Abstract: In Malaysia, reactive crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level and in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot. The establishments of these statistics normally take years to complete as a result of several well-known setbacks within developing countries. Those obstacles had produced poor crash database having low accessibility, reliability and adequateness of crash data that finally brought major impact to the entire road safety system. In light of that, a proactive safety measure called Road Environment Assessment Program (REAP) has been developed to help evaluating the environment risk factors of a road, calculating the risk index and presented the results through Google Earth platform. REAP was developed based on composite risk index value aggregated from 14 road environment indicators existed in most Malaysia federal roads. Based on the local conditions of the selected roads, specific road environment risk factor were produced where trend and risk level as well as identifications of riskiest road section could be easily identified. REAP is a time-saving and cost-saving tool as it can directly recognize problematic road environment factors while planning on the best and suitable road improvement procedures for problematic sections.
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The risk factors for accident involvement between 13 and 17 years are a mixture of factors intrinsic to the young person (such as gender and behavioural proﬁle), those related to family background (single parenthood, number of siblings and level of parental monitoring) and some related to the external environment (stressful life events). There was no evidence of a social gradient in the likelihood of being involved in a road accident in adolescence, in contrast to childhood accidents. This is consistent with the ‘equalisation in youth’ concept, which explains that, because young people from better-off backgrounds have more access to bicycles, mopeds and motorcycles, they are exposed to increased risk on the road, which counters against the lower risk from living in a better-off neighbourhood and having access to safe play areas. Those children involved in repeat accidents in the road environment in childhood and adolescence showed similar numbers of girls and boys with
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Abstract: Human factor plays the most determinant role in traffic accidents. Speeding is a dominant cause of accidents in road transport. However, in order to improve safety, this is not the only element of the road transport system that should be considered. The road and/ or environment influence that behaviour as well, but they can be modified more quickly than drivers’ behaviour, and their effect can also be demonstrated. This paper describes the effect of road environment on chosen driving speed. Decisions of drivers are influenced by environmental impacts. Some of these impacts are planned, deliberate stimuli, being a part of the telematic systems of traffic control. In this paper the measure of road vehicles speed was analyzed on certain road urban and interurban sections which can be characterized by different design speed and construction parameters. Methods of mathematical statistics have been used to prove the hypothesis; the driving speed chosen by the driver depends heavily on the characteristics of urban and interurban road section. The aim of the author is to prove this hypothesis and the difference between urban and interurban decision environment.
Of course, in developing the acquisition program, one has to carefully analyze the raw data, programming al- so the final amount of data to be transmitted as a function of car speed and data nature. If, for instance, a car is running at 100 km/h, transmitting, let us say, 10 data each 30 seconds, it implies giving road environment in- formation along and approximately 1000 m track. Another example is related to when the on-board system rea- lizes the car is entering in a fog bank: the corresponding information has to be transmitted immediately.
increasing exposure to and involvement in alcohol/drug use, sexual experimentation and risky driver behaviour), and one of the factors which is thought to differentiate between adaptive and maladaptive risk is the occurrence and effectiveness of parental monitoring. Parents have knowledge of young children’s activities via active control, but as children get older and become more independent, parental knowledge about the child’s behaviour becomes increasingly dependent upon child disclosure. Stattin and Kerr (2000) suggest that effective parental monitoring involves parental control and also measures of parental knowledge; they also argue that parental knowledge relies on child disclosure, i.e. what the child chooses to tell the parent. In other words, it appears that the monitoring of adolescents may reﬂect more about the children than parents, and is likely to correlate with risk of accidents in the road environment. Young drivers who report that they live with both parents have less risky driving than those who live with only one parent, perhaps because of the ability of parents to monitor and be involved in their teenager’s behaviour (Shope et al., 2001).
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The purpose of this research was to inform and improve understanding of the implications associated with installation of a concrete central safety barrier (CCSB) in a mid-block, high speed rural road environment. This dissertation is aimed at increasing the awareness of these research outcomes for the practical use to design practitioners. This in turn will hopefully increase certainty and therefore delivery times when investigating treatments at these sites where the only other alternative is to ‘do nothing’. This study is relevant to median barriers on single carriageway, Brownfield sites. As such, this study is being completed from a reactive perspective but is hoped to aid in understanding and decision making in proactive design treatment at Greenfields sites.
