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EFFECT OF SECANG WOOD (CEASALPINIA SAPPAN L.) EXTRACT ON MORPHOLOGY OF SPERMATOZOA, SPERM COUNT, AND REVERSIBLE PROCESS IN MALE RATS

EFFECT OF SECANG WOOD (CEASALPINIA SAPPAN L.) EXTRACT ON MORPHOLOGY OF SPERMATOZOA, SPERM COUNT, AND REVERSIBLE PROCESS IN MALE RATS

Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with randomized posttest only control group design. There were 32 male rats (Mus Muscullus L) recruited in this study. Four groups were involved, namely: 1) ethanol group, 2) chloroform fraction, 3) water fraction, and 4) control group. Each group consisted of 8 mice. There were two treatments in this study: 1) each group was given secang extract with dose 50 mg/25 gram of weight, 2) the observation period was 10 days after the treatment. Four mice in each group was dissected to see the morphology and sperm count while the other four mice were allowed to live and maintained until 20 days to see reversible morphology and sperm count.
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Fluoride mediated activation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils  A reversible process

Fluoride mediated activation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils A reversible process

Fluoride ion (F-) is an effective activator of the respiratory burst in neutrophils, as indicated by its ability to induce O2- production by these cells. Other halide ions did not activate the burst, Cl-, in particular appeared to antagonize the effect of F- on O2- production. F- stimulated O2- production showed a requirement for Ca++, but was independent of other exogenous cations. Neither phagocytosis nor degranulation were necessary for respiratory burst activation by F-. The effect of F- on the respiratory burst was reversible. Washing the cells after treatment with F-, while they were still producing large amounts of O2-, returned them to the resting state. They could then be stimulated again to produce O2- in amounts equivalent to those originally produced. Our experiments indicated that restimulation did not represent the activation of a population of cells that had not been activated during the initial exposure to F-, nor did it represent serial activation of different subpopulation of the O2- forming enzyme molecules present in a given cell. Rather, our data suggest that the entire population of O2- forming enzyme molecules was activated in a reversible fashion by F-.
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Biodiesel production from tomato seed and its engine emission test and simulation using Artificial Neural Network

Biodiesel production from tomato seed and its engine emission test and simulation using Artificial Neural Network

The most commonly used method for biodiesel production is transesterification (esoteric exchange), in which a mixture of oil and alcohol, in the presence of a catalyst form of mono alcoholic fatty acid, converts to the biodiesel and glycerine. In this reversible process as shown in Figure1, methanol is most commonly used because of lower prices and better physical and chemical properties (shorter molecular chains and polarity) than other alcohols. Vegetable oils are better raw materials for biodiesel production than other oils and fats, because, in less time, the conversion efficiency of triglyceride to methyl ester is much higher than Basic reactants. Also, acids and enzymes can act as mediators in the reaction. But basic and acidic compounds are more applicable since they shorten the reaction time and cost less. Also, some studies have shown that the enzymes are sensitive to methanol, so the methanol concentration in the mixture should be lower [14].
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G4 Quartet·M+Borate Hydrogels

G4 Quartet·M+Borate Hydrogels

Understanding molecular recognition and self-assembly pro- cesses is key for building functional materials such as supramolecular hydrogels. 1 Supramolecular hydrogels are colloidal networks composed of molecular building blocks that self-assemble into a fi ber network that can entrap relatively large amounts of water. 2 Entanglement of these fi bers leads to a hydrogel, one that is typically 98% water by weight, but is self- supporting and does not fl ow freely. Because the supra- molecular assemblies that de fi ne the gel ’ s network are held together by noncovalent interactions, supramolecular gelation is a dynamic and reversible process that may respond to stimuli, such as pH, light, enzyme activity, ions or temperature. 3−8 Responsive and dynamic hydrogels are understandably attractive for many applications, including sensing of biomolecules and ions, as media for cell culture, tissue engineering and targeted drug delivery. 1,9−14
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Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Vascular White Matter Changes on MR Images Must Not Exclude Patients from Shunt Surgery

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Vascular White Matter Changes on MR Images Must Not Exclude Patients from Shunt Surgery

tissue edema and ischemia. Accordingly, the path- ophysiological mechanism would correspond to certain MR imaging changes and the clinical picture. The reductions in ventricular index and width of the third ventricle were numerically equal in im- proved and unimproved patients, although the re- ductions were statistically significant only in the larger group of improved patients. Normalizing CSF dynamics and intracranial pressure can restore the size and form of the ventricular system, prob- ably through the CSF diversion itself, for the most part. Normalization of size, however, does not cor- relate with clinical improvement and thus does not relate to the reversible process in NPH. Ventricular size and form probably cannot be used to predict the shunt effect.
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Aggregation and docking strategies for mobile self reconfigurable robots

