This governance process is orchestrated by boards and executive managers consti- tuting the axis of “hospital governance”  . But Eeckloo and Abor et al. consider that hospital boards and managers are challenged by several major developments in health care and health care policy including the importance of considering the role of political and social actors in service delivery. In South Africa, as we have noted, public hospitals have undergone reforms since 2012 concerning leadership and management to ensure that the management of hospitals is underpinned by the principles of equity, efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and openness . The role of these contexts has been noted in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union where the combined influence of the external environment and organizational structure con- stitutes a significant determinant of hospital performance . Moreover, both internal and external accountability factors including persistent ineffective accountability me- chanisms have created an inconsistent incentive environment, where rewards and sanc- tions are not related to performance. Consequently, hospital management often lacks autonomy to make changes needed to improve productivity and efficiency . In this paper we drill down to the internal governance picture to comment on the propensity of a hospital to be able to be accountable to stakeholders and address the non-medical determinants of health in partnership with others.
Over the past few decades, goodgovernance has become an important issue in public administration. One key reason behind this reality is the paramount role of government in promoting sustainable development and protecting the environment. Therefore, evaluating the impact of goodgovernance on the quality of the environment could be taken into consideration by both the economic researchers and the policy makers. This paper dealt with the impact of goodgovernance on the environmental pollution in Iran and its competitors in the 2025 vision document (i.e. south- west Asian countries, SWAC) over the period of 2002 to 2015. The results revealed that accountability, political stability government effectiveness, quality of law, rule of law and control of corruption (as representative indicators of goodgovernance) has significant effects on the environmental pollution. The degree of the economic openness does indicate negative and significant relations with the environmental pollution as well. The paper suggests that economic growth and value added industry have a significant positive effect on environmental pollution in the countries studied. Therefore, improving goodgovernance indices in selected countries including Iran could potentially reduce the pollution.
5. Pragmatic Poverty Eradication Policies and Strategies. Essentially, Malaysia has followed the “Growth with Distribution” policy since the 1970s. This policy has been the thrust of macro-perspective policies such as the NEP (1970-1990), NDP(1991-2000), and NVP(2001-2010). In Malaysia, the uniqueness of this policy is in the affirmative action strategies, giving priority and emphasis to the indigenous or Bumiputra communities in terms of benefits of povertyalleviation and restructuring programs. Various socio-political and economic justifications may be given for this overriding strategy, which in the end benefits the nation in general in terms of creating a more balanced and just society. There was much debate on the possible trade-off between growth and equity, but Malaysia has shown that both growth and equity could be achieved with prudent and efficient management of financial, physical, economic and human resources. Here lies the critical role of state, especially through public sector management in ensuring goodgovernance and effective delivery mechanism of povertyalleviation programs. i) Growth Policies. Malaysia has always believed that growth is a pre-requisite for redistribution. Macro policies that have contributed to sustainable growth include (a) Structural Change and Diversification Policy that ensures smooth structural change of the economy from a commodity producer to industry and services producer. (b) Sectoral policies, including (i) Agriculture and Rural Development Policy with respect to food security and sufficiency, land development, land rehabilitation, rural development, National Agriculture Policies 1( NAP1, 1984-1991), 11(1992-1997), 111 (1998-2010),
14. Many works focusing on the actors of urban governance in today’s India highlight the new importance of neighborhood associations (Tawa Lama-Rewal 2007, Zérah 2007, Chakrabarty 2008, Coelho & Venkat 2009, Ghertner 2008, 2011). The now well-studied ‘resident welfare associations’ have benefited from the expansion of ‘invited’ spaces of participation (Miraftab 2004) focusing on local affairs. Participation is indeed a key word of the ‘goodgovernance’ discourse that is much favoured today. New schemes have been launched by state or municipal governments in the 2000s, aiming at involving the middle class in the management of urban affairs, and more precisely in the improvement of service delivery (Tawa Lama-Rewal 2007, Zérah 2007, Baud and Nainan 2008, Paul 2006). Research has highlighted that the opening up of participatory spaces and the rising role of NGOs have spurred an assertive activism by the middle classes, and for the middle classes (Fernandes 2007, Ghertner 2008), an activism that resorts to press campaigns and judicial action (Dembovski 1999, Mawdsley 2004, Véron 2006, Dupont & Ramanathan 2009). 15. The Right to Information Act (RTI) was passed in 2005 at the national level in India. The RTI makes it mandatory for officials, at all levels of government, to provide any document requested by a citizen (with a few exceptions) within 30 days of the application, or face sanctions (see http://righttoinformation.gov.in/). It is a powerful instrument of democratic control, and has indeed been used by various citizen groups to expose corruption and other types of wrongdoing by public authorities.
