The health industry has always used natural products as an alternative, to the conventional allopathic formulations. Over the last few decades, worldwide increase in the use of natural products for pharmacological purposes has been observed. Propolis is a resinous yellow brown to dark brown substance that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, shrubs or other botanical sources to seal up their hives. The main pharmacologically active constituents present in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds which are well known plant compounds that have antibactetial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently beneficial role of propolis in dentistry has also been elucidated specifically in cariology, periodontics and many more. This review highlights the potential benefits of bee propolis in oral cavity with main emphasis in management of recurrent apthous stomatitis as an adjuvant therapy.
Summary: Honey bees and other pollinators provide essential pollination services to agriculture and the environment; however they are under increasing pressure from changes in land management, disease and climate change. Current mitigation places emphasis on establishing flower meadows to improve nutritional diversity, but preserving what is already in place is also of importance. ‘CSI Pollen’ was a recent European citizen science project coordinated by COLOSS, investigating the diversity of pollen collected by honey bees in many countries across Europe. Volunteer beekeepers sampled pollen from colonies every three weeks during the foraging season over a two to three year period, creating a huge collection of data and samples. A selection of samples collected from 14 Scottish sites during the second year of study in 2015 were analysed by DNA fingerprinting to identify pollen gathered by honey bees at critical points of the colony’s life cycle; some results and potential implications for land use are discussed here.
2002). We failed to detect evidence for such interactions in the context of phototaxis, which is consistent with earlier findings on the regulation of age at onset of foraging. cAMP analog treatment increased PKA activity in the bee brain but did not cause precocious foraging (Ben-Shahar et al., 2002), and in the present study did not cause precocious phototaxis. In addition, only one of two cAMP-related genes showed consistent changes in association with honeybee behavioral maturation. These results are difficult to interpret because PKA functions as a holoenzyme comprising two regulatory and two catalytic subunits (Johnson et al., 2001), so perhaps increases in mRNA abundance for both are not necessary to increase PKA activity. Nevertheless, our results suggest that upregulation of cGMP signaling is involved in regulating phototaxis and age at the onset of foraging in honey bees, independent of cAMP levels.
We hypothesized that changes in OA synthesis, in particular those involving T h, are involved in the transition from working in the hive to foraging. As stated above, OA treatment caused precocious foraging, but treatment with tyramine, a neuroactive compound that is the immediate precursor in OA biosynthesis, did not (Schulz and Robinson, 2001). These results suggest tyramine does not promote precocious foraging and that the amount and/or activity of T h, the enzyme that converts tyramine to OA, may be an important part of the mechanism regulating honeybee behavioral development. We evaluated this hypothesis by measuring behaviorally related changes in brain Th mRNA, T h activity, and octopamine levels themselves. In addition, we determined whether Th mRNA was localized in neuronal populations that were previously shown to be octopaminergic (Kriessl et al., 1994; Spivak et al., 2003; Sinakevitch et al., 2005). We also compared these localization patterns in nurses and foragers to explore whether the higher OA levels seen in forager brains are related to changes in OA synthesis in existing octopaminergic neurons or due to the appearance of new octopaminergic neurons.
cells (Fig. 3). As crippled wings normally occur in only a small proportion of infested honey bees, DWV replication within mites may be a rare event, and serial feeding on non-infected bees can reduce DWV titre (Brenda Ball unpublished data), this may help explain our findings. The remaining infested pupae that emerge successfully and appear normal suffer a reduced longevity (Fig. 2) as was also found by Yang and Cox-Foster (2007) and could explain the results of earlier studies (e.g. De Jong and De Jong, 1983; Schneider and Drescher, 1987; Kovac and Crailsheim, 1988) that attributed the reduced honeybee survival directly to the varroa mite. The mechanism by which DWV effects longevity is currently unknown, but virus replication often shuts down the normal protein production of an infected cell. This may explain the reduced protein content of haemolymph observed in infested bees (Glinski and Jarosz, 1984; Schatton-Gadelmayer and Engels, 1988), and this could affect longevity. However, longevity of adult honey bees is unaffected when bees are infected during the adult stage (Fig. 2; Martin et al., 2003). This is despite DWV titres reaching similar levels in bees infected as pupae or adults (Fig. 3). Therefore, DWV may be affecting the developmental pathway from larvae to adult, hence reducing lifespan only if infection occurs at the pupal stage. Further studies into tissue tropisms and bee-viral interactions are needed to confirm this idea. Although, this phenomenon explains why queens from mite infested colonies on the verge of collapse, which tested positive for DWV (unpublished data) were still alive and laying eggs. Mites rarely, if ever, invade queen cells and survive to feed on the developing queen pupae, all queens must therefore have become infected as adults, thus any DWV will not affect their longevity. Although adults infected with DWV after emergence may not suffer reduced longevity, they become key DWV reservoirs that allow the pathogen to persist within the honeybee population, even after the mites have been removed (Locke et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2010).