Aggregation and docking strategies for mobile self reconfigurable robots

The concept of mobile self-reconfigurable (MSR) robots which are capable of implementing tasks as many individual modules or as a combined robot has been inspired from the common advantages of distributed robotics and self-reconfigurable robots. The key problem related to the design and implementation of such systems is how to achieve the reversible process between dispersing mobile robots and connected robot. Since the late 1980s, a large body of research has already shown that the component modules of MSR robotic system can be set up to address a variety of tasks under different environmental circumstances. Fukuda and Nakagawa proposed the first MSR robot CEBOT consisting of separable autonomous units, which was able to adapt itself to changing environments via dynamical reconfiguration among these units [1]. Motomura et al. investigated a concept SMC for planetary exploration, and described potential benefits of such systems in the context of autonomous all-terrain locomotion [2]. Brown et al. designed a prototype Millibot Trains composed of tracked mobile units, which allowed the units to engage/disengage under computer control, and the manually configurable train demonstrated the ability to climb stairs and vertical steps [3]. Mondada, O'Grady, and Gro et al. proposed a robotic concept SWARM-BOT in which the collective interaction was exploited by the swarm intelligence mechanism, and mechanical functionalities on the single robot allowed to address complex mobile robotics problems [4 - 6]. The afore-mentioned research extended the applicable view of MSR robots; however, most of the docking mechanisms were based on the weak mobility of individual modules, and very little research has been conducted into how modules with strong movement capacity can autonomously arrange themselves into configurations.
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Using Parahydrogen to Hyperpolarize Amines, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Phosphates and Carbonates

Using Parahydrogen to Hyperpolarize Amines, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Phosphates and Carbonates

H detection methods (28). However, because exchangeable protons fea- ture heavily in biochemical NMR, we expect harnessing this effect to be of significant interest to biochemists, especially if it is augmented with high- field transfer via the “low-irradiation generation of high tesla–SABRE” approach (29). In addition, because hyperpolarized urea, glucose, and pyruvate reflect successful MRI probes of disease (30, 31), when SABRE- RELAY is coupled with catalyst removal and biocompatibility, we expect this route to become clinically important because it can theoretically deliver a continuously hyperpolarized bolus (32). Moreover, because studies of catalysis with p-H 2 have made significant contributions to process op-
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High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

adventitial thickening [13, 14]. Sites of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction are small pulmonary arterioles and veins with a diameter of , 900 m m. Venous changes account for , 20% of the total increase in pulmonary vascular resistance caused by hypoxia [7, 8]. The result of these changes is an increased pressure load on the right ventricle leading to reduced exercise capacity and premature death from right ventricular failure. The structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature are due, at least in part, to hypoxia-associated smooth muscle cell proliferation and, together with increased pulmonary vascular tone, represent targets for therapeutic intervention [6]. Histological examination of the pulmonary vessels in high- altitude residents who died from causes other than CMS showed persistence of the typical fetal patterns (thickened media) [15, 16]. The fact that high altitude-induced changes of the pulmonary vasculature and right heart are reversible upon relocation to a lower altitude suggests a rapid remodelling process of the pulmonary vessels in response to changes in atmospheric oxygen content [17]. Moreover, the fact that at high altitude supplemental oxygen significantly decreases pulmon- ary arterial pressure (P pa ), both in acclimatised healthy subjects and long-term high-altitude residents, also supports this remodeling concept [10, 18]. The study by L I and S UI [19]
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A Survey for applied Attacks on Digital Watermarking Methods, DCT & RW
                 

A Survey for applied Attacks on Digital Watermarking Methods, DCT & RW  

The development of information technology and communication network, multimedia technique has been applied to many related fields. The confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA) of multimedia information, as the fundamental properties, are easily damaged in signal processing and transmission process because of the vulnerability and the external environment. Therefore, it is essential to search for some effective methods to deal with these problems. Digital watermarking has provided a valid solution to this problem. Image, audio or video marks can be embedded into digital contents for the purpose of content authentication, copyright protection, forensic tracking, counterfeit deterrence, multimedia
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Using Parahydrogen to Hyperpolarize Amines, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Phosphates and Carbonates