To conclude, indeed, previously listed organizations play a significant and sensitive role in interpreting academic research into practice of goodgovernance, providing the linkages between goodgovernance and development, determining reforms leading to goodgovernance, demonstrating instances of successful reforms from particular country practice. Although the language of their reports is more accessible for disseminating the original findings of academic literature, while interpreting research to recommendations for action, ‘such publications short-change methodological and empirical ambiguities that continue to challenge researchers’ (Grindle, 2007). As an example, Grindle (2007) emphasizes how axiomatically official publications of international organizations define goodgovernance as singularly indispensable contributor to growth and povertyalleviation, whereas academic research puts into doubts the issues of measurement, causality and sequence. Providing examples of best practices of resolving particular governance challenges, these organizations disregard the local contexts which made possible specific achievements to go forward, as researcher insists. Hence, providing guidance concerning governance interventions or issues of implementation is often unaddressed. Accordingly, as Grindle (2007) summarizes, in translating research into fundamentals for action, international organizations may have contributed to misguiding practice.
Trafficking of the humans is a growing concern at international level. Among all the trafficked ones, children who are misused and continuously mistreated claim the special attention. It is, further, a known fact that these poverty stricken children are trafficked from Pakistan to wealthy Gulf States for camel racing. In order to find out the socioeconomic characteristics of trafficked children this study interviewed the ex-camel jockeys and their families from district Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Muzafargarh, Multan, D.G. Khan, Bahawalpur and Rajan Pur. Results suggested that the problem of ex-camel jockey children is certainly a social issue and it can only be addressed by taking simultaneous reinforcing actions across all economic and social sectors, including the sectors of education and health. Moreover, it was observed that effective prevention requires family empowerment, basic education, capacity building, awareness raising and social mobilization. Rehabilitation measures should seek to offer different solutions and provide a comprehensive socio-economic package of services encompassing education, health and nutrition, social protection and shelter.
poverty line,” but a significant minority are not "below the poverty line" either in relative or absolute terms. This number varied considerably from village to village which had received a large number of loans (Table 5-11), and depended on the political and socio-economic interests of the loan brokers. There were also cases where a richer person was in de facto control of the poorer person’s asset. Most of the beneficiaries we interviewed in the villages of Lalgudi and Thuraiyur are agricultural labourers, many of whom are landless or near landless (the incidence of landlessness is higher in Lalgudi than in Thuraiyur). Most are semi-literate or illiterate, with few labourers having schooling beyond the fifth standard. Because we went to villages at which there were women’s milk producers’ societies, a significant number of our IRDP respondents were women (whose level of education was much lower than the men’s-many female respondents had not attended school beyond the second standard, even though the survey villages have schools upto the fifth standard). Education is an important resource the beneficiaries lack.22 As a result, they are more easily cheated by the milk society officials who know they are unlikely to go to the bank to check their accounts if they suspect there are discrepancies between the amount of milk sold and the money credited to their accounts.23 This is exacerbated by either the banks’ (not all banks) failure to issue loan passbooks, or the demand by milk officials that they keep the books until the loans are paid off. Because the beneficiaries often rely on a single source, the milk society president, for their information about the program they do not know precisely about the subsidy they are entitled to, and the amounts they need to pay for such things as animal insurance. (I came across instances where information given to beneficiaries about the program seemed purposely inaccurate in order to convince them to take loans-ie., they had been told by their president that they all would get 50% subsidies and three milch animals).
Despite comparative literature on governance structures and social determinants of economic growth and poverty, the governance matters to development have been marred with number of short comings. Cross- sectional studies proven that goodgovernance matter for economic growth have been challenge on the grounds of reverse causality problems (Chod and Calderon 2000). Attempt to addressed causality problems has been marred with measurement error (Knacks and Keefer, (2003), missing variables Gleaser et al., (2004), conceptual vagueness (La Porta et al., (2004). The weakness of these types of cross-sectional regression exercise pointed out by Quibria (2006) in his now famous paper “Does Governance matter? Yes, No or may be some evidence from Developing Asia. The main reason why cross-sectional studies fail to capture the nuances of interactions between governance and economic growth is because the model was developed based on the implicit governance model which exist only in institutions available in Western richer countries.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________ This paper aims to describe the idea of the professionalization of handling the poor in Indonesia, namely through the establishment of a social worker assistant the poor. Poor Social Worker Companion who is a professional social worker was appointed assistant the poor. Professionalization companion deemed urgent. The poor handling challenge because it is more difficult. The fact is: 1) the number of poor people in Indonesia is still high; 2) the pace of decline slowed down the number of poor people; 3) There are a large number of residents are not poor are vulnerable to fall back into poverty. On the other hand, the poor management program through its joint (Kube) has not been effective enough. Recent research shows that only 40 percent Kube established in 2013 is still active when checked 30 months later. This finding is in line with the results of evaluations conducted since decades ago. This condition is alarming and needs improving the poor handling system significantly. One of the components is seen as strategic human resources. Suggested remedies are by appointment professional social workers to become a partner. The social worker assigned duties and functions facilitate the handling of the poor in a certain area within a certain time. The function of the social worker suggested the poor companion is: a) guide the community to collect data on available data the poor by name by address in its territory; b) verification and validation of data the poor; c) selecting program participants the poor handling; d) perform reference handling the poor; e) advocate for the Poor that all rights are met; f) The poor family counseling; g) make public the guidance in the handling of the Poor; h) monitoring and evaluating the progress of the Poor; i) make the case record the poor family; and h) report on the implementation of tasks. The social worker is deemed appropriate to perform this task because they are trained to help people meet their mission needs, support, knowledge, values , and skills.
The verse explains that the wisdom behind making some rich and others relatively poor is to make a balance in the society. If everybody should be rich, then no one will par-take a difficult work. But in this case, the rich needs some services which he cannot afford doing himself, while the poor has to sell his labour in order to earn and solve his immediate needs. So Islam is not agitating for total eradication of poverty (which is impossible) but calls for povertyalleviation. In a similar view, it is opined that ... if everyone had the same income, no matter what, there would be little incentive to work hard, gain skills, or innovate (Torado & Smith2006). From this we can comfortably conclude that the problem of eradicating absolute poverty is one of bad news and good news at the same time. Is like a glass that may be seen as either half empty or half full. (Torado & Smith 2006). Therefore in the Islamic point of view some degree of poverty among people is inevitable, but when some segment of the Ummah (Muslim community) is living at a starvation level, it is important that absolute poverty must be attacked as a matter of priority. This therefore means that the cause of such poverty should be identified and possible remedies suggested in consistent with the spirit of the Shari’ah. (Islamic laws) This is why the paper suggests cooperation in setting up businesses to create job opportunities for our youth.
In the year 2000, the United Nations drew up a list of Millennium Goals which aim to spur globalization and development and eradicate extreme poverty. Extreme poverty is defined as those living on less that $1 a day (Simanowitz and Walter 2002:15). The UN Resolution adapted by the General Assembly states, “We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women, and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently subjected” (4). The seven Millennium Goals are as follows: 1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, 2) achieve universal primary education, 3) promote gender equality and empower women, 4) reduce child mortality, 5) improve maternal health, 6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, and 7) ensure environmental sustainability. These goals, which are to be achieved by the year 2015, are a monumental step in the direction of povertyalleviation (UN Homepage).
The ARMM has its legislative, executive and judicial branches. It has its own administrative system and some degree of fiscal autonomy. The Arroyo administration has started implementing the provisions of RA 9054 on Moro representation in the central government by appointing Muslim leaders and professionals to certain positions in some national agencies. Moreover, the Philippine government has completed the integration of 7,500 qualified MNLF combatants into the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and the Philippine National Police (PNP). Some socio-economic development programs were implemented in the region by foreign donors and the national government, while others are presently being implemented. There are many other gains or accomplishments made under the present regional autonomy experiment in Muslim Mindanao. However, the continued persistence of the Moro armed struggle can be taken to suggest that the existing governance system for the region (i.e., Muslim Mindanao) has not been responsive. Despite the reported grandiose socio- economic development programs for the Southern Philippines, the five predominantly Muslim provinces have remained as the country’s poorest. The region has the worst poverty index in 2000, i.e., four years after the signing of the GRP-MNLF Peace Agreement.
