Another road generation system is described in . Instead of typical city roads, however, this method generates roads similar to those found in the informal settlements of South Africa. These settlements grow on unused land near industrial zones, and so roads tend to be placed where they are most beneficial. Voronoi diagrams are used to generate the major road pattern with centers that are random, regular, or generated by an L-system. L-systems are also investigated as minor road generators and compared to simple subdivision with noise. When compared to real world examples, the subdivision with noise seems to perform best as a minor road generation method. This appears to indicate that minor roads develop along simple patterns, or at least in this context.
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Visser, A.T (1999) conducted a study on flexible Portland cement concrete pavement for low volume roads. In South Africa Portland cement concrete filled geo-cells, termed Hyson-Cells, have been used successfully in the provision of low volume roads and streets. The main conclusions were that there was no indication of stress sensitivity of the unbound materials, and typical stiffness values used in road pavement design could be used.
This qualitative research reports the results of a short learning intervention programme conducted by South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL) Chair in Science and Mathematics Education to enhance the mathematical knowledge of teachers in some South African schools. The short learning programme comprised the fostering of teachers’ mathematical knowledge and the formation of lesson study groups to apply the knowledge gained from the intervention programme in different schools in the country. The sample comprised 53 male and 72 female Mathematics teachers who were nominated from several school districts in the country. The participants were trained using Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) which included the topics of probability/ratio and proportion (grades 1-9). The MKT consisted of these sets of expertise: Common Content Knowledge (CCK), Specialised Content Knowledge (SCK), Knowledge of Contents and Students (KCS), and Knowledge of Content and Teaching (KCT). The lesson study groups applied the knowledge acquired from the short learning intervention programme to engage in group activities, lesson studies, and to report the major challenges in doing the lesson studies. This model research comprised three stages: the first stage involved active participation in the workshops that took place at the University of the Free State; the teachers that attended the training workshops implemented the knowledge gained in the respective schools in their districts in the second stage; and the third stage involved the compilation and submission of a Portfolio of Evidence (PoE) by the teachers that participated in the training workshops.
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A. National Highways Development Project: In the extent of National Highways, India has boarded upon a historic project in terms of the Golden Quadrilateral, North-South and East-West corridors. These highways, which will give nonstop speeds of more than 80 kmph, will convert the movement of goods and people in India. The effective getting of NHDP, with projects finished on time and within budget, and the successful preservation of the new roads, are crucial point to focus. The next demands of National Highways will be conveying inquiries about what and how new projects coming about. Specific new linkages will essential to be constructed between metro cities, and some 4-lane highways will requisite to be improved into 6-lane highways or Express-ways. It is essential to create market-oriented mechanisms for addressing these problems, so that unusual public resources generate the best construction of required National Highways.
Effects on the Surrounding Area, as Identified by GFW Before 2006, areas across the region experienced moderate forest loss, even before road construction, as people were already living in the area and converting forests to farmland (see Figure 3.9). The building and upgrading of the I–R–K road, beginning in 2006–07, correlated with dramatic increases in forest loss, particularly within the 0–5-km buffer in the Lugufu– Ntakata area (5.5 km² or 554 ha), where the new road bisected large patches of pristine forest and miombo woodland. In the Masito area, a smaller 2007 spike in tree cover loss (1.2 km² or 121 ha) within the 0–5-km buffer reflected the area’s already diminished forest cover, as deforestation along the existing dirt road there had begun prior to 2000. In contrast, no spike in forest loss occurred in 2007 in the Mahale East area, as the corresponding road section was not yet built. The increase in forest loss in Mahale East after 2011 is probably due to a gradual influx of settlers from shoreline villages north and south of the MMNP via dirt tracks.