Using Parahydrogen to Hyperpolarize Amines, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Phosphates and Carbonates

H detection methods (28). However, because exchangeable protons fea- ture heavily in biochemical NMR, we expect harnessing this effect to be of significant interest to biochemists, especially if it is augmented with high- field transfer via the “low-irradiation generation of high tesla–SABRE” approach (29). In addition, because hyperpolarized urea, glucose, and pyruvate reflect successful MRI probes of disease (30, 31), when SABRE- RELAY is coupled with catalyst removal and biocompatibility, we expect this route to become clinically important because it can theoretically deliver a continuously hyperpolarized bolus (32). Moreover, because studies of catalysis with p-H 2 have made significant contributions to process op-
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Cashinahua cosmovision : a perspectival approach to identity and alterity

Cashinahua cosmovision : a perspectival approach to identity and alterity

The process of becoming of another kind is complex and is almost always longer by being Cashinahua "real" One sharing with village no reversible., a stops different long in different for[r]

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Kinetics of lithium peroxide oxidation by redox mediators and consequences for the lithium–oxygen cell

Kinetics of lithium peroxide oxidation by redox mediators and consequences for the lithium–oxygen cell

geneous rate constant for electron transfer at the electrode surface to support the required charging rates, a highly reversible redox process such that the cycle may be carried out many times, and of course not only be capable of oxidising Li 2 O 2 , but with a suffi-

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Title: An Improved Implementation of 4-bit Multiplier Using Reversible Gates

Title: An Improved Implementation of 4-bit Multiplier Using Reversible Gates

Just as there can be universal gates for classical irreversible computing, such as the NAND gate (which has two inputs and one output), so too can there be universal gates for classical reversible computing. However, the smallest gates that are both reversible and universal require three inputs and three outputs. Two well-known examples are the FREDKIN (controlled-SWAP) gate and the TOFFOLI (controlled CNOT) gate .

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Application of Gold Nanoparticle and Three-Dimensional Graphene Based Electrode for Sensitive Voltammetric Analysis of Luteolin

Application of Gold Nanoparticle and Three-Dimensional Graphene Based Electrode for Sensitive Voltammetric Analysis of Luteolin

As shown in Fig.3 the increase of scan rate also resulted in the increase of the peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp), which indicated a quasi-reversible electrode process. Then the relationship of the peak potentials with lnυ were calculated with regression equations as Epa(V) = 0.050 lnυ(V s -1 ) + 0.49 (γ = 0.997) and Epc(V) = -0.045 lnυ(V s -1 ) + 0.041 (γ = 0.997). According to Laviron’s equation [31],

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THRESHOLD DEPENDENT DATA EMBEDDING AND EXTRACTING SCHEME BASED ON PIXEL PAIR EXPANSION METHOD

THRESHOLD DEPENDENT DATA EMBEDDING AND EXTRACTING SCHEME BASED ON PIXEL PAIR EXPANSION METHOD

Digital watermark is a type of technology that embeds copyright information into digital image. Digital Watermarking works by hiding information inside digital data, such that it cannot be noticed without any software help with the purpose of building sure the covered data is present in all copies of the information that are completed whether legally or if not, in spite of efforts to scratch or eradicate it. Generally it is known that each watermark system consists of an embedding algorithm and an extracting algorithm. The embedding algorithm includes the watermark details in the data and the extracting algorithm decodes the watermark details. We have proposed a reversible embedding and extraction mechanism to embed data in an image which modify the embedded location in least significant bits. The algorithm has good embedding capacity along with preserving the original content of the image up to an acceptance level. This has been measured in terms of PSNR and MSE values which tell the degradation in watermarked image with respect to original image. The algorithm works in fully reversible domain in which there is no need of secret key as well as the original image as it uses only the watermarked image to extract the embedded bits in same sequence.
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Brdt Bromodomains Inhibitors and Other Modern Means of Male Contraception

