Since the application of silicon nitride thin film as a planar waveguide for sensing applications, the features such as sensitivity, miniaturization, immobilization protocols and detection techniques are being improved. However there is no improvement observed in waveguide fabrication technology. Conventional CVD fabrication provides good quality optical waveguides but it inherits high deposition temperature (> 400 o C). Silicon nitride thin films deposited at low temperatures by CVD technology are usually porous, unstable and contain a large amount of hydrogen (Karouta et al., 2012) . Another disadvantage of CVD technology is involvement of toxic gases such as silane, dicholorosilane and ammonia.
and high electrical conductivity [1, 2]. Due to these characteristics; Cu thin films are widely used for many applications alike diodes , solar cells  and high-speed integrated circuits (IC) [5, 6]. The Cu thin films usually fabricated by different technique, including Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition (RPLD) , DC magnetronsputtering , RFmagnetronsputtering , ion beam assisted DC magnetron reactive sputtering  and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) . We choose the DC magnetronsputtering method because it has many advantages, such as high growth rate, the possibility of large area deposition, and low cost .
discussed. These ﬁlms have the single phase structure after heat treatment at all heat-treatment temperatures. Figure 3 shows the shift of the phase peak to higher angle with increasing heat treatment temperature. The peak shift is considered to be caused by the relaxation of residual compressive stress in the ﬁlms. It has been reported that residual compressive stress is generated in sputter-deposited TiN ﬁlms and is relaxed by heat treatment in TiN ﬁlms/M2 tool steels. 16) Although the general and relaxation of the residual stress are in agreement with the present work, the stress state appears to have little eﬀect on the hardness of the ﬁlms, as shown in Fig. 2. This may be related to the geometrical constriction of the hardness measurement. To be more speciﬁc, XRD –2 scan measures strain, or stress, in the ﬁlm normal direction. This normal stress induces biaxial planar stress of the opposite sign. Therefore, tensile normal stress induces compressive planar stress, which may cause hardening in the ﬁlm normal direction and softening in the ﬁlm plane. Meanwhile, stress ﬁeld generated by indentation is isotropic and compressive in both normal and planar directions. Because of this isotropic nature of indentation, the obtained results would be a spatial average of the ﬁlms mechanical response. As a result, it is considered that the internal stress of the ﬁlms has no notable eﬀect on the hardness. This is supported by ﬁnite element simulation of the nanoindentation hardness, which showed only a small eﬀect of residual stress on the hardness. 17)
Since the early 1980’s exclusive licenses from two prominent “Silicon Valley” laboratories have been granted to US Inc., permitting the manufacture and distribution of patented PlanarMagnetron Sputter Sources. With over 6,000 sources delivered throughout the world, US Inc. has become known world wide as a leading supplier of sputter deposition sources.
known that HAp exhibits the anisotropy of reactivity with human saliva 60) and mechanical properties. 61,62) Therefore, the preferred orientation of OAp ﬁlms should be controlled for the biomedical applications. Several researchers studied the preferred orientation in calcium phosphate ﬁlms on Ti substrates by sputtering. 23,36,50) Although the (002) preferred orientation was mentioned in literatures, the relationship between the preferred orientation and the deposition con- ditions in RFmagnetronsputtering has not been reported so far. The present work revealed that signiﬁcantly (002) oriented OAp ﬁlms can be obtained at lower total pressure and C O 2 conditions.
In this paper we report fabrication and characterization of ZnO thin film for acoustic sensor application. ZnO thin film of thickness about 680 nm was deposited using RF reactive magnetronsputtering. This film was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for its microstructure and morphology. The sensing property of the ZnO thin film was investigated using a standard electro-acoustic calibrator. The as-synthesized ZnO thin film produced noticeable piezoelectric voltage output for different Sound Pressure Levels. This study indicated the suitability of sputtered ZnO thin film for acoustic sensor application.
condition necessary to produce ITO films with high conductivity and optical transparency over a wide spectral range were studied and optimized. The more influential factors determining the optical and electrical properties including partial pressure of the reactive gas The sputtering power as well as other growth related effects is analyzed. Transmission was measured with perkin – Elmer – UV/VIS lambda 40 spectrometer and electrical studies using four probe and Hall effect setup. Structural characterization of the films has been done by XRD. Characterization of the coatings revealed specific receptivity’s below 6.5 10- 3 Ω . Films deposited without annealing were amorphous and the crystallinity
to its wide bandgap, excellent coefficient of thermal expansion that matches with silicon wafers, relatively good thermal and mechanical stabilities, superior cost- of-ownership compared to other materials, and so on. The formation or deposition of the a-SiC:H film has mainly been done by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [9,10]. However, the thermal stability of the hydrogen-containing film is degraded during a post- high-temperature firing process. To avoid the hydrogen molecule ’ s void generation, the authors have proposed an a-SiC deposition method by radio frequency [RF] sputtering which was performed by a single silicon-car- bide composite target in an argon environment . In this paper, we introduce a deposition method of amor- phous silicon carbide [a-Si 1-x C x ] which was done by RF
medical implants. In fact, almost all dental implants are made of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) or þ type titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V. The ﬁxation between the dental implants and bones might be inﬂuenced by the state of the bones and the possible length of the implants. Coating of titanium implants with calcium phosphate is one of the methods used to improve their osseointegration. Currently, plasma spraying is the primary method used commercially to fabricate a calcium phosphate coating on dental implants. However, plasma-sprayed calcium phos- phate coating exhibits a poor adherence to titanium substrates and nonuniformity; a critical thickness is required to ensure complete covering of the implant surface, resulting in delayed failures associated with inﬂammatory diseases. 3) We examined the fabrication of calcium phosphate thin ﬁlms on CP-Ti substrates using radiofrequency (RF) magnetronsputtering with hot-pressed -tricalcium phosphate (-TCP) plates as the sputtering target and reported the phase, deposition rate, and preferential crystallographic orientation of the calcium phosphate ﬁlms 4) and their reactivity in
Where β is the measured FWHM (in radiant), θ is the Bragg angel of the peak, the λ is the X-ray diffraction wavelength, L is the effective crystalline size. Dislocation density and microstrain developed on the thickness of the films and table (1) displays XRD data for NiO nano films deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputter.