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The recognition of noise as an environmental problem and its impact both on community and occupational environment is rapidly growing. Every day several thousands of vehicles are moving in and around Kolkata city and it creates immense heavy traffic congestion and severe noise pollution in s in North, South and Central Kolkata are experienced huge vehicular congestion during peak and lean hours and it crosses the permissible limit of standard decibel of noise level as maintained by Central as well as West Bengal Pollution Control 50 decibel in silent zone, 55-60 decibel in Therefore some busiest traffic intersection points of north, south and central Kolkata have been selected to make the research paper evident. While it has been compared among all the megacities in India, Kolkata placed its first position and it is because of immense vehicular traffic, bad condition of road, speed of the vehicles, narrow space of raffic congestion, more prone to accident followed by unscientific diversion of traffic which create positively noise pollution throughout the city. However high level of noise pollution effect on human health and it creates auditory disorder, problem of blood circulation, unconditional effect on brain and hormones followed by some psychological and personological effect Therefore in this research paper an attempt has been made to point and around Kolkata city and its immense effect on body and mind among the civilian of Kolkata followed by some remedial suggestions and mitigation strategies through which this noise level should reduce in coming future and Kolkata will be placed as a
Honda Centre intersection is located on N-5 highway. It is a 3- legged signalized urban intersection. It consists of major road East Bound (EB) and West Bound (WB) and Minor road South Bound (SB). WB consists of 4 through lanes with one allowed left and right turn. EB consists of 2 exclusive right turn lanes. SB consists of two right turns lanes and one left turn lane with storage length of 25 feet. The existing signal cycle length is 87 seconds. Existing actual green time for WB is 44.5 seconds. For EB green time is 16 seconds. For SB actual green is 7 seconds. Yellow times for all approaches are 6 seconds and all red time for all approaches is 0.5 seconds. To analyze the current traffic condition at Honda Centre intersection, the existing parameters were entered in Synchro 7.0. Result under existing scenario is ; Intersection delay is 78 seconds, Intersection capacity utilization is 76.1%, Maximum v/c ratio is 2.02 and Intersection level of service (LOS) is “E”. In order to improve the traffic scenario at this intersection, the signal of this intersection and chairing cross intersection (the Preceding intersection on the Corridor) were coordinated. After the improvement of the urban signalized intersection the LOS changed from E to D, ICU decreased from 76.1% to 73.8% and the intersection delay is reduced from 77.5 seconds to 41.8 seconds.
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The use of satellite images and their potential to be used in a wide variety of applications such as preparing and updating maps have made the automatic extraction of object, especially roads and buildings, a new challenge in remote sensing . Automatic road extraction provides the means for creation, maintaining, and updating trans- portation networks . In this study, for extracting tunnel from SPOT satellite images, the roads are extracted first then junctions of roads and mountains are detected by using digital elevation information . The geology along a tunnel alignment plays a dominant role in many of the major decisions that must be made in planning, designing, and constructing a tunnel. Geology dominates the feasibility, behavior, and cost of any tunnel.
One of the main causes of many rackety vehicles on the Nigerian roads is because of the nature of the roads. It has been shown that vehicles wear down faster in less developed countries of Africa like Nigeria than is obtainable in civilised economies. This is evident in second handed vehicles that are shipped from developed economies to Africa which are in most cases here considered as new vehicles. One of the reasons for this is the situation of our roads. This brings a lot of hardship to road users hence Igomu (2011) stated that the hard times faced on the disintegrating roads have continued to raise pertinent questions that had remained unanswered. He said that the extent of damage done to cars due to their morbid state was also enormous, not to mention the loss of productive man-hour.
major problem for the civic authorities, especially in the urban areas. As stated above, plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries like India, at a same time India needs a large network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. Scarcity of bitumen needs a deep thinking to ensure fast road construction.
has remained poor for a number of reasons, which include; lack of drainage system and a very thin coating that is easily washed away. Others are excessive use of roads network given the underdeveloped nature of railways and water ways which could serve as an alternative means of transport, and absence of an articulated road program and inadequate funding for road maintenance . These problems have affected the maximum exploitation of natural resources, expansion of trade between communities, neglect on human resources which all result in isolation and under development .
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154 Dense Bituminous macadam: - It is the binder course used for roads with more number of heavy commercial vehicles. In dense bituminous macadam mix there is a wide scope for varying the gradation to obtain a good mix without affecting the durability of pavement.
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Finally, and since this is not the first article that deals with infrastructure investment in Portugal – indeed we could regard this paper as an update and extension of Pereira and Andraz (2005) – it is important to highlight its contributions to the literature. First, we use a new and recently completed comprehensive data set for infrastructure investment in Portugal from 1978 to 2012 [see Pereira and Pereira (2016)]. In doing so, this is the first research to enlarge the scope of the analysis of the effects of infrastructure investments by considering six types of non- transportation infrastructures [health and education infrastructure investments, water, electricity and gas, refinery facilities and telecommunications]. At the same time this is also the first treatment of six transportation infrastructure types [national roads, municipal roads, highways, railroads, ports, and
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Research has mostly focused on the Sneeuburg mountains and the plains of Camdeboo in the northern part of the East- ern Cape, South Africa. The highest mountain is the Kom- pasberg (2502 m a.s.l.). Geologically, the region is composed of mudstones and sandstones of the Karoo Supergroup (Per- mian to Triassic age) while dolerite dykes and sills (Jurassic age) dominate ridge tops and peaks. Soils on hillslopes are discontinuous but extensive valley fills, up to 5 m thick, ex- ist in valley bottoms. The vegetation of the Sneeuberg is a mixture of grassland and shrub and is described in detail by Clark et al. (2009). Valley bottoms and valley side colluvium is often gullied to bedrock and, where badlands exist, A and often B horizons of soils have been stripped away. Annual rainfall ranges from 300 to 500 mm and is concentrated in the summer months from January through March (Foster et al., 2012).