Brdt Bromodomains Inhibitors and Other Modern Means of Male Contraception

The starting point for bromodomains re- search in the context of contraception was the ex- istence of triazolothienodiazepine (JQ1) – a  po- tent inhibitor of Brd4 bromodomain (Bromodo- main-containing protein 4) that has a role in the pathogenesis of cancer by inhibiting the transcrip- tion of the oncogene Myc (myelocytomatosis on- cogene) [34]. Blocking bromodomains in proteins involved in the transcription’s initiation and elon- gation of other MYC-dependent genes leads to the cessation of cell cycle and division of tumor cells such as multiple myeloma or certain hematologic malignancies (AML-acute myeloid leukemia) [34]. Intensively proliferating germ cells have function- al similarities to the tumor cells. Spermio- and spermatogenesis are unique processes in which the male genome must be properly packed to preserve its integrity during complex changes in the struc- ture of chromatin and the entire developing germ cells. These phenomena require sophisticated con- trol system of which bromodomains are part [32]. Dynamic structural changes in chromatin that oc- cur during spermatogenesis are still not fully un- derstood but it is clear that the correct Brdt is nec- essary for the proper conduct of these process- es. Chromocenter is the central organizing chro- matin structure of spermatids and mature sperm, and without the proper functioning of Brdt, it is impossible to achieve the correct architecture of the sperm nucleus [32]. The significance of bro- modomains in spermatogenesis was inspired by the suspicion of their involvement in the patho- genesis of male infertility. In the research of Bar- da et al., 120 men (n = 120) with confirmed azo- ospermia, histological and cytological tests of tes- ticular tissue were performed. Findings were as follows: a mixed cell atrophy, spermatocytes mat- uration arrest, SCO (Sertoli cell only), or normal spermatogenesis. The resulting formulations rat- ed qualitatively and quantitatively bromodomain expression and the localization of four BET family genes as well as BRDT protein localization in tes- tis and sperms. Brdt gene was not expressed in tes- ticular tissue in patients with SCO leading to azo- ospermia, while the expression of the other three BET family bromodomains was invalid in patients with other causes of azoospermia [35]. Brdt pro- tein was localized in testicular tissue, spermato- cytes, spermatides and ejaculated spermatozoa. Brdt Protein expression was almost completely halted in testicular tissue samples from patients with impaired maturation of sperm. Importantly, the pattern of Brdt expression in humans differs from Brdt expression in mice. In humans Brdt is
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Data security in QR code using Steganography

Data security in QR code using Steganography

In above figure 1, block 1 has created one standard QR code. The private message store in this QR code which in encoded form. The Patches Formation module extract number of patches form cover image. In block 2, black and white modules in Standard QR code are replaced by number of pixels which are fetches form patches. Then QR coded hide by cover image. The block 3 make decode process of QR code.

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Reversible Watermarking Techniques: An Overview and a Classification

Reversible Watermarking Techniques: An Overview and a Classification

visual quality of the watermarked image compared with other algorithms reported in the literature. The method can also tolerate JPEG compression at low quality factor. To reconstruct the original image, the algorithm implements a four-level integer wavelet transform, CDF 9/7, a bi- orthogonal wavelet based on lifting scheme. The original image can be obtained if the marked image has not been altered. As seen in Zou [22], for most of the images, the integer wavelet coefficients histogram, of the high- frequency sub-band, follow a near zero-mean Laplacian-like distribution. IWT coe ffi cients values in the high-frequency sub-band are concentrated near zero in the histogram. This property is used to implement reversible data hiding. Before to start with embedding process, the image is pre- processed by histogram modification, to prevent underflow or overflow. Then four-level IWT is performed on the pre- processed image. The watermark is embedded in LL 4 sub-
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Oztas

Oztas

DNA codes are obtained from the same codes. The properties of DNA codes with the family of cyclic dual and self dual codes have been explored. Thus an extension of what was done in [20] has been established in the most general sense without puncturing. The idea that we have used can be used for different such extensions as well. However, the finite chain property of the ring, which is useful in both describing all the ideals of the ring and making it easier to study cyclic codes, has been essential in obtaining our main results. When the extension ring does not have the finite chain property, some partial results can still be obtained, however a complete characterization, similar to what we have done here, is very challenging. Hence, future studies on the general case i.e reversible and complement cyclic codes over different rings such as R 2k remains to be an open and interesting problem.
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Electrochemical Study of Commercial Black Tea Samples

Electrochemical Study of Commercial Black Tea Samples

This work reported the redox processes assessment in C. sinensis samples. The crude vegetal samples tested, namely BT1 and BT2 presented almost identical voltammetric profiles, and their analysis suggested that the first anodic process is reversible, whereas the second irreversible. In addition, an electrochemical catalytic mechanism can be attributed to the first redox pair, which therefore indicates that electron transfer is coupled with preceding or follow-up chemical reactions during sample analysis. The low E pa , high I pa amplitude and reversible redox behavior correlates to
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