Fig. 3. Inputs to the central complex involved in orientation, and proposed to also be involved in dance. (A) The CX is composed of the central body upper unit (CBU), the central body lower unit (CBL), the protocerebral bridge (PB) and the noduli (NO). The figure shows a summary of inputs that have been identified in various insect species entering the CX (solid arrows) and potential inputs to the CX with as-yet unidentified pathways (dashed arrows). The relevant references are included in ‘ The CX and its role in orientation and path integration in walking and flying insects ’ . We propose that these inputs, which carry different forms of spatial information, along with processing within the CX support both the calculation of the vector displayed in the dance (upper right) and the execution of the dance movement (lower right). Which behaviour is performed (dance or flight) depends on the context and state of the bee. (B) Information flow between dancer and recruit. For the dancer, celestial information and optic flow information gathered during flight are integrated into a single flight vector reflecting the shortest path between the hive and the resources. The flight vector information is transformed to specific dance movements: dance orientation and waggle duration, oriented relative to either gravity or celestial references depending on the bee species. Odours attract recruits to dancers, and recruits sense the dance movement through sound, touch and vibration. Recruits then transform information gathered from the dance to a flight vector. Red arrows indicate which parts of this hypothesis present the greatest challenges for a neurobiological interpretation.
in the CSG, especially in nurse bees, suggests a role in seques- tering recognition compounds. It has been suggested that these alkenes serve as nestmate recognition compounds in honey bees (Châline et al. 2005; Dani et al. 2005; Pradella et al. 2015). Furthermore, a large diversification of alkene isomers are uniquely found among bees (Kather and Martin 2015a) indicating that these play an important role in chemical com- munication in this group. Interestingly, a similar pattern of n- alkanes, alkenes, and oleic acid wax esters found in the CSG are also present in comb wax (Aichholz and Lorbeer 2000; Fröhlich et al. 2000; Waś et al. 2014). Of the three age groups studied, only the nurse bees have active wax glands, which reach their maximum size in 5 to 15-day old workers (Blomquist et al. 1980). The wax scale produced by the nurse bee is manipulated into brood cells by adding a frothy saliva substance that increases lipolytic activity, helping to change the waxes physical structure (Kurstjens et al. 1985). During this time compounds from the CSG could be added to the comb wax. This may help explain why cues gained from comb wax can affect a honey bees’ level of aggression to- wards its nestmates (Breed et al. 1998; Downs and Ratnieks 1999). In male honey bees the CSG is poorly developed and regress with age (Poiani and Cruz-Landim 2010). However, in male Bumblebees (Bombus spp) the CSG is well developed and contains species-specific sexual marking pheromones (Šobotnik et al. 2008).
The role of cocaine as an addictive drug of abuse in human society is hard to reconcile with its ecological role as a natural insecticide and plant-protective compound, preventing herbivory of coca plants (Erythroxylum spp.). This paradox is often explained by proposing a fundamental difference in mammalian and invertebrate responses to cocaine, but here we show effects of cocaine on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) that parallel human responses. Forager honey bees perform symbolic dances to advertise the location and value of floral resources to their nest mates. Treatment with a low dose of cocaine increased the likelihood and rate of bees dancing after foraging but did not otherwise increase locomotor activity. This is consistent with cocaine causing forager bees to overestimate the value of the floral resources they collected. Further, cessation of chronic cocaine treatment caused a withdrawal-like response. These similarities likely occur because in both insects and mammals the biogenic amine neuromodulator systems disrupted by cocaine perform similar roles as modulators of reward and motor systems. Given these analogous responses to cocaine in insects and mammals, we propose an alternative solution to the paradox of cocaine reinforcement. Ecologically, cocaine is an effective plant defence compound via disruption of herbivore motor control but, because the neurochemical systems targeted by cocaine also modulate reward processing, the reinforcing properties of cocaine occur as a ʻside effectʼ.
to hygienic behaviour of adult bees toward infected larvae [87,88], some larvae demonstrate genetic resistance against P. larvae [89,90], and young adult bees from some genetic lines secrete antimicrobial compounds into larval food, which protect the larvae from infection [91,92]. Our experiment consisted of challenging non-hygienic colonies in the field by spraying combs with sugar solution that contained spores of P. larvae (following [93,94]). Five challenged colonies were fitted with commercial propolis traps along all inner walls of the brood boxes, stimulating the bees to form a natural propolis envelope as in Borba et al.  (Figure 2B), and five other challenged colonies were not provided with propolis traps and did not construct a propolis envelope. We investigated the effects of the propolis envelope on the overall reduction of clinical signs of AFB, and on the antimicrobial activity of larval food fed to 1–2 day old larvae. The presence of the propolis envelope did not completely clear AFB infection; all colonies had clinical signs two months later at the end of the experiment, similar to early studies (e.g., ). However, the severity of AFB, in colonies with a propolis envelope was relatively mild (severity score just over 1, equating to 1–5 infected larvae per comb, following ) compared to the colonies without the propolis envelope (severity score just over 2, or 6–25 infected larvae per comb). Moreover, the ability of the larval food from challenged colonies with a propolis envelope to inhibit the growth of P. larvae, in vitro, was significantly higher compared to the activity of larval food from challenged colonies without a propolis envelope . It is unclear if the increased antimicrobial activity of the larval food was due to the presence of antimicrobial peptides produced by adult bees and incorporated into larval food, or to the presence of compounds from the propolis in the food. Since antimicrobial peptides and other antimicrobials (e.g., glucose oxidase) are secreted by nurse bees into brood food, the same mechanism that allows adult bees to alter investment in innate immunity may allow nurse bees to invest more in these compounds as a social immune defense . These studies emphasize the critical importance of the propolis envelope to honey bees’ health and demonstrate its role in larval defense against bacterial infections.
In the present review an attempt has been made to briefly the major constraints and prospects of honeybee in the country so as to help the researchers to develop well-organized strategies to improve productivity and honeybee population in Ethiopia. Some important local honeybee plants (trees, shrubs, herbs and cultivated crops are known as a source of nectar and pollen in Ethiopia, namely Becium grandiflorum, Hypoestes forskaolii, Leucas abyssinica, Euclea schimperi, Cordia Africana, Eucalptus spp, Vernonia amygdalina, Cordia africaca, Olea Africana, Guizotia scabra, Syzygium guineese, Croton machrostachyus and Opuntia ficus-indica identified as the major bee forage in different parts of the country. honey badger, ants, wax moth, spider, birds, lizard and snake are identified as pests and predator to the bees in Ethiopia. From the above ants causes severe economic loss in honey production by killing bees, rob their products, lead to absconding and destroying the entire colony of honey bees. Pests and predators, beekeeping equipments, absconding, pesticides and herbicides, death of colony and swarming are the most important constraints present in Ethiopia. The present review indicated that beekeeping could be a great source of employment creation for the rural people to reduce poverty. Beekeeping plays an important role in income generation for beekeepers of Ethiopia. Basically, the country’s policy for agriculture and rural development can be the first prospect to improve any agricultural sub sectors. This is general prospect to develop beekeeping sector all over the country but there is specific opportunities from the region to region.