(2) Angle between the Roads of Supermarket Intersection The angle between Station road and Central road (towards supermarket) is 155 ⁰ this is 45 ⁰ excess and the LOS of the delay time survey at 9-10am is C. Moreover there is no footpath and informal occupancy occurred in Supermarket road. Huge parking occurs for Guidry Bazar, Supermarket, and Mini supermarket. There are no minimum 18 ft sight
Immigration and colonization therefore continued to be coupled with legislation that focussed on populating the country, with families with an aptitude for work. It also instituted general guidelines for introducing and settling immigrants with precise rules on entrance into the country. The law was promulgated during the ‘great immigration,’ a historical period when the numbers of foreigners entering Brazil were at their highest, before falling significantly after 1914. Paradoxically, despite the continuation of the policy of establishing colonial nucleuses, most immigrants were sent to the state of São Paulo because of the demand there for labour on the coffee plantations and in the expanding industry, or sought to work on the urban job market, especially in the south, including in the towns and cities emerging in the old colonization areas. The large volume of entrants was probably one of the reasons for imposing more rigorous controls, especially given the eugenicist pronouncements in discussions of the ‘immigration problem,’ also debated by social thinkers analyzing the formation of the Brazilian nation (see Seyferth 2002). In this case, the representation of dangerous immigration includes the negative image of immigrants who were sick (the fear of conta- gious diseases), elderly (not ‘apt’ for work) or lacking morality: racial issues were dissimulated in the wider legislation, but formed part of the intense political and academic debate around ‘whitening,’ which presupposed the exclusion of non-white people, which appeared in its more radically racial form in the works of João B. de Lacerda and Oliveira Vianna, for example. 9
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to increased commercialization (IFPRI, 2007; Iheanachu et al. 2007). In an area where these infrastructures are lacking or inefficient, productivity and marketing costs generally rise dramatically and significant decline in investments is experienced (Guasch and Kogan 2001; Jensen 2007; Straub 2007). Expanding the road network could affect both agricultural productivity and agricultural income, as well as open up avenues to other activities for example, by facilitating access to employment opportunities outside the farm as well as establishing rural microenterprises. Adamawa State Fadama II has constructed and rehabilitated many of such rural roads (NFDO, 2007). This study investigates the role played by Fadama II in road development and its impact on the beneficiaries.
A journal from Ivarsson and Malmber Calvo (2003) has proposed the Swedish option of private ownership and financing of low volume roads. Two thirds of roads are managed by private road associations at less than half the cost of local government road authorities. The journal proposes a model that includes a law on private roads and financial and technical incentives. The aim is to establish a private-public partnership whereby the government provides the finances and legal incentives for local property owners to take responsibility for their roads. In summary, this model allows the government to provide the finances and the private roads’ authorities to increase their efficiency and effectiveness on low volume roads. This concept is in widespread use in Scandinavia but has not been readily adopted in Australia and is not considered within the scope of my project.
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It is a district located along the Kaveri and Amaravathi rivers in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The main town in Karur District is the city of Karur, which is also the district headquarters. The district had a population of 1,064,493 with a sex-ratio of 1,015 females for every 1,000 males. Karur is one of the oldest towns in Tamil Nadu and has played a very significant role in the history and culture of the Tamils. Its history dates back over 2000 years, and has been a flourishing trading center even in the early Sangam days. In the ancient and medieval times, the area was ruled by the Cheras, Gangas and Cholas. Karur was the capital of Cheras.The Pasupatheesvarar Temple sung by Thirugnana Sambhandar, in Karur was built by the Chola kings in the 7th century.Later the Nayakars followed byTipu Sultan also ruled Karur. The British added Karur to their possessions after destroying the Karur Fort during their war against Tipu Sultan in 1783. There is a memorial at Rayanur near Karur for the warriors who lost their lives in the fight against the British in the Anglo- Mysore Wars. Thereafter Karur became part of British India and was first part of Coimbatore District and later Tiruchirappalli District. With headquarters at Karur, it is the centrally located district of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded by Namakkal district in the north, Dindigul district in the south, Tiruchirapalli district on the east and Erode & Tiruppur districts on the west. Karur is located at 10°57'° N 78°4'° E has an average elevation of 122 Metres (400 feet). It is about 371 km (231 mi) south west of Chennai (Madras), the state capital of TamilNadu. b
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Construction zone is that area of the road which is affected by the works and which affects traffic flow and safety of workers and road users. In this context it can also be called Traffic Control Zone. In rural areas, problem at these zones is accentuated by the reduced availability of carriageway, acquisition of land for diversions, etc. In urban areas, the problems are even more acute as diversions may have to be over adjacent road street of the road network as well as the sharing of road space by different categories of road users. Traffic control zone can be divided into three major components i.e., Advance Warning Zone, Transition Zone and Work Zone. Manual on Traffic Management at Construction Zones is published by the Indian Roads Congress as IRC: SP:55 should be referred to
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