individually and through international assistance and co-operation, to the maximum of their available resources, with a view to achieving progressively the rights adopted in the present Covenant (…). The RTD is even more explicit in the obligation towards international co- operation. Article 3.3 states that States have the duty to co-operate with each other in ensuring development and eliminating obstacles to development (…). Article 4.2 requires sustained action to promote more rapid development of developing countries, and states that effective international co-operation is essential in providing these countries with appropriate means and facilities to foster their comprehensive development. Whether or not the RTD entails a claiming right for the developing countries on the developed countries is part of the debate on the RTD. In its article 1, the RTD describes the right to development as “an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.” Kirchmeier (2006:12) discusses the question whether peoples, or the states and their governments as representatives of the people can issue a claim against other states (as representatives of other peoples). Developed countries, the United States in particular, oppose a reading that gives claiming rights on developed countries. They reject the notion of a nation’s right to development, for the simple reason that nations do not have human rights. Chauffour (2009:8) argues that the RTD is “a flawed concept that has been politically skewed since its inception and, thus, proved to be largely impractical.” The RTD, however, is a declaration, as was the UDHR in 1948. It expresses a moral appeal, rather than a legally binding commitment. The chairwoman of the commission that prepared the UDHR, Eleanor Roosevelt, believed that such a declaration could become a force for change (Glendon 2001:86). Arguably, she has been right and the RTD can in this context be understood as a further step towards the realization of human rights.
their faith by cutting the long standing fake relationship with the former colon by starting using the aid fund to do something creative and constructive for their country; for example, Khadafy challenged America, France and Italy for many years until they find an ally in Libya corrupting him to overthrow Khadafy because the dictatorship system were obstructing those powerful states to interfere in the domestic affair of Libya and control their petrol resources , also standing on the argument that the dictatorship system was not adequate to allow Libya to reach its potential in term of economic development. The idea here stands on democracy values in order to bring the Libyan population to support the revolution. But in China, we see dozen of dozen of American and french companies, and they don’t dare criticize the regime. Right to development is more a state duty than an international community one. Another thing, consensus among our governing is a necessity for the peace and development of Africa nations. Yet, in Gabon, recently, when there was an insurrection regarding the reelection of Ali Bongo, under the demand of France, and its own interest, (Sassou, Congo Brazzaville president, ruling through its grand’s son in Gabon and its son in Congo when he retires 10 ) SASSOU
international society has recognized the principle univer- sally and widely . According to the Brundtland Re- port, “the sustainable development principle is the de- velopment that satisfies the needs of the present-day men as well as without doing harm to meet the needs of future generations” . There is no doubt that “the Convention on Climate Change” is one of the main documents in the field of sustainable development. For example, the forth paragraph of Article 3 of the convention announced, “the Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainable development”. The seventh paragraph of Article 4 of the convention points out, “the extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their com- mitments under the Convention will depend on the effec- tive implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.” These provisions of the convention reflect the right to development and the obligation of changing the mode of unsustainable pro- duction and consumption. The first paragraph of Article 2 of “the Kyoto Protocol” also links up emission reduc- tion commitment to sustainable development.
With respect to activating the right to development to combat develop- ment hazards, State needs to assume the obligation to protect and the obliga- tion to fulfil. The obligation to protect means not allow others to deprive the right-holder of the guaranteed right. It requires the State to take all measures, including passing and enforcing laws, to ensure that the individual under its jurisdiction are protected from infringements by third parties (individual, groups or corporations). In Article 8(1) the Declaration stipulates that the State should undertake, at the national level, all necessary measures for the realisa- tion of the right to development. In this regard, the state is required to ade- quately regulate the action of other entities, preventing them from denying or limiting the enjoyment of these rights, including the entitlement to fair distri- bution of benefits. In this light, the obligation to protect also implies address- ing any harmful practices by aggressive entities, such as powerful economic
The Right to Development as a Gender Equitable and Holistic Approach to Human Rights by Aileen Kwa L k u t a r e afirme que Ics conrCgwnces and class conflicts Simultaneously, for women as well as men[.]
fined in that way, the right to development implies economic, social, cultural and political development but we are focusing our study on economic develop- ment. There is no universally accepted definition of the concept of economic development. After 1945 Economic development became a major concern. At the end of European colonialism, many former colonies and other countries with low living standards came to be termed underdeveloped countries with those of the developed countries, such as Canada and United States, Soviet Un- ion, South Africa, Australia. Due to the rise of living standards, those countries were called developing countries. Definitions are diverse and multiple. Econom- ic development stands for Progress in an economy or the qualitative measure of this. Economic development usually refers to the adoption of new technologies, the transition from agriculture-based to the industry-based economy, and gen- eral improvement in living standards (Business Dictionary, 2009). Economic development is also the process in which an economy grows or changes and be- comes more advanced, especially when both economic and social conditions are improved (Cambridge Business English Dictionary, 2011). 3 An increase in citi-
Moving to the forefront of new technology The potential for information and digital technology to revolutionise healthcare is enormous. Its impact on some of the long- standing quality and safety problems of health systems around the world is already becoming evident in leading edge organisations. These developments include: the electronic medical record, electronic prescribing systems for medication, automated monitoring of acutely- ill patients, robotic surgery, smartphone applications to manage workload in hospitals at night, near-patient diagnostics in primary care, simulation training, incident reporting and analysis on mobile devices, extraction of real-time information to assess and monitor service performance, advanced telemedicine, and even smart kitchens and talking walls in dwellings adapted for people with dementia. There is no organised approach to seeking out and making maximum use of technology in the Northern Ireland care system. It could make a big difference in resolving some of the problems described in this report. There is evidence of individual Trusts making their own way forward on some technological fronts, but this uncoordinated development is inappropriate - the size of Northern Ireland is such that there should be one clear, unified approach.
After carefully reviewing the research data, four common settings for channelized island locations were found that help define the performance of right-in right-out locations. The location setting reflects the location of the channelizing island with respect to the best directional desire line to the major activity at the site for drivers approaching the site. Drivers try to take the most direct route to their desired destination. Data also indicated that there is a strong correlation between the channelized island settings and violation rate. At locations where the only means to decrease the travel time to or from an activity center is through a violation, the violation rate is found to be high. The location settings are developed based on how the right-in right-out channelized intersection is placed relative to other access and primary activities.
Despite the contested relationships among chordate mouths, the left-sided Pitx expression in amphioxus may serve similar functions as its vertebrate orthologs expressed medially at the anterior neural boundary. For example, mouse Pitx1 and Pitx2 regulate both early mor- phogenesis of Rathke’s pouch and later proliferation of pi- tuitary cell precursors [116,117]. Pitx1 activates expression of Lhx3 and acts in synergy with POU1F1/Pit1 to promote differentiation of pituitary cell types . Both Lhx3 and Pit1 homologs are expressed in the amphioxus preoral pit [52,119], and thus, it is possible that they interact with up- stream Pitx (Figure 8). Similarly, Pitx can regulate expres- sion of Dkk1/2/4 in the amphioxus mouth and preoral pit. Previously, it was shown that Dkk1 is co-expressed with Pitx factors in the oral region of Xenopus [120,121]. More- over, microarray analysis demonstrated that activators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are downregulated, while in- hibitors of this pathway, including Dkk1 , become upregu- lated, in the frog oral region; additionally, Dkk1 overexpression results in an enlarged mouth . Local inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the mouth re- gion is then necessary for proper dissolution of the basal lamina between the ectoderm and the endoderm and for the subsequent break of the oral membrane. A direct link between Pitx factors and Dkk1 during vertebrate mouth development has not been identified at the time of writ- ing, but Pitx2 has been shown to activate expression of Dkk2 during development of the anterior segment of the eye in mouse . The proposed regulation of Dkk1/2/4 expression by Pitx and local inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Dkk1/2/4 may thus together form an ancient mechanism to promote fusion between ectoderm and endoderm epithelia, as a prerequisite for normal morpho- genesis of the amphioxus mouth and preoral pit.
At Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust Sam Foster, Chief Nurse has undertaken a review of the ward sister/charge nurse role. A paper was shared with the Board setting out options for nursing including the creation of the ward sister/charge nurse supervisory role. This was endorsed by the Board who supported investment of £1.4m, creating and additional nurses of 60.48 full time equivalent(FTEs) which allowed for the ward sister/charge nurse to become supervisory. To support the transition new job descriptions were produced and a training needs analysis was undertaken with ward sisters/charge nurses with a complementary development programme introduced to provide them with the skills required to undertake their roles.