Suharto further states that poverty can be categorized into four categories namely; (1) Absolute poverty, which is a state of poverty caused by the inability of a person or group of people to meet their basic needs such as the need for food, clothing, education, health, transportation, and others. The determination of absolute poverty is measured through the poverty threshold or poverty line in the form of single or composite indicators, such as nutrition, calories, rice, income, expenditure, basic needs, or a combination of several indicators. To simplify measurement, it is usually converted in the form of money (income or expenditure) so that a person or group whose economic ability is below the poverty line can be categorized as absolutely poor. (2) Relative Poverty, poverty experienced by an individual or group compared to the general condition of society. For example, if the poverty line is Rp. 100,000 per capita every month, then someone who has an income of Rp. 125,000 per month is absolutely categorized as not poor, but if the average income of the local community is Rp. 200,000 per month, then that person is relatively included in the poor category. (3) Cultural Poverty, poverty which refers to attitudes, lifestyle, values, the social or cultural orientation of a person or society that is not in line with the spirit of progress of modern society. Laziness, no needs of achievement, fatalist, and past-oriented, no entrepreneurial spirit is characteristics of poverty in the cultural category. (4) Structural Poverty, poverty caused by structural injustice, whether political, social, or economic structures that do not allow a person or group of people to reach the sources of livelihood that are actually available for them. The existence of monopolistic and oligopolistic practices in the economic field, it will produce a chain of impoverishment that is difficult to solve. No matter how strong one’s motivation and hard work, he will not be able to escape from the poverty chain in such a structural condition. The reason is because assets and access to resources have been controlled by a certain group of people.
Since the 1990s, the central government implemented a large targeted devel- opment-oriented poverty reduction policy. With the determination of poor counties, povertyalleviation funds were applied for water, electricity, roads and other infrastructure construction; culture, education and other public welfare services; planting, breeding and other productive projects. Among them, “Sev- en-Year Priority PovertyAlleviation Program” was announced in 1994; this plan identified 592 poor counties in order to solve the problem of food and clothing of 80 million poor people. In the new century, the state again issued the “Na- tional Program for Rural PovertyAlleviation (2001-2010)” which adjusted some poor counties and still determined 592 countries in order to further improve the economic and social situation in the poor areas. Taking it as a symbol, China’s poverty-relief work has entered a new period. From 2001 to 2010, the special funds for povertyalleviation reached 182.386 billion, maintaining the growth rate of 11.7 percent a year. So it’s worthwhile to probe the effectiveness of this big development-oriented poverty reduction policy.
Table 2 presents patterns of rural poverty among rural households in the sample. As passed, five dimensions of poverty have been studied in this study. Accordingly, 32 rural poverty patterns could be derived independently, where each rural household merely lies in one of them. Table 2 suggests that, 11 poverty patterns are merely visible in the Iranian rural community. The values ob- tained for the lift and confidence criteria in these 11 pov- erty patterns indicate that each of these patterns is able to earn the highest confidence level (100%) with the high- est lift (100%). In the perspective of support criterion, first to fourth poverty patterns allocate the highest values of this criterion to themselves. The fourth poverty pattern that reflects merely prevail education, housing and food poverties in rural households, with 34.30% of all house- holds have the highest proportion of rural households. After that, the third poverty pattern lay, where rural households are faced with income poverty in addition to poverty dimensions mentioned in the previous poverty pattern. This poverty pattern allocates 28.51% of rural households to itself. In continue, the first pattern of rural poverty with a share equal to 28.22% of rural households is located. This poverty pattern includes all rural poverty dimensions, and so, it is the most complete pattern of
reduction and empowerment of poor populations suggests that market based initiatives directed at impoverished communities can leverage their social capital to develop capabilities that could lift them out of poverty (Ansari et al., 2012). Our study identifies the boundary conditions of social capital creation through market based initiatives by highlighting processes whereby social capital can be undermined by market-based measures like microfinance. Third, our study contributes to the literature on building inclusive markets by recounting narratives from voices that tend to be excluded in the debate on inclusive growth at the institutional level. NGOs are key actors that fill the ‘institutional voids’ in rural areas of developing countries (Mair et al., 2012) and our study complements emerging research in the area by problematizing the role of NGOs as institutional agents of povertyalleviation (Khan et al., 2010). In the sections that follow we discuss the emergence of microfinance and examine its theoretical basis as a poverty reduction strategy. We then describe our ethnographic study of communities in three Bangladeshi villages and analyze their experiences of microfinance. We conclude by discussing implications of our findings and providing directions for future research.
The success of conservation programs will depend on reducing or eliminating the negative impacts of wildlife (Parry & Campbell, 1992) and the true benefit of pro- tected areas. These could be solved by involving various traditional resource users in determining how these natural areas should be managed and the benefits shared (DeGeorges & Reilly, 2008). Creating conservancies that would allow multiple use of bush meat, tree harvesting, and charcoal-making could solve most of these problems. Indeed, the authors are in agreement with one of the reviewers that if the community is forced to poach as a means of survival everyone loses. However, to be in a better position to negotiate, communities must learn the value of natural resources so that they can negotiate with both the private sector and the government to obtain a rightful share of the profits. This could be done by sending youth off for technical studies in places like Mweka and Pasiansi so that they become conversant with the economic values of wildlife. They should also study laws to know their rights to resource use and to fight for them. Child and Barnes (2010) suggest that property rights should be devolved to communities, which should be made responsible for the governance of resources and the benefits obtained from them.
During known human history, there have occurred a wide variety of forms of looting. One may mention the Pharaohs, who treated the entire country as their “oikos” or household. Mohammed sanctioned looting with a re- ligious argument in order to favour a rapid expansion of the Arab Empire. Looting constituted a key issue in Western feudalism, as the lord and the vassal focused upon how the fruits from the various benefices and fiefs were to be divided, both in the short-run and the long-run perspective. Finally, massive looting occurred in the authoritarian regimes of the 20th century, where both fascist and communist leaders looked upon politics as bo- oty, covering embezzlement, patronage and favouritism.
In practice, povertyalleviation requires more than financial support. Borrowers often lack the necessary skills to run a successful business and are thus unable to repay the loan on time (Abdul Rahman and Dean, 2013; GIFR, 2016). Other factors such as market opportunity, physical health, consumer demand, and adverse weather all affect the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. Therefore, Abdul Rahman and Dean (2013) suggested a combination of microfinance services with educational programmes. This requires collaboration between multiple organisations or experts, which is complicated and difficult to coordinate. The success of microfinance in alleviating poverty as shown by the Grameen bank is debatable because critics argue that Grameen model of microfinance could not be sustained without grants (Abdul Rahman and Dean, 2013). Other researchers found that the success of Grameen bank in helping the economically disadvantaged groups was partly due to its village phone programme, where borrowers can purchase mobile phones and provide payphone service to villagers (Yunus, 2004). It thus appears that the Grameen model of microfinance requires joint efforts from multiple organisations (i.e. grant provider and network provider).
and ecological goods and services. At the ecosystem level, forests are coastline and hill stabilizer, retainer and builder of land, buﬀer against waves and storms and a reservoir in the tertiary assimilation of wastes and in the nitrogen, carbon and sulphur cycle. It is a habitat for wildlife and birds and a nursery ground for ﬁsh and shellﬁsh. It is an environment with potentials for agriculture, aquaculture, and salt production. It is a place for human recreation. At the component level, forest products have been used as timber, railway sleepers, beams and poles, ﬁrewood, charcoal, scaﬀolds, mining props, fence posts, chipboards, in boat building, dock piling, ﬂooring, panelling. Plants are sources of tannin, ﬁbres, dye, sugar, alcohol, cooking oil, vinegar, fer- mented drinks, condiments, sweetmeats, vegetables, glue, hairdressing oil, fodder, etc. Fish/crustaceans, honey, wax, birds, mammals, reptiles, etc. are also obtained from forest ecosystem. Millions of people in the world earn their livings by exploiting forest re- sources and working in the industries that depend on forests for their raw material. Forests bear cultural, historical and archaeological values. The role and use of the forest and particular forest products can also be subject to cultural and mystic values, reﬂecting people’s history, religion, art and other aspects of