MiRNAs are often clustered within the genomes of mammals and flies, and this clustering is often associated with co-tran- scription of miRNAs and genes with which they are in close proximity . The co-transcription of miRNAs and nearby genes may also reflect coordinate regulation of miRNAs and nearby genes. In particular, intronic miRNAs are often, though not invariably, coordinately expressed with their host gene and transcribed as a single primary transcript . In support of the postulated role of miRNAs in regulating the alternative developmental trajectories associated with caste differentiation, we examined the functional role of honeybee official gene set genes in which intronic honeybee miRNAs are embedded . Given the paucity of direct functional evi- dence for most genes in honey bees, we relied upon a compre- hensive set of computational orthologs described elsewhere . We discovered several notable relationships that will merit additional investigation. First, there were associations with fundamental cellular machinery of growth and develop- ment. Ame-mir-34, ame-mir-277 and ame-mir-317 all occupy intron 3 of GB10191. GB10191 is the ortholog of Rbp8 in Dro- sophila, and RPB8 in humans - part of the RNA polymerase II core complex and intimately involved in all transcriptional
Protection of honey bees is of great economic importance because of their role in pollination. Crucial steps towards this goal are epidemiological surveys of pathogens connected with honeybee losses. In this study deformed wing virus (DWV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in colonies of different strength located in five regions of Serbia. The relationship between colony strength and virus occurrence/infection intensity were assessed as well as the genetic relationship between virus sequences from Serbia and worldwide. Real-time RT-PCR analyses detected at least one virus in 87.33% of colonies. Single infection was found in 28.67% colonies (21.33%, 4.00%, 2.67% and 0.67% in cases of DWV, ABPV, SBV and CBPV, respectively). In the majority of colonies (58.66%) more than one virus was found. The most prevalent was DWV (74%), followed by ABPV, SBV and CBPV (49.30%, 24.00% and 6.70%, respectively). Except for DWV, the prevalence of the remaining three viruses significantly varied between the regions. No significant differences were found between colony strength and either (i) the prevalence of DWV, ABPV, SBV, CBPV and their combinations, or (ii) DWV infection levels. The sequences of honeybee viruses obtained from bees in Serbia were 93–99% identical with those deposited in GenBank.
composition of stingless beehoney includes sugars (fructose and glucose) with nearly zero hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). It also contains small amounts of other compounds, such as organic acids, phenolic compounds (eg., phenolic acids and flavonoids), proteins, amino acids (eg., phenylalanine, alanine, tyrosine, valine, acetate and trigonelline), enzymes, vitamins and minerals (3). The polyphenolic content is nearly tenfold higher compared to other types of honey. The honey has great potential for prevention of chronic diseases, such as cancer, stroke, hypertension and diabetes, as measured by its ability to manipulate signalling pathway of disease development (4). Recently we showed that supplementation with honey from the stingless bee Heterotrigona itama led to enhancement in memory and learning in mice and increased anti-obesity parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats, indicating the potential role of honey in controlling obesity-associated problems.
ABSTRACT: Mobile ad hoc network is a self-governing wireless network for mobile devices. It does not require any fixed infrastructure to be configured which makes it more appropriate to be used in environments that require on-the-fly setup. The network requires no centralized management, the structure of topology is changed arbitrarily and the communication between the devices will take place via radio waves at anywhere and anytime. Nodes of ad hoc network can act as end system as well as routers. The challenges of mobile ad hoc network are scalability, resource availability, security threats, no predefined boundary and limited power supply. Routing in mobile ad hoc network determines the best path to reach the destination in the network and it plays a vital role in deciding the quality of service. The quality of service for wireless routing is more challenging than wired network due to node mobility and resource constraints. The goal of quality of service is to provide a better service to the selected network traffic. The quality of service parameter includes end-to-end delay, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio, throughput, control overhead, energy, and jitter. Optimization can be used to find out the best solution from the possible set of paths. Different optimization techniques are available to provide improved quality of service in mobile ad hoc network routing. Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence-based optimization techniques and finds out an optimal path from source to destination. This algorithm is based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honeybee swarm.
The nature of the body plan was also investigated by comparing the intermembral, brachial, and cru- ral indices for these samples with values obtained from the literature. No signiﬁcant differences were found in either index through time for either sex. The raw values in Table 6 suggest that Egyptians had the “super-Negroid” body plan described by Rob- ins (1983). The values for the brachial and crural indices show that the distal segments of each limb are longer relative to the proximal segments than in many “African” populations (data from Aiello and Dean, 1990). This pattern is supported by Figure 7 (a plot of population mean femoral and tibial lengths; data from Ruff, 1994), which indicates that the Egyptians generally have tropical body plans. Of the Egyptian samples, only the Badarian and Early Dynastic period populations have shorter tibiae than predicted from femoral length. Despite these differences, all samples lie relatively clustered to- gether as compared to the other populations.
The sixth century B.C marked an important stage in the Indian history as far as the development of new religions is concerned. Numerous religious sects arose in the mid-Gangetic plains as a result of an upheaval of new ideas and the resulting rise of new philosophical tenets. These ideas were so diversified that the philosophical speculations based on them varied from religious speculations to the search for the truth which the Upanishads had emphasized. The efforts in this direction brought about results in this century. In this period, we notice a growing resentment to the ritualistic orthodox ideas of the Brahmanas. In other words, the old Vedic religion had ceased to be a living force. the spiritual unrest and the intellectual stimulation led to the rise of various heterodox religious movements. The religious sects were based on regional customs and rituals practiced by different people living in north-east India. Of these sects, Jainism and Buddhism were the most important and they developed into most potent well organized popular religious reform movements.
CFX 384 thermocycler (BioRad) programmed as follows: Reverse transcription [50 °C - 25 min] – PCR [95 °C - 5 min] - 40 cycles of [95 °C - 5 sec, 58 °C - 30 s] – Melting curve [95 °C - 30 s, 55 °C - 30 s] – [stepwise 0.5 °C increases (10 s/step) from 55–95 °C]. The final copy number (ge/100 ng RNA) of each virus in unknown samples was calculated by extrapolation to a standard curve made by serial dilution (1:10) of a viral fragment RNA used as reference. These virus reference sequences were generated by RT-PCR from positively infected bee samples, cloned in pCR4-TOPO vector (Life Technologies) and confirmed by sequencing. Plasmids were linearized or used as PCR template to generate a T7-DNA template for in vitro transcription. In vitro transcripts of each viral fragment were prepared with the MegaScript kit (Life Technologies) followed by DNAseI treatment. The final virus reference RNA was quantified in a Qubit fluorometer (Life Technologies) and copy number calculated based on sequence [http://www.endmemo.com/bio/dnacopynum.php]. Specific primers for each virus are listed online in Table S2. In the case of IAPV and SBV, a second set of primers was used to confirm results (Table S2). To corroborate results from individual references and accurately compare copy numbers of different viruses, we synthesized a DNA template (GenScript) containing all relevant viral amplicon sequences (universal standard ref- erence, USR) concatenated under a T7 promoter and cloned in pUC57-Kan vector (Supplementary Fig. S1). The plasmid was linearized with XbaI and cleaned by phenol extraction. The final USR-RNA reference was prepared as described for each separate virus. Different amplification efficiencies with primers used for different viruses was observed when using the USR (equal copy numbers are expected if all primers have equal efficiency since the reference is the same). Individual genome equivalents or viral copies were calculated using the CFX program. Quantification analyses to compare abundance between viruses were done in qBase + software considering indi- vidual target efficiencies. Data out of the dynamic range for each target were considered below detection limits (Table S5).
needed. Maintaining adequate urine output should be instituted with aggressive hydration to reduce the like- lihood of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal insufficiency. Prolonged treatment with steroids and antihistamines, although frequently administered as was done in our patient’s case, would be expected to provide little bene- fit, because the venom effects do not seem to be im- mune-mediated. Corticosteroid administration, how- ever, may offer some benefit should evidence of bee sting–induced nephrotic syndrome develop. 15 Antibiotics
1. Genetic Diversity: Genetic diversity of the honeybee may now be considered on a global scale. For example: the total diversity of managed “Italian” honey bees may be best represented by honey bees from Italy (the original subspecies) and managed populations in the Americas and Australia. All of these may be viable pools that could contribute to establishing populations for selective breeding. A cryogenic storage facility could maintain germplasm from both natural and managed honeybee populations for future breeding. Thus, in addition to Old World source populations, genetic samples of specific desirable commercial lines of bees could be placed into cryogenic storage for later recovery. Cryogenic storage addresses an overarching USDA mandate to preserve germplasm from animals and plants of agricultural significance: “The mission of the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) is to acquire, evaluate, preserve, and provide a national collection of genetic resources to secure the biological diversity that underpins a sustainable U.S. agricultural economy through diligent