Rhetoric and performance

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'As Shakespeare so memorably said...':Quotation, rhetoric, and the performance of politics

'As Shakespeare so memorably said...':Quotation, rhetoric, and the performance of politics

26 his commitment to liberty and to the idea of the Roman republic, even as the mighty armies of Caesar approach, was, in its day, a wild success and for many an inspiration (Miller, 1999). When Trenchard and Gordon, from 1720-3, wrote their Whig tracts, they chose to present them under the name of Cato, inspired by Addison. Cato’s Letters in turn became hugely influential in the American colonies, where Addison’s play was George Washington’s favourite: he thought the title character an excellent role model, and had the tragedy performed for his soldiers during the War of Independence. The lines that would later be a reference in Thatcher’s speech were used by Washington in a letter to Benedict Arnold: ‘It is not in the power of any man to command success; but you have done more — you have deserved it’. 4 Today the play is, in effect, part of the canon of North American free-market liberal culture – a canon that Thatcher did not cite directly but which she nevertheless invoked – sounding like a particular kind of leader from a particular sort of ideological and performance context.
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Rhetoric and Pedagogy

Rhetoric and Pedagogy

At this point we should pause to consider what range of skills skilful practitioners of persuasive speech need. Obviously, one must be able to speak fluently and coherently. But speaking presupposes that you have something to say: the first and fundamental requirement is thus the ability to find what, in any given situation, is worth saying (heuresis, inventio). Once you have found it, you must be able to put your material into coherent and intelligible order (taxis, dispositio) and express it well (lexis or phrasis, elocutio). But these preparations will be wasted if, when the time comes, you cannot remember what you intended to say ( mn m , memoria), or cannot present it effectively in performance (hupokrisis, actio). That catalogue of skills reconstructs another important element of ancient rhetorical theory — the five parts of oratory: invention, disposition, expression, memory, and delivery. But this, too, was not a timeless canon: the theory developed gradually in the Hellenistic period, after Aristotle and before Cicero, and by the end of the second century AD it had broken down, in part for pedagogical reasons. Fundamental to the discovery of good arguments is the ability to identify a relevant and effective way of handling the particular kind of question in dispute: a disputed question of fact, for example, requires different treatment from a dispute about the justification of an admitted fact (the point implicit in Antiphon’s Tetralogies). But it makes little sense to treat under the single heading of invention both the mapping out of a global argumentative strategy and the detailed implementation of that strategy, which must vary between the parts of a speech according to their different functions. This problem, which defeated the authors of Hellenistic and Roman handbooks, was eventually solved by separating out the preliminary analysis un der the heading of ‘intellection’ (no sis ). The scope of invention was then narrowed to the parts of a speech, but at the same time expanded to embrace questions of style and tactical organisation that arise within the different parts.
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Protagorians Among Us: Rhetorical Performances at Occupy

Protagorians Among Us: Rhetorical Performances at Occupy

The staging of Occupy was playful, in that it was both a spectacle with the intention to seek spectacle. Equally, it was ironic as its intent was to provoke via the anarchy of sabotage and trespass. This jaunty theatre of irony and play jolted people out of their malaise by jabbing and provoking them to fight for a society that respected itself and drew lines in the sand against what is intolerable. Signs brandished by protesters included: “Tax the F***ing Rich” – held by a pensioner of advanced years; “I lost my job, and found an Occupation” – next to the tent of a middle-aged female; and “I am here for my future” – written in shocking pink on the small placard of five year old. A performance of virtuous rhetoric granted spectators a space in which to be optimistic in the belief that one (or many) might be able to mitigate the existential pointlessness of it all through something: “This is the 1 st time I have felt hopeful in a very long time,” screamed one placard. There was hope, but there was anger too.
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Who’s afraid of barbarians? Interrogating the Trope of ‘Barbarian Invasions’ in Western Public Rhetoric from 1989 to the Present.

Who’s afraid of barbarians? Interrogating the Trope of ‘Barbarian Invasions’ in Western Public Rhetoric from 1989 to the Present.

Insight into the conceptual history of the barbarian is indispensable in untangling the implications and rhetorical force of its contemporary uses. Although sketching the concept’s history exceeds the scope of this article, I will briefly revisit the historical narrative of Rome and its barbarians as it took shape in Edward Gibbon’s magnum opus The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon’s history was the main source of dissemination of the trope of barbarian invasions. His historical narrative and the Enlightenment spirit inscribed in it resonate in contemporary uses of this trope and could thus shed some light on the ideological operations of these uses. I then turn to recent history in order to trace the political climate and discursive tendencies that helped reintroduce the barbarian as a pivotal figure in Western rhetoric from 1989 to the present. Questioning the self- evidence with which the term is used today, I ask which historical, political and cultural forces produce this semblance of self-evidence and which narratives of self and other are promoted or repressed in the contemporary talk about civilization and the fear of barbarians.
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An Impossible Dialogue! Nominal Utterances and Populist Rhetoric in an Italian Twitter Corpus of Hate Speech against Immigrants

An Impossible Dialogue! Nominal Utterances and Populist Rhetoric in an Italian Twitter Corpus of Hate Speech against Immigrants

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we will present some background studies on pop- ulism and hate speech in social media and on nom- inal utterances. In Section 3, we will describe the Italian Twitter Corpus of Hate Speech against Im- migrants, its original annotation scheme and the sample we analyzed, POP-HS-IT. In Section 4, we will illustrate the new annotation layers we used to investigate the relationship between populism and hate speech in POP-HS-IT, describing every layer individually and reporting information on the inter-annotator agreement. In Section 5, we will present and discuss the results of the annotation, analyzing the presence of news and nominal ut- terances, then focusing on the role of slogan-like nominal utterances and, in the end, on the dualis- tic constructions of in/out-group rhetoric. In the Conclusions results are summarized in the light of the initial RQs and some proposals of future works are discussed.
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Holy War rhetoric in Elizabethan England

Holy War rhetoric in Elizabethan England

might therefore have been a sense of self-preservation that united the English, especially when the Spanish Armada threatened both the English church and state. Not anti-Spanish sentiment helped bring unity to the nation, but the threat of anti-Protestant, and therefore anti-English, forces. During Elizabeth’s reign multiple military conflicts threatened to consume her kingdom. France had reclaimed Calais in 1558, and by 1560 French soldiers were stationed in Scotland, threatening the northern border of England. So, when King Philip II decided to send an army to the Low Countries in 1566, and ordered the duke of Alba to suppress the growing Protestant rebellion there, the English felt more threatened than ever. Being a Protestant state, the English interpreted the Spanish occupation of the Low Countries as part of an attack on Protestantism in general, and a prelude of invasion into their own territory. The English feared that once Spain had eradicated Protestantism from the Low Countries, it would turn against the heretics in England. Logically, the ever-present threat of prevailing Catholicism posed a risk for the Elizabethan royal regime, and endangered the religious freedom of the entire Protestant English nation. It can be said that anti-Catholicism, and in it the Holy War rhetoric the polemical works contained, therefore became part of national ideology. It was Catholicism against Protestantism.
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Rhetorical Grounding and an Agile Attitude: Complex Systems, Multi-Genre Testing, and Service Learning in UX

Rhetorical Grounding and an Agile Attitude: Complex Systems, Multi-Genre Testing, and Service Learning in UX

As Redish (2010) noted: “Understanding complexity—how to create products and processes for complex situations as well as how to build usability in and assess the usability of complex systems—is becoming a major topic for technical communicators and usability professionals” (p. 198). Although we did not realize it at the time, because we were focused on meeting both graduate instructor and client demands, our academic grounding in rhetoric and technical communication served as an excellent nexus to cope with a sprinter’s deadline, a complex system, and a constantly shifting path. The rhetorical situation, defined by Bitzer (1968) as a “natural context of persons, events, objects, relations, and an exigency which strongly invites utterance” (p. 5), provided the assumptions and constraints under which our team worked. The “natural context” included the convergence of client, designers, and testers during the two- week seminar. The service-learning project produced our exigency, and the client’s authentic need for user experience feedback provided the kairotic moment. Based on an expected level of user experience, the graphical user interface (GUI) was built with no help files or user’s manual. Designers felt the GUI was intuitive, expecting the product’s target audience—usability
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Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth: Bank Credit Maturity and Its Determinants

Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth: Bank Credit Maturity and Its Determinants

