Anaesthetic Contribution to Deaths in the Operating Theatre at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur A Retrospective Survey ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anaesthetic Contribution to Deaths in the Operating Theatre[.]
Dunedin Hospital is the only secondary/tertiary hospital in the region, providing colonoscopic services to a popu- lation of approximately 193,803 . Consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy be- tween January 2007 and June 2009 at Dunedin Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand were identified retrospectively from the endoscopy reporting database (EndoSmart, Dunedin, New Zealand). Retrospectively, each patients’ colonoscopy report was reviewed for polyp characteris- tics (sessile, semi-sessile, on a stalk), polyp size, method of polypectomy (cautery snare, hot or cold forceps), and number of polyps removed was recorded. The patients’ medical records were reviewed for demographical data, the indications for colonoscopy, use of NSAIDs, anti- coagulant or antiplatelet agents and the prevalence of bleeding following polypectomy. A retrospective review of each patient’s clinical records, hospital files and elec- tronic records was performed to establish the use of medications both prior to and post procedure. These records include general practitioners referral letter, nurse notes, and physicians’ inpatient and outpatient record.
Limited information is available about the head and neck metastatic tumors, especially oral and maxil- lofacial ones and their primary origins in Iranian pa- tients. Moreover, changes have been observed in the incidence and mortality rate of cancer types over time in this population. So, this retrospective study was carried out in Iran Cancer Institute to evaluate these tumors in terms of frequency, primary origins, com- mon related clinical manifestations, and the most common types of cancers, as well as the most common sites of the primary tumor.
There are several limitations of the study. First, the study is retrospective in nature. Consequently, the data should be assessed with regard to their possible low reliability. For example, the subjects may have forgotten some pre- vious injuries and musculoskeletal disorders or the con- sequences of these injuries . However, prior to the testing, we performed a pilot study in which the reliabil- ity of the questionnaire was shown to be appropriate (see Methods for more details). Moreover, the study in- cluded subjects from only one country, and therefore, the data are of questionable generalizability. However, the sample was relatively large and included more than 90% of all national level referees from the country. In addition, the response rate was high (more than 95%), which is one of the most important factors when study- ing health-related issues on a self-reported basis [46,47]. Additionally, the investigation was based on self-reports, and the subjects might not have told the truth if they felt uncomfortable. However, we believe that the anonymity and design of the study (e.g., testing in large groups with no pressure on the examinees) decreased this possibility. The study was approved by the highest national soccer organization (Croatian Football Federation) and was therefore officially accepted. The testing was performed by the first author, who is a 1 st league MR and a UEFA additional assistant and is therefore an “insider”. This fact almost certainly had a positive effect on the honesty
For many soldiers confronted with exposure to stressful situations, an animal-mascot bond is con- sidered effective help for dealing with the stress. While most studies carried out on animals’ needs concentrate on the care of civilian individuals, our focus was on determining the reliability of an instrument to measure emotional, rational and psychosocial needs of the military engaged in nu- merous conflicts around the world, and to analyze its external validation. Methods: In an anony- mous cross-sectional retrospectivesurvey, we applied the animal-mascot bond questionnaire (AMBS) associated with Coping Inventory Stressful Scale (CISS), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Check List Scale (PCL-S) assessments to 168 soldiers after their deployment in theatre. Results: Factor analyses of the 23-item construct (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.962) pointed to a 3-factor solution, which revealed 77.03% of variance: 1) Animal-group bond, 2) Individual-animal emo- tional bond, and 3) Individual-animal rational bond. All these factors were positively correlated with the emotional-centred coping style. Human-animal bonds were greater for soldiers with the provisional diagnosis of PTSD. Limited responsibility was the strongest predictor for animal- mascot bonds. Both individual animal bonds were also predicted by the PTSD status and emo- tional coping. Conclusions: The evaluation of the AMBS revealed that the instrument had good psychometric properties. Soldiers with less responsibility, PTSD and emotional-coping scored the highest on the AMBS suggesting that they expressed the highest needs for a bond with an animal- mascot. One may assume that the animal-mascot bonds will trend to a therapeutic coping process
A retrospectivesurvey of outcomes from elective health examinations on amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in a zoological collection was carried out in order to compare differences between taxa, type of health examination and age of animal, and to quantify whether the benefits of such interventions exceed potential welfare risks to the subjects. Outcomes of 1651 health examinations, including import, pre-export, first and routine health examinations, were recorded and analysed. At least one problem was found in 45.7% of health examinations, with subsequent action (such as treatment, follow-up or further diagnostics) required in just under half of those animals or 21.1% of health examinations overall. A problem was identified in 52.1% of import examinations as opposed to 32.5% of pre-export examinations, and in 52.2% of routine examinations, compared to 33.6% of first examinations. When analysed further by taxon, these differences were not significant for all taxa. In addition, only for mammals was there a significant difference between age groups, with problems significantly more likely to be identified as age increased. A complication occurred during 3% of total health examinations, with complications significantly more likely to have been caused in birds than in mammals and none at all identified in reptiles and amphibians. Almost 97% of the complications caused during bird health examinations were minor wounds resulting from capture for the procedure. Little has been published previously evaluating the effects of preventative medicine interventions on mortality, morbidity or welfare of zoo animals. This kind of information can be used to make evidence- based decisions on the necessity and frequency of elective health examinations in a particular collection.