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The article deals with the traffic intensity indicator as one of the factors influencing the risk of traffic congestion. On transport delays, which, with increasing duration, are transformed into transport congestion, various factors affect the geometric parameters of the road, the mode of operation of traffic lights, the presence of parked cars on the carriageway, the geographical scheme of the road network, traffic accidents, the psychophysiological state of the driver, the level of his professional training and others. The combination of these factors has a significant impact on traffic intensity and throughput of highways. The change in intensity is described by the times of the year, by the days of the week and by the hours of the day. An example of the change in traffic intensity by the seasons on the central part of the Saratov road network in 2016-2017 is given. A model for calculating the risk of traffic congestion at regulated intersections is presented, on the basis of which the dependence of this indicator on the magnitude of traffic intensity is displayed. The results obtained and the physical meaning is compared with the data of the main transport flow diagram. The maximum risk values for each category of traffic conditions are shown taking into account the risk of traffic congestion, the result of which defines the categories of conditions of traffic flow. Based on the obtained data, the average speed of the transport stream is determined, at which its state can be characterized as congestion. As an example, the cartogram of the section of the surveyed street-road network is shown. A description is given of the mutual influence of the psychophysiological characteristics of the driver, road and meteorological conditions on the traffic regime.
Until recently the concept of shared space in New Zealand has been limited to central business districts and street scaping projects and has not focussed on the real benefits that the concept can bring to the road environment. The prescriptive nature of New Zealand transport engineering has slowed the development and creativity that can be employed to improve the street environment as a whole. Karndacharuk et al argue that there are certain design elements that need to be incorporated to make a space truly shared space. (Karndacharuk A, Wilson DJ & Dunn R, 2014). Auckland City has developed a number of shared spaces based on the principles outlined earlier. In 2012 a guidance note on shared space was developed by Flow transportation specialists for the Institute of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ) This guide outlines the general approach to employ shared space however it is centralised on CBD and street scaping areas more so than residential streets. Outside private property in residential developments there are very few real examples of shared spaces in a residential setting in similar vein to the “Home Zones” and “Woonerven” in Europe.
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d) Water resources and water environment: On the one hand, groundwater resource is dried up gradually because of the mine water drains out when min- ing. On the other hand, lixiviation water of phosphate rock contents of S ion, turbidity, suspended solids which exceed the standard, when it is drained with the mine water, it will pollutes the wild goose River and Huan water certainly nearby. Such will influence life water and agricultural live of nearby residents.
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Depending on the application of electric motors, they have to meet some specific requirements in terms of performance, efficiency, and safety. To achieve an accurate representation of real on-road test data, road conditions, such as road surface and road gradient, should be considered. They also need to be realistic to meet the EV real-time performance constraints. It is especially true when the phenomenon of wheel slip occurring on a slippery road will directly affect the traction/braking control strategy developing, which is associated with the output of the traction motor. A high wheel slip rate occurs during the vehicle operation when the increase of the wheel speed is much greater than that of the vehicle. This may happen if the driver keeps pushing the acceleration pedal to force more torque to reach the desired speed. Without wheel slip ratio restriction, there exist potential safety issues when the required torque exceeds the capability. For example, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) will produce constant speed unconcerned of the motor load only if the load is within the capability of the motor. If the external torque load is more than the torque produced by the motor, it will slip out of synchronism and will come to rest. It is necessary to consider road conditions in studying electric-drive performance in vehicle level and develop a targeted traction motor testing environment for EV application.
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The asphalt mixing and paving process for road use often accompanies with large amount of fume which brings great harm to human health and pollutes the environment [1-2] . Therefore, it is necessary to control the asphalt fume to minimize the harm for human health and environment. The paper adopted two fume suppressants and viscosity reducers respectively to optimized the design mix, and evaluate the asphalt performance to obtain the less harmful environment-friendly fume-suppression asphalt.
Drains of muzaffarpur are not designed and cleaned properly. Most of the area is facing the issue of overflow of drainge. Drains are open in nature and clogged due to non maintance issue. Grey and black water on the road creates trouble to the padestrian and other vehicular movements some of the area like Kedar nath road is facing this broblem
The ROADENG software, although not constructed for finishing the optimization studies, is highly appli- cable for the activity. In addition, the data outputs serve the purpose of decision-making. The forest manager can certainly claim the variant of forest road to be optimized and therefore needed. Besides some benefits, any road and any route will also have some negative impacts on the environment. However, these can be minimized with the help of a powerful tool.
The broader political and policy context in which the concept of social innovation is used in this article can be described in two points. First, Jessop (1999) has described the influence of neo-liberal thinking on public policy (particularly in the UK) as a paradigm shift from the Keynesian national welfare state (KWS) to the Schumpeterian post-national workfare regime. This indicates shifts on three levels – (a) Keynes, the social scientist most associated with social democracy, is replaced by Schumpeter who advocated innovation in competitive markets, (b) the hollowing out of the national state as the focus of politics and policy making and (c) the shift from a centralised state to a regime of numerous organizations engaging in multi-level governance through more complex policy networks; leading to (d) greater dom- inance of economic policy over social policy, with more focus on maintaining a competitive place in the globalising economy than protecting national benefits. Thus innovation is agreed to be a crucial element in policy making. Second, social innovation is presented as a critical approach in relation to the growing literature and EU policy support for a post-industrial knowledge economy. Where the technological innovation associated with the post-industrial economy emphasizes market competition, and possible new forms of social exclusion, social innovation is aimed at promoting bottom-up socially creative strategies for social inclusion and the fostering of progressive and participatory forms of social organization and governance. The article is based on a state-of-the-art review of the health and environmental policy literatures, conducted for the EU Katarsis project 1 , using broadly a ‘realist synthesis’ meth- odological approach (Pawson, 2007), which emphasizes theory building in the review process. The literature reviewed included macro-, micro- amd meso-level theories. The macro-level theories of political economy were concerned with social, health and environmental injustice arising from the operation of global markets, global political structures and neo-liberalism. The micro-level theories of and claims for social and policy networks were concerned with oppositional or alternative networks through which citizens take control of these aspects of their lives and/or challenge power and policy. At the meso-level health and environmental policy agendas converge on climate change and obesity, which are key, contemporary, European wellbeing policy issues (WHO 2002; Sustainable Development Commission 2007). We identify a third policy issue of road accidents – a pandemic cause of death and serious injury across Europe particularly for young people (Vincenten 2006). The review identified case study examples of good practice of social innovation, and the presentation of the case studies form the basis of this article.
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The Government of Uzbekistan has identified tourism as a priority sector for deployment. With the support of global organizations, it decided to seek UNWTO’s technical assistance in the formulation of a long term National Strategy for the Sustainable Development of Tourism in Silk Road tourism destination. The Strategy was approved in April 2011 and formally launched in September that year. On this way, nature based tourism facilities have derived as a main facility source on tour packages of country. Role of ecotourism has identified and considered as an untapped resource of tourism potential, which provide extraordinary and attractive service types(David Airey & Myra Shackley, 1997).
A road vehicle normally have bumper to absorb an impact from a low velocity collision. Vehicles bumper are usually designed to withstand an impact of collision at a relative velocity of 5 to 15 km/h without having major damage (Buechele et al. 2004). Many conventional bumpers use a stationary impact absorbing structure that is design to deform permanently in order to prevent collateral damage to vehicle frame and car components.
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Motor transport and road maintenance are the deter- mining factors of environmental pollution in the roadside zone, as they provide the environment with huge amounts of dust, soot, waste gases, oils, heavy metals and dozens of other toxicants. The threat of irreversible degradation of biosystems under the intensive influence of vehicles requires the level of their pollution to be forecasted and the adverse consequences to be prevented. It is perspec- tive to carry out the monitoring of roadside territories on the basis of mathematical modelling. However, the ade- quacy of the model should prove to be true instrumentally and assume subsequent environmental monitoring with the employment of computer capabilities.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 140 (2), August 2016, 978 987 Page simultaneous multi-channel recordings were collected at distances of 1, 4, 9, 19 and 50 m from the side of Crookes Valley Road during summer 2013 rush hours. Furthermore, photographs were captured from the locations where the microphones were installed, facing the road, to record the scenes where the sound events occurred. To record the temporal changes in both road traffic noise and birdsong, single-channel sound recordings were performed on a pathway at a distance of 2 m from the road side of Hoofdlaan during sunny and windless weekdays in September 2013. The recordings started at sunrise (approximately 07.30) and ended at sunset (approximately 19.30) 39 , considering the effect of daytime on bird chirping behaviour 35 . Six five- minute sound recordings collected each hour over the 12 hours of daytime were ultimately collected.
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Possibilities of construction of road-building machines allow their use outside standard technological schemes. Road construction machines are used for their intended purpose in the construction and road industries, and for solving non-trivial production tasks. At the same time, operating conditions may not be comparable with the norms of psychophysical loads for operators and require the operator to be removed from the local work area. Using the technology of remote control of construction road machines functionally leads to a change in the performance indicators and high-quality interaction in the "environment-machine-operator" system. Expansion of the scope of road construction machines requires the addition of forms to ensure safe working conditions for the operator, combined with a high level of performance of technological operations.
A key distinction between the assessment of urban and rural road safety is the importance that roading features have in determining the likely crash rates of rural highways. In an urban environment, drivers are usually more constrained by either speed limits or other road users. The distinction shows up in the greater number of single-vehicle crashes on rural roads, and the influence that road features have on both the likelihood and severity of these crashes. At higher speeds, sight distances also become more important when considering crashes involving multiple vehicles. Cenek et al (1997) examined the relationship between crashes and road geometry, using over 8000 km (single direction) of rural New Zealand State Highway traffic, geometry and crash data (divided into 200 m sections). Poisson regression models were derived to describe the relationship between variables, and to determine the relative risk between different road environments. Distinctive patterns emerged, such as the increasing crash risk as the absolute horizontal curvature or absolute gradient increased.
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