leadership strategy in an effort to acquire a competitive advantage. The study though successful, had some limitations such as it did not identify the challenges faced by the Saccos in dealing with environmental challenges and it was also not able to establish whether the environmental challenges identified affect all types of Saccos in the County uniformly or they vary from one type of Saccos to the other.. Nevertheless, the study was largely successful and will provide much needed insight in to the Sacco sector in the county.
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Each Candida species varied the amount of glucan exposed on its surface, with C. auris and C. tropicalis displaying the highest exposure of glucan. This increase in glucan exposure correlates with phagocytosis rates, with Candida cells with more glucan exposure at the surface phagocytosed at higher rates (29, 30, 33). C. auris also displayed signiﬁcantly more chitin at the cell wall periphery than the other Candida species. Considering the predominate roles glucan and chitin play in mediating the host- pathogen interaction on host immune response (18), these cell wall modiﬁcations could play key roles in the virulence of C. auris. Interestingly, pH-dependent glucan unmask- ing was only observed in dimorphic Candida species, with yeast-locked non-albicans Candida strains not displaying cell wall remodeling under our tested conditions. However, it remains to be investigated whether the molecular mechanisms involved in hyphal formation share a function in cell wall remodeling. During colonization of the human host, C. albicans faces various environmental changes to which it must adapt in order to either maintain its position within the microbiota or to cause infection. Many of these environmental cues are strong promoters of C. albicans morphogenesis but also function to regulate the structure and composition of the fungal cell wall. Given that cell wall remodeling is a dynamic response, which is regulated through the secretion of signaling molecules, understanding how C. albicans adapts to the host overtime and how all these signals are integrated to modulate the host-pathogen interaction will provide new insight in the development of effective compounds against this oppor- tunistic pathogen.
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Shaban, M. (2013b). Biochemical aspects of protein changes in seed physiology and germination. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. Volume 1, Issue 8: 885-898. Singh KB, Malhotra RS, Halila MH, Knights EJ, Verma MM (1994) Current Status and Future Strategy in Breeding Chickpea for Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses, in Expending the Production and Use of Cool Season Food Legumes, Eds. F.J. Muehlbauer and W.J. Kaiser, Klwer Academic Pub., printed the Netherlands, p:572-591
The behavior of each response variable is expected to differ markedly through time (Dieter E. Ecology, Epi- demiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology, 2005). We therefore fitted fixed effects structures for each trait that would model the average response of the population to age and treatment, so that differences among treatments on aver- age effects would not be mistaken for differences among treatments in within-mother variances. There is evidence that brood size increases after sexual maturation and decreases after 2 months, whereas time between broods is constant through life (Dieter E. Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology, 2005). Although daphnia grow indeter- minably throughout life, growth rate slows down with time. Therefore, the fixed effect structure for the three models developed for F0, one for each response variable (y), included treatment, age, a quadratic term for age, and an interaction between age and treatment. For F1 models, we adopted a simplified model to avoid overpa- rameterization and improve interpretability. The fixed structure for F1 included, F0 treatment, F1 treatment, and the interaction between them. Finally, diagnostic plots revealed that time between broods does not follow a normal distribution, showing a heavy right tail. Time between broods was therefore log-transformed. All results for time between broods refer to the transformed vari- able.
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In this work, two kinds of DTSPs are generated, i.e., random and cyclic traffic factors, with lower bound of the potential traffic jams ( ) = 1 and upper bound of the potential traffics ( ) = 5. Then, the values of the random number (R) that represents the traffic jams ∈ [1, 5]. In addition, three cyclic states are used in cyclic DTSPs. For both random and cyclic types, the frequency parameter (f) value for the environmental changes was set to 5 and 100 in order to indicate fast and slow dynamic changes, respectively. Also, the value of the magnitude parameter of the dynamic changes (m) was set to 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 in order to indicate the degree of dynamic changes from small, to medium, and large, respectively . Consequently, eight dynamic test DTSP instances are generated from each dataset, i.e. four values of m × two values of f. Therefore, 24 dynamic test cases are used to analyse the adaptation capabilities of the proposed algorithm on the DTSP with traffic factors for each type of DTSPs, i.e., three TSP instances × eight cases each. In order to analyse the adaptation capabilities of the multi-population HS algorithm on the DTSP against the basic HS algorithm, 56 dynamic test cases are used for both of random and cyclic types, i.e., seven TSP instances × eight cases each. For the suggested multi-population HS algorithm on a DTSP instance, N = 30 runs are executed on the same environmental changes. The algorithm are executed for G = 1000 iterations.
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ultrastructural observations and NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of thin coral tissue sections, we visualized and quantified in situ at the subcellular level the dynamics of dissolved N acquisition, storage, and utilization by the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. In par- ticular, we provide experimental evidence for temporary N stor- age in dinoflagellate uric acid crystals in response to fluctuating environmental dissolved-nitrogen availability. In the context of marine environmental change due to both anthropogenic activi- ties and natural fluctuations (e.g., ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and nutrification), this approach has the potential to provide new insights about how coral reef ecosystems will respond to such environmental perturbations.
showing significant correlations with physical parameters is higher than the number showing significant correlations with vegetation parameters, indicating that changes in phys- ical parameters have more influence at shorter timescales than changes in vegetation parameters. This difference dis- appears with the aggregation to annual timescale. On the an- nual timescale, however, the mean absolute rank correlation is slightly higher for the vegetation parameters. Soil moisture which is also influenced by vegetation has a slightly higher correlation compared to precipitation, temperature and wind speed. This indicates that vegetation parameters are more in- fluential on the longer annual time step and physical parame- ters on the monthly time step. The relationship between pre- cipitation or soil moisture and burned area is expected to be negative, while the impact of temperature is expected to be positive. This is clearly reflected in the percentage of pos- itively significant correlations at the annual scale but is less clear at the monthly time step. This might reflect that the sea- sonality of temperature, precipitation and vegetation param- eters is often synchronized, and therefore the effects of the parameters cannot be separated. The low correlation between individual parameters and burned area reflects the complex interactions between the climatic drivers, vegetation condi- tions and fire weather.
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bet-hedging strategy to maximise the likelihood that some offspring will survive when eggs are dispersed and encounter environments that are different to their parents. Although some of these background OTUs may rep- resent random contaminants (i.e. symbionts attached to the outside of eggs), a majority of OTUs were found in three or more independent egg samples, suggesting that they indeed represent either relevant symbiont candi- dates or intragenomic variants retrieved from relevant symbiont candidates. However, it is unlikely that these OTUs are intragenomic variants given the clustering method and clustering identity threshold used in this study (Materials and Methods: Sequencing of Symbiodinium ITS-2 in egg, juvenile and adult coral samples). Although many of these background OTUs existed predominantly at less than 1% abundance in adults and eggs, it is feasi- ble that these OTUs may grow in abundance to become dominant members of the community if environmental conditions change 50 , as was found for C.28 and C_I:53 in P. damicornis 19 . This variation highlights potential flexi-
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We can also identify mechanisms that aim to change the market environment of the consumer by changing the relative prices of products (e.g., via grants, taxes or by setting restrictions on production), but also by providing information about products, about consumers’ purchases (feedback) or about the market in total (e.g., comparative environmental impacts of various products offered in the market). One can also argue that rules about marketing, advertising and product labeling influence market transpar- ency by requiring or forbidding certain information to be provided. Finally, policies can aim to change the entire structure of the market (the availability of goods and services) by supporting R&D in innova- tive solutions, setting minimum product standards, getting retailers to agree to drop certain products or promote certain other ones, or simply by banning certain products. Government can use its market power through green public procurement aiming to bring new products into the market. Where govern- ment also provides services, it can showcase new solutions under the auspices of these services, thus ‘ leading by example’ and creating demand among private consumers.
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Xylem differentiation in higher plants is a highly regu- lated process that is induced in the tracheary elements of the vascular tissues and occurs in several steps (Turner, Gallois & Brown 2007). The third and final step of xylem differentiation, which includes secondary cell wall forma- tion and programmed cell death, takes places after meso- phyll cells multidifferentiation and procambial cells differentiation to tracheary elements precursors (Demura et al. 2002). After secondary cell wall deposition, pro- grammed cell is induced and cell content is degraded by a macro-autolysis process (Turner et al. 2007; Avci et al. 2008). Therefore, the proteomic analysis of xylem sap could be representative of the last stages of xylem differ- entiation when lignification and cell death are induced. Xylem lignification has been observed in several species under salt stress (Cachorro et al. 1993; Jbir et al. 2001; Sanchez-Aguayo et al. 2004; Fernandez-Garcia et al. 2009). Class III peroxidases are thought to be involved in the cross-linking of monolignols present in xylem cell walls, thereby inducing the lignification of xylem elements (Passardi, Penel & Dunand 2004; Marjamaa, Kukkola & Fagerstedt 2009). The presence of peroxidases in xylem sap has been widely demonstrated in all species analysed by proteomic approaches (Buhtz et al. 2004; Kehr et al. 2005; Djordjevic et al. 2007; Agüero et al. 2008; Aki et al. 2008; Dafoe & Constabel 2009). Therefore, the aim of the present study is to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the respond of xylem sap to salt stress. We have determined changes at the level of proteins, metabo- lites and ions that may be involved in the process of root- to-shoot signalling and that may be selected as biomarkers to study xylem differentiation and lignification under salt stress.
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Identify best practise internationally as regards optimal skill base for policy formulation, and how it should be recruited, how to understand and mobilise policy instruments, achieve effective governance across government departments, and communicate in a coherent and timely fashion and what changes are needed in the Irish system to meet these standards.
environmental focus. Character education is [how] the course is being known by. ..the reason the students are taking it but they get all the other stuff and a lot of them like get into environmental job and ranger program stuff.” Julia also talked extensively about the Ontario Ministry of Education Specialist High Skills Major – the Environment (SHSM) initiative, stating, “we are absolutely embracing this specialist high skills major.” Julia talked about the importance of offering students certifications as a component of this initiative and about the financial support it provided for program development and cost effectiveness. The principal shared her observation that the students are “connecting personal change with environmental change” more and more. In 2011, Karl reported, “It’s like we have like new environmental ethic, which I will use, we also have a leadership ethic, which I definitely use, I use on an everyday basis.”
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These changes indicated that in experiment group the gland shows hyperactivity during pre-spawning and spawning periods and gland is active during post-spawing period also in both salinity and calcium oxposure, whereas the gland in control group is highly active during late pre-spawning than post-spawning period.
Nonetheless its importance, the relationship between the environment and the institutional settings remains unexplored. The reason can be rooted in diﬃ culties with measuring and limited availability of data on institutions. There are few studies showing that the successful implementation of environmental policies is aﬀ ected by institutional settings and there are even less studies, two in particular (Leitão, 2010, and Pellegrini and Vujic, 2003), linking all three aspects of sustainable economic growth – the institutions, economic development and environment. Both studies focus on the impact of corruption on economic development and environmental quality. While Pellegrini and Vujic (2003) run OLS and 2SLS IV regressions to study the relationships per capita income – Corruption Perception Index, and Environmental Protection Stringency Index – per capita income, separately; Leitão (2010) estimates the eﬀ ects of corruption on income level at the turning point of sulphur emissions – income relationship. They both conclude that the eﬀ ect of corruption is not negligible in terms of economic development. Pellegrini and Vujic also add that corruption paralyzes environmental policy. Corruption, however, is not the only obstacle for economic development or environmental protection. The way, how relevant policies are implemented and realized is a key to economy and environment protection enhancement. This necessary, even if insuﬃ cient, condition has not been studied yet.