To assess student perceptions, we adminis- tered two surveys: one to current OSU stu- dents and one to former OSU students who had completed the OSU prescribed fire cours- es. Both surveys were anonymous with no identifiers. The current-student survey was a retrospectivesurvey taken at the completion of the field-based prescribed fire course at OSU in May of 2012 and 2013 (http://dx.doi. org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1284665). Retro- spective surveys ask participants to self-evalu- ate changes after an experience, a different survey approach than surveying participants before and after an experience. We assessed current students’ major field of study, whether their background was urban or rural, their pre- scribed burning experience, and changes in three areas: a) their perceptions about pre- scribed fire; b) their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) in relation to prescribed fire; and c) their potential for applying prescribed fire. The survey used a five-point Likert scale, which is a psychometric index of equal nega- tive and positive positions with an intermedi- ate neutral option (i.e., 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree) (Boone and Boone 2012).
Only a few studies have been published on the usage of posaconazole in pediatric patients with a small number of cases. A multi-center retrospectivesurvey reported data on 15 pediatric patients (median age, 10 years) with invasive fungal infections, most of them with hemato- oncological malignancies, who received posaconazole sal- vage therapy at a median dosage of 21 mg/kg body weight (range, 4.8 - 33.3 mg/kg). Posaconazole was ef- fective as salvage therapy for proven and probable inva- sive fungal infections . Another retrospectivesurvey on the off-label use of posaconazole as secondary prophylaxis and rescue therapy included 15 pediatric patients (median age, 10 years). Twelve of these patients experienced an invasive fungal infection, i.e. proven as- pergillosis in one patient, probable aspergillosis in ten patients and possible mycosis in one patient. Three patients received posaconazole as primary (n = 2), and secondary (n = 1) prophylaxis in high-risk situations, i. e. treatment with steroids, acute GvHD, and haploidentical HSCT. 9 of the 15 patients were post-HSCT. Patients received varying dosages, including 200 mg/day (t.i.d.) in 12 cases, 400 mg/day (b.i.d.) in two cases, and 100 mg/day (t.i.d.) in a single patient . Posaconazole was well tolerated and showed significant clinico-radiological
The measurement of clients' satisfaction with pre-hospital care setting is particularly important since Emergency Medical Service (EMS) is often a primary determinant in the health care delivery service and there is no information available regarding this variable in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This study aims to identify the satisfaction level of clients using EMS in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia. A retrospective telephone survey (5-7 min/call) was conducted at central and suburbs of Klang Valley’s Medical Emergency Coordinator Centre (MECC). Customer satisfaction was assessed during the period of 1.1.2011 to 31.12.2011 using a structured questionnaire. The total sample size was n=500 patients or significant others. Cases were contacted for this survey by using proportionate stratified random sampling. The survey instrument was designed to assess two primary domains of satisfaction which are 1) interaction and 2) communication, in addition to overall satisfaction. The urban versus suburban and views on the different types of cases were compared. In this study 100 patients and 400 significant others participated. Customer satisfaction mean score was 3.12±0.88 in a 1- 5 scale. This study indicated that both urban and suburban society in the Klang Valley areas were satisfied with the pre-hospital care service they received. There are many other external factors that can affect the satisfaction of the customer such as a technical error or bad weather. All these could delay a response. Evaluating customer satisfaction is an essential indicator for improving and achieving an excellent health care delivery system for a society.
Based on Table 1, 41% retrieval rate provided 12 male participants and three female participants. Most of these participants (53%) belong to the 21-40 age range. The majority of them took the Science Education track (67%) and the least number of participants belong to the field of Physics (7%). This result is not far from the Department of Science and Technology-Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI) reports as presented by Tan (2006): only 1.9% take Physics Education in the masters degree, 2.7% in Biology Education, 3% in Chemistry Education, 4.2% in General Science Education, and 9% in Mathematics Education compared to the big 78.6% who take post-baccalaureate non Science education courses. The majority of these professionals in post-baccalaureate programs are employed on full-time status (93%) and occupying permanent positions (86%) in their respective schools. Accordingly, these participants identified several reasons for choosing the University as their home of professional growth. Predominantly, 38% of them chose the University because of its prestige; affordable fees (31%) as a state-owned institution; and the prospect for career advancement (20%). Others find the location (8%) as an advantage to them. From these profiling data, it is particularly observed that stakeholders who chose the University for their Professional Advancement and who graduated from the University have good standing in terms of several personal and professional constructs which may provide valid and reliable retrospective evaluation of the programs they have grown with professionally.