The climate proved to be particularly receptive to Buchanan’s rhetoric and solidified his position as a centrist. The reviews of the book were overwhelmingly positive. Of course, there were a few reviews that called Buchanan out as a racist or fear-monger. However, a perusal of the reviews on the most popular book-seller sites reveals that most Americans considered Buchanan’s rhetoric to be reasonable and justified. One reviewer on Amazon wrote “Well written and reasoned. Of course there will be a few open border types who will slam the book based on their socialist political views (probably without really reading it!). Those of us who desire to live in a safe, sovereign nation understand the difference between sensible immigration policies and racism.” After publishing the book, Buchanan was offered a job as a political analyst on MSNBC, a network that is home to mostly liberal political commentators. He joins the panel of almost every show on almost every day of the week. Despite espousing many of the same ideas as Jared Taylor, Buchanan’s successful realignment has earned him a spot as a mainstream media pundit.
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Employability: is it myth or rhetoric?

Employability: is it myth or rhetoric?

Higher education institutes should not necessarily rush in to providing and or changing their curriculum for the short term advantages of giving students some so called emp[r]

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The Rhetoric of Listless Prose

The Rhetoric of Listless Prose

We already have the youth problem, the racist problem, the distribution problem, the political problem, the economic problem, the crime problem, the matrimonial problem, the ecological p[r]

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Rhetoric, Argumentation and Logic

Rhetoric, Argumentation and Logic

There are two modes of rhetoric wh ich do not utilize speech acts (that is, not simply speech acts) that lay the foundations of rhetorical argumentative appeals.. [r]

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Ideology, Rhetoric and Argument

Ideology, Rhetoric and Argument

In The German Ideology, Marx argued that a critical analysis of human society had to begin not with the dominant politi- cal philosophy or consciousness of the age, but[r]

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Towards Computational Rhetoric

Towards Computational Rhetoric

Before giving our model for a rhetorical argument we need to introduce the primitive objects of our language, and in particular, after a general assumption on our domain ontolo[r]

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Rhetoric and Global Justice

Rhetoric and Global Justice

Another response is to accept that if we are to have any real political impact we need to take seriously the task of winning support for our cause, and thus to try to find space for rhetoric within the framework of a commitment to looking for mutually acceptable policies. recently many political theorists have observed that successful campaigns for social justice, for example the civil rights movement, tend to use tactics other than the dispassionate presentation of moral argument 15 , and theorists have consequently looked for ways to relax the conditions that that we place on interactions in the public sphere without undermining the ideals of transparency and reciprocity. For example, in ‘The Idea of Public reason revisited’, rawls suggested that it is acceptable to introduce comprehensive doctrines - doctrines that include what is of substantial value in human life, for example, religion - to public political discussion provided that ‘in due course proper political reasons...are presented that are sufficient to support whatever the comprehensive doctrines introduced are said to support’. 16 In Deliberative Democracy and Beyond, John dryzeck made a similar suggestion, arguing that that the use of rhetoric is acceptable so long as in the end these arguments are ‘answerable to reason’. 17 However, while these modifications do relax the conditions on the sorts of arguments that can be used in the public sphere, it is not clear that they will help us to resolve the problem of motivating people to support the campaign for global justice as it is not clear the sorts of arguments made by the ‘Make Poverty History’ campaign would fulfill this proviso. One way of interpreting the rawlsian
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The New Legal Rhetoric

The New Legal Rhetoric

The New Legal Rhetoric SMU Law Review Volume 40 | Issue 4 Article 5 1986 The New Legal Rhetoric Teresa Godwin Phelps Follow this and additional works at https //scholar smu edu/smulr This Article is b[.]

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Rule of Legal Rhetoric

Rule of Legal Rhetoric

In light of the foregoing, we might better think of our system as the Rule of Legal Rhetoric: political pushing and shoving, conducted in legal terminology, typically addressed through negotiation, ending in quasi- public resolutions—a complicated combination of multiple public author- ities and decentralized private initiatives.

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The role of emotion arousal in Aristotle’s Rhetoric

The role of emotion arousal in Aristotle’s Rhetoric

criticisms recur once again in a context in which they are closely connected with diabolê. Despite all this, Aristotle does not seem to see any connection here with the emotions. These sections contain no echo of or reference back to I.2 or II.1-11, even though, to the extent that they concentrate on eunoia (goodwill) and diabolê, we might be inclined to say that they have a good deal to do with emotion-arousal. They do not use the word “πάθος”, nor Aristotle’s standard words for the individual emotions. This is surely rather surprising on the view that in I.1 the defects – centering on irrelevance and distortion – highlighted by Aristotle in the handbook writers’ techniques arose precisely from their use of audience emotions. Aristotle’s use of terms like “πάθος” returns with his treatment in III.16 and 17 of the sections of the speech designated for setting out the speaker’s case and proving it. These sections – i.e. the sections on the parts of the speech that Aristotle sees as central to proof and properly belonging to the technê of rhetoric (i.e. as ἔντεχνόν) – do include discussion of how to use logos, êthos and, crucially for our interests here, pathos. So this section of book III on taxis seems to show familiarity with both of the earlier supposedly- contradictory passages, but treats the subject matter of each quite distinctly. 160 We suggest that this is evidence that they were distinct.
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Proof-reading Aristotle's Rhetoric

Proof-reading Aristotle's Rhetoric

expertise consists in and theirs comes down to a difference in their views of the nature and value of rhetoric itself. The handbook writers saw rhetoric as a skill for exercising power over others, whose value consisted principally in its value to its possessor. By contrast, Aristotle took a wider view, showing how the expertise possessed by speakers is valued not only by those speakers but by others too. His view involves seeing rhetoric as an expertise for whose exercise states make provision – states invite speeches by protagonists in lawsuits, and by proponents and opponents of political policies. States encourage speechmaking, and value the development of skill in this area, because this is seen as contributing to the quality of civic judgements. Audiences listen to speakers similarly with the aim of improving their judgements on the issues addressed. Even Aristotle’s view of rhetoric's value to its possessor derives in part from what is valuable about the judgements subsequently formed by listeners. Rhetoric is valuable to the speaker because it enables them to gain the verdict they desire, and in such a way as to constitute an endorsement of their own position, because judges deliberating soundly adopted their recommended
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John Chrysostom, rhetoric and Galatians

John Chrysostom, rhetoric and Galatians

A BSTRACT : This paper examines the influence of contemporary rhetoric on John Chrysostom’s commentary on Galatians (with some reference to other exegetical works). Because ancient rhetoric developed over time, the primary points of reference are works on rhetorical theory, commentaries on Demosthenes and rhetorical exercises dating to the second century AD and later. It is argued that modern attempts to classify the letter under the three standard classes of oratory are misconceived in terms of ancient theory, but that this is not an obstacle to rhetorical analysis. John’s use of rhetorical concepts in analysing the structure of the letter is illustrated, as is his use of the pattern of counterposition (an objection attributed to an opponent) and solution, both as a compositional device and as an exegetical tool. In his interpretation of Gal. 2.1-10, John argues Paul is unable to deal fully with counterpositions because of the constraints entailed by a covert strategy agreed by the apostles at the Jerusalem consultation. John’s interpretation of the confrontation with Peter at Antioch, according to which Peter pretended to give way to Paul’s opponents in order to give him an opportunity to respond, is shown to be based on the rhetorical concept of figured speech. John’s attention to Paul’s management of the relationship with his addressees is examined. The admiration which John expresses for this and other aspects of Paul’s rhetorical technique is shown to echo, in content and phrasing, similar expressions of admiration in commentaries on Demosthenes originating in contemporary rhetorical schools.
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Women in Iraq: beyond the rhetoric

Women in Iraq: beyond the rhetoric

Islamist political parties and militias in Iraq use women’s dress codes, social roles and legal rights to signal a radical break with the deposed regime, which was largely associated with secular politics and even a period of “state feminism” in the 1970s. Conservative Islamist forces are also reacting to the rhetoric of women’s rights and liberation coming from the White House and Downing Street by appealing to “cultural authenticity” and “Muslim values.” Ironically, the louder political leaders in the West shout “women’s rights” while Iraq is occupied, the bigger the backlash against women’s rights might be in the long run. Widely circulated images of the female soldier, Pvt. Lynndie England, sexually abusing Iraqi male prisoners at Abu Ghraib, can only worsen this backlash, as Iraqis ask the question: “Is this what women’s rights means?”
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