deposited by RFmagnetronsputtering at a constant power of 150 W and at different working pressures, i.e., (3, 5) Pa, have been shown in Figure 2a,b for unbiased substrates. Both the surface structures exhibit the porous configuration. The results revealed that at working pressures of 3 and 5 Pa, the films deposited on unbiased substrates possessed very high surface roughness with some valleys and almost spherical agglomerates. The roughness of these thin films was characterized accord- ing to RMS roughness value. In our experiment, the RMS roughness values were estimated to be 176.50 and 202.76 nm for the thin films grown at 3 and 5 Pa, respectively, for the unbiased substrate. At high working pressures, sputtered atoms or clusters reached the substrate with reduced kinetic energies, which caused the surface roughness to increase [22,23]. The employing of substrate bias to the film at a working pressure of 3 Pa modified the surface morphology; as seen, the agglomerates grew up along the surface but collapsed in the vertical direction. Along with the disappearance of the so-called profile valleys, the RMS roughness showed an obvious reduction from 176.50 to 9.30 nm as the substrate bias (V) changed from 0 to −50 V, as shown in Figure 3c. The surface- smoothening effect was mainly attributed to the ion
as a stable, common and biocompatible mineral of very low toxicity (7). Beginning in the 1970s, research electrochemists and materials scientists began to discover the power of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a tool for studying difficult and complicated systems. The physical barrier was evaluated via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), which had many advantages in comparison with other electrochemical techniques. During EIS experiments, a small amplitude AC signal was applied to the system being studied with different frequencies. By analysis of these responses of frequency domain, different corrosion process may be deduced & studied. An equivalent electrical circuit of a corrosion system was often used in analysis of EIS measurements (8). This paper reports, the results of an investigation of corrosion resistance of nanostructure deposited used RF
Many factors strongly influence both the physical and chemical properties of ZnO films, such as the type of doping, film thickness, substrate type and the growth temperature. Recently, the influence of the Al doping concentrations on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films has been studied [3,13,14]. More recently, several studies have focused on the influence of doping levels on the surface morphology of the films [4,15]. In the present work intrinsic and (slightly) aluminum-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive RF magne- tron sputtering to investigate the influence of the Al con- tent, principally on the structural and surface morphol- ogy.
various thicknesses on unheated substrates by RFmagnetronsputtering were investigated. The XRD results show that the crystalline structures vary with ﬁlm thickness due to plasma particle bombardment. The intensity of mixed anatase and rutile structures was highest for the 500-nm-thick ﬁlm deposited on a glass substrate. The SEM images and the roughness data obtained using AFM indicate that the surface morphology and roughness of glass and ITO glass substrates (a)
using RFmagnetronsputtering technique (CRC 600 Torr CO.) at argon pressure of 1×10 -3 mbar and plasma sputtering power of 100 Watt. Deposition time is 90 minutes for all the sputtering experiments. Pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and
Table 1 shows a comparison of data derived from the I-V data for the all sputtering-made p-n GaN diode. It is noted that the ideality factor n decreases whereas the barrier increases with the increase in the testing tempera- ture. This result can be attributed to the combination of the low and high barrier heights of diodes with the I-V behavior in the standard TE mode. At the room temperature, the flow of the electron transport across the metal- semiconductor interface of devices is able to overcome the lower barriers. Therefore, the current transport will be determined by electrons flowing through the path of lower barrier height and a larger ideality factor. When the testing temperature increases, more and more electrons will have sufficient energy to transcend the higher barrier. As a result, the dominant barrier height will increase with increasing the testing temperature . Other reasons are the inhomogeneous thickness of films and non-uniformity of the interfacial charges to lead to the in- crease in ideality factor and the decrease in the barrier height for testing at lower temperatures. In addition, the increase in the carrier concentration of GaN layers and the decrease in the parasitic resistances found at the higher testing temperature also have caused the rise of barrier height and the fall of ideality factor .
X-ray diﬀractometer study indicates that all deposited films shows amorphous nature as shown in Figure 1. One of the reasons for this may be low activation energy of sputtering atoms at low substrate temperature. The crystallization of the films cannot occur at a low temperature [11-15]. For electrochromic device applications, Sivakumar, et al.  also reported that amorphous nature is preferable.
they may aﬀect the magnetostrictive susceptibility. In addition, the residual gas pressure, which may easily controls the interface atomic structure of morphology, should be also one of basic factors to aﬀect the susceptibility. To apply wireless acoustic sensor and tiny actuator with high respon- siveness driven by low intensity of magnetic ﬁeld and low electrical potential, inﬂuences of sputtering gas pressure, substrate temperature, residual gas pressure and their combinations of morphology on magnetostrictive suscepti- bility of Fe 2:2 Sm alloys prepared by DC-magnetron sputter-