Methods: We completed a secondary analysis of 201 questionnaires that were gathered as part of a retrospective cross-sectional cohort survey that investigated the epidemiology of injuries in a representative sample of British rock climbers. Participants had actively engaged in rock climbing over the previous 12-month period and were recruited from six indoor climbing centres and five outdoor climbing venues (men n=163, mean±SD, age=35.2±11.8 years, participating in rock climbing=13.88+11.77 years; women n=38, mean±SD, age=35.1±10.7 years, participating in rock climbing=11.62+9.19 years). Results: Of the 101 participants who sustained a previous injury, 36 were found to have sustained at least one reinjury. The total number of reinjuries was 82, with the average probability of sustaining at least one reinjury being 35.6% (95% CI 34.71% to 36.8%; p<0.001, McNemar ’ s χ 2 test) with the relative risk of reinjury being 1.55 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.80). The fingers were the most common site of reinjury (12
For any innovation to be successfully adopted it must possess clear applicability, relevance and benefit [38–42]. One tool where this was the case was the PC SafeQuest Survey  that provided all practice staff an anonymous platform to share their experiences of, and attitudes to- ward patient safety. Many previous strategies to improve quality and safety have advocated the democratisation of knowledge, skills and authority in order to successfully change systems and processes [10, 11, 43, 44] recognising the importance of an open, learning culture [45–47] and the identification of managerial “blind spots” [48, 49]. The Survey emerged as a practical and viable solution to engage all staff and increase the visibility of those issues that might have otherwise been missed by senior staff. Another tool which was well received for its’ novel per- spective was the PREOS-PC patient questionnaire . Though reservations were voiced about its length the resource required in its administration it was judged to provide valuable insights into patient perspectives on safety. The positive role played by patients in improving patient safety has previously been noted  and while the most efficient methods of harnessing patient involve- ment remain undefined,  our participants recognised the importance of understanding patient perceptions of safety and harm.
At the cut-off date of 20 April 2016, we linked each of the corresponding 59 adaptive trials to its medicine name using the EMA internal database in which all the MAAs submitted to the EMA are recorded. All the sub- stances that could not be associated to an MAA in this database were then searched within the Springer AdisIn- sight database in order to enquire about their current status. This registry is a curated database encompassing numerous sources of trials information such as www. ClinicalTrials.gov, European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Register (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/), scientific articles and press releases. The medical condition, the phase of the trial and the name of the company were used as search terms. Substances from the original sur- vey were then classified as “match” and “no match” de- pending on the likelihood of associating them to a trial published on the website. Trials corresponding to the substances that could be retrieved were then classified as “completed”, “active, no longer recruiting”, “recruit- ing ” , “ not yet recruiting ” or “ discontinued ” according to the AdisInsight glossary. Trials classified as “completed” (i.e. all patients have been enrolled and no more visits are planned) and “ discontinued ” were categorised as “ concluded ” . As in the original survey , some details
Several limitations, linked to the retrospective nature of our study, must be considered when assessing our results. LP subsequently performed in hospitalization units after an initial admission in the EMD were not taken into account, leading to a potential selection bias. However, LP perfor- mance in the hospitalization units could be influenced by changes in clinical or biological features. In this study, our aim was to assess emergency medical practices in relation to patients ’ initial characteristics observed in the EMD. Classification and information biases can result from the retrospective reviewing of patients’ medical files, leading to a more difficult assessment of patients ’ features, indications for LP, and final diagnoses. Thus, two emergency physi- cians reviewed patients’ medical files independently and the concordance of our results with the literature data suggests that these biases are limited.
Methods: MEDLINE-Ovid, AMED, CINAHL and ENBASE electronic bibliographic databases were searched in English from January 2004 to August 2014 and supplemented with manual bibliographic hand search. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies, which directly compared the diagnostic test accuracies between CT (as reference standard) and DW-MRI or GRE-MRI in detecting ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in the same patient population within 6 hours after the onset of stroke-like symptoms, were considered in the review. Only studies with diagnostic outcomes in terms of sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus CT in detecting acute stroke were considered. The quality of the selected studies in terms of risk of bias and clinical applicability were appraised using the QUality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool.
The Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) created, by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) pro- viding information on admission and discharge dates, diagnostic codes, hospital identifiers, age, sex, postal code, and discharge disposition was linked at the patient level to Statistics Canada’s Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) [18–21]. The CCHS survey was started in 2001 and repeated every two years. It pro- vides information on numerous demographic metrics including language, ethnicity, cultural group, age, sex, geographic region (urban versus rural), marital status, education, residence type, labor force participation, personal and household income, and a health utility index (HUI) developed at McMaster, measuring health status. Approximately 42,000 patients were surveyed from Ontario.
Suboptimal compliance with annual influenza vaccina- tion and other additional vaccines recommended could be due to lack of awareness or acceptance of immuniza- tion guidelines for IBD patients. Engagement with sub- specialists like pediatric gastroenterologists managing these complex patients is important. As the primary source of healthcare related advice for IBD patients, sur- veying their opinions regarding immunization would be helpful and lack of this information is a study limitation. An Australian survey of adult gastroenterologists found hepatitis B, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines were recommended infrequently and the window before sig- nificant immunosuppressive therapies commenced not always being utilised.