Generally, principals do not see themselves as instructional leaders and many are of the belief that anything that has to do with teaching and learning is best assigned to teachers. In some cases, principals feel inadequate to initiate and develop instructional programmes given the assortment of subject areas taught with each having its own pedagogical uniqueness. For example, teaching reading is different from teaching science and would it be fair to expect the principal to be knowledgeable about strategies for each of the subject areas. Despite these apprehensions, proponents of the idea that the principal should be an leader, is gaining serious attention. If that be the case then the principal needs to have up-to-date knowledge on three areas of education, namely; curriculum, instruction and assessment.
weekend classes are needed in order to improve learner performance, then they have to ask themselves if they are doing that or not. If the answer is no, they have to take action. This suggests that the school should have an implementation committee to check implementation of decisions made by the school. Senior (2002) presents change as either discontinuous, or smooth or bumpy. Fulhan (1990) argues that people learn best through doing, reflection, inquiry, evidence more doing, and so on. Planning also requires leaders to be able to identify organisational problems. This means that leadership requires effective diagnosis of problems, followed by adopting the most appropriate response to the issue or situation (Morgan, 1997). The aim is to identify the nature and extent of problems in order to push for solutions (Hielgerell et al., 2010). A further point is to react as appropriate rather than relying on a standard leadership model (Morgan, 1997). Change should be a problem solving process (agents in the organisation). Change agents are groups of individuals who act as catalysts (Jick Lewin, 1951). It is a matter of moving from one state to another; from the problem state to the solved state (ibid). For change to be effective, it requires the presence of change, 1993). Change requires gathering and assessing data to determine needs and to monitor instruction (Leithwood and Riehl, 2003).
Principals generally remarked that instructional leadership is a diverse role. When principals were asked to trace the effects of their roles as instructional leaders on academic performance in grade 12 and exemplify this with any subject. Two principals mentioned mathematics. Ms Nene emphasised that ‘we are very strong in mathematics …’, while Mr Sky was proud of the improvements they have made in mathematics ‘… as we speak now they’re at 77,5%’. Consistent with literature, Mr Star in his dissatisfactory derision remarked that with the 30 and 40 percent minimum pass rate for subjects, ‘even the frightening thing of free tertiary education, has impacted only 5% of kids from quintile 1, 2, and 3 schools’. Furthermore, principals identified monitoring of instruction as their management role as instructional leaders while influencing, showing direction and networking viewed as a leadership role. Ms Nene stated that ‘the general ethos is influenced by leadership. Umh, good relationships, for me, with the governing body, with staff, with parents, with learners; utmost important’. Notably, the three high school principals seemed not sure of any national education policy that shape their roles as instructional leaders. They were all explicitly asked this question. One could not give any but said ‘there are a lot of policies in place, I’ve just mentioned the disciplinary policy’ (reefing to the own school). One said ‘Mam that’s a very broad question that you are asking. But let me see if …’. Then ended up mentioning the Employment of Educators Act. The other principal after a moment, mentioned the SASA and saying that ‘which also states that the principal represents the Head of Department at the school’. Only the two former Model C high schools had SGB employed educators (shown in brackets in the table). Next, I focus on the meanings of my study if they were articulated by the three high school principals.
Further, this supports Chen’s (2004) findings that for the last few decades ICT technology facilities in educa- tion has been a determining factor of education and that to succeed in implementing technology in education principals need to change current leadership practices. On the aspect of curriculum management, Metcalf (2012) states that twenty-first century school leaders face a challenging task in applying technology to improve teaching and learning processes and must become role models to encourage the use of technology in teaching and learn- ing as well as in organisational management. As such, Robinson, Lloyd and Rowe (2008) state that the effects of technology leadership on students’ learning are three to four times greater than transformational leadership.
Intellectual stimulation might be applied by principals to harness a climate which encourages creativity and innovation in teaching and learning process of LSE. In this view, the principal would facilitate professional development and provide the required LSE support materials. The fourth dimension is the application of the individualized characteristic in which attention is paid by principals to the individual needs of LSE teachers and students in helping them achieve personal growth and self-actualization. According to Bass and Riggio (2006) this leadership dimension can be used to groom leaders for succession. The principals are likely to allow teachers to participate in decision making, be responsive to teacher’s individual needs for self-actualization. When teachers are empowered, they will have more interest in ensuring that LSE goals are met.
These areas are documented through completion of the Doctoral Applied Experience Evaluation Log, which is part of the student’s file. The student submits evidence of successful experience that the advisor recognizes through approval on this evaluation log. The documentation can then become part of the student’s professional portfolio and curriculum vitae. A minimum of two of the identified areas are necessary, with the optional inclusion of many or all. The recommended minimum areas are graduate level teaching and presentation/publication. Experiences may be related (a local presentation on the content taught in the graduate course) or integrated (research conducted on a community leadership project, then submitted for presentation at a national conference). Evidence is documented for each area, whether singularly and discrete or in combination.
This course is designed for students who are pursuing teaching certification in middle and/or secondary science. The course will first focus on how middle and secondary students learn science, and then from this knowledge base, the class context will focus on how to plan, design, and implement inquiry-based science instruction. Assessmentdevelopment in science, the interpretation, and the use of assessment results to guide student understanding will also be incorporated in teaching methodology. Intensive field experience required. Must be addmitted to Teacher Education Program. ED 424 - TCHG SOC ST MID & SEC SCHOOLS
appropriate school and community programs. Intervention methods may include, but are not limited to, requiring attendance in summer school, intensified reading instruction that may require that the student be removed from the regular classroom for part of the school day, extended day programs, or programs that strengthen students’ cultural connections.
significantly from each other as do these two groups’ cultural styles as they relate to education. As described in the comparison of curriculum above, the American educational system seems to value students’ comprehensive abilities (including exposure to art and other cultural aspects), while Chinese education tends to focus on scientifically-based academic learning (science, math, etc.). This may be traced back to educational at the high school level and the differences in focus in the educational system that prepares students for university level work. In China high schools the majority of students’ time and focus is on the major courses such as Chinese, Math, and English. These courses make up the vast majority of the Chinese students’ high school life, which overall is often seen as very serious and stressful. In contrast, American high schools often focus on developing the entire person of the student (with a significant emphasis on sporting events, social events, and other culture-specific activities).
All elementary principals attended a Racial Equity workshop. Schools promote race relations, cross cultural understanding and human rights throughout the curriculum, as well as taking advantage of teachable moments. 2.1.7 Principals will schedule regular class visits to ensure best
However, unlike the above papers my focus is on financial frictions which is a distinguish- ing feature of economies with large informal sectors. Specifically I exploit the idea that these frictions affect formal and informal sectors heterogeneously and study the resulting effects of tax policies and FD on informality and the aggregate economy. Models that highlight the roleplayed by official sources of financing as one of the main costs of oper- ating underground are Dabla-Norris and Feltenstein (2005), Amaral and Quintin (2006), Quintin (2008), de Paula and Scheinkman (2010) and D’Erasmo and Boedo (2012). These papers, however, focus on the choice to become informal or the emergence of the informal sector in the presence of financial and other costs while I take the informal sector as given. By assuming the presence of an informal sector with largely different characteristics from the formal sector, I adhere to the spirit of a dual economy model advocated by La Porta and Shleifer (2008) for developing economies.
Table 4.1 contains the descriptive statistics. Danish wind turbine power Industry is studied in order to explore the roleplayed by focal firms external search and the moderators that may affect this relationship its innovative performance. The sources for external search are: 1. University, 2. Research Institute, 3. User-representative body, 4. Supplier, 5.Consulting firm. Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics. The mean value for breadth is higher than the mean value for depth. This sheds light on the fact that on average firms tend to search more broadly rather than more deeply. The maximum value of breadth is 30. This value may appear to be a bit misleading. Let us consider an example in order to understand how breadth is measured over a time period. For example, Bonus was part of collaboration from 1997 to 1999 and had three external collaborators: 1. Forknigscenter Riso, 2. Nordtank Energy Group A/S, 3. Vestas Wind Systems A/S. Hence, from 1997 to 1999 Bonus had an external breadth value of 3. However, during the same period it was also part of anothercollaboration with four external collaborators: 1. Forknigscenter Riso, 2. Tripod Wind Energy ApS, 3. InterCon I/S, 4. Vestas Wind System A/S, 5. NEG Micon A/S. Hence, Bonus had an external breadth of 5. As a result, for the period 1997 to 1999 it had a breadth of 8. The variable for depth has been constructed
Electronic Journal of Science Education ejse.southwestern.edu Improvements were also seen in science college readiness for the CHS students in the two treatment groups as compared to the teacher-centric baseline group (see Table 8). Before changing the instructional context, roughly the same percentage of students tested college ready in science at graduation (ACT science subscore of at least 24) as were projected to be college ready when they entered high school (PLAN science subscore of at least 21)—only a 2.5% difference from the PLAN projection to the actual ACT readiness result. Treatment 1 (inverting the curriculum alone) demonstrated an increase in readiness of 17.8% and Treatment 2 (modeling instruction within the inverted curriculum) demonstrated an increase of 20.8%, each more than seven times the increase in the baseline group. Although there are not direct comparisons nation-wide for this improvement in science college readiness because of the atypical administration date of CHS’s PLAN test, the increase is worthy of further study. ACT data from a sample of 150,000 students (ACT, 2009) demonstrate that students who do not test college ready at the time of the EXPLORE (8 th grade) or PLAN (10 th grade) are not likely to test college ready on the ACT in 11 th or 12 th grade. In fact, ACT suggests that for students scoring below the college readiness benchmark on, say, the EXPLORE test, it is unreasonable to expect to make up more than half the difference to the benchmark by the next assessment (PLAN or ACT). For instance, a student with a PLAN science score of 17 (4 points below the PLAN science benchmark of 21) could expect an ACT science score of 22, two points (half) below the science benchmark of 24.
Cybersecurity classes focus on building practical skills alongside the development of the open mindset that is essential to tackle the dynamic cybersecurity landscape. Unfortu- nately, traditional lecture-style teaching is insufficient for this task. Peer instruction is a non-traditional, active learning approach that has proven to be effective in computer sci- ence courses. The challenge in adopting peer instruction is the development of conceptual questions. This thesis presents a methodology for developing peer instruction questions for cybersecurity courses, consisting of four stages: concept identification, concept trigger, ques- tion presentation, and development. The thesis analyzes 279 questions developed over two years for three cybersecurity courses: introduction to computer security, network penetra- tion testing, and introduction to computer forensics. Additionally, it discusses examples of peer instruction questions in terms of the methodology. Finally, it summarizes the usage of a workshop for testing a selection of peer instruction questions as well as gathering data outside of normal courses.
Meet with your advisor to discuss your potential project topic. At this meeting you will provide your advisor with suggestions of faculty with whom you have worked with who you would like to serve as the second reader of your project. Following this initial meeting, you will submit a written proposal that documents expected outcomes and an anticipated timeline for your project to both your advisor and the second reader. The proposal must include what type of project you plan to do from the four choices described below. It is your responsibility, with assistance from your advisor, to arrange for an appropriate time and place for this meeting. This Master’s Project Proposal Hearing must be held and the proposal accepted no later than the semester before you graduate. You must register for 3 credits of Individual Master's Project: Curriculum and Instruction (18-CI-7090) during the semester you plan to complete it. Step 2:
Statement of Intent: The Montevideo School District believes that the community should have an opportunity to be involved in the development of the school curriculum. Any person who resides in the Montevideo School District or is the parent of an open-enrolled student is invited to apply for membership in the Montevideo Staff Development Committee.
Skills, awareness or knowledge level of church leaders in the sustainability of community health was interpreted to be adequate, as all leaders interviewed had accessed relevant training in community development and leadership. This finding agrees with what Danladi (2008) observed in his study, he stated that even though many pastors receive training on the role of the church in community development, most of them are yet to translate that into involving the local church in the development process. He goes further and says that most local church leaders see their ministry as limited to evangelism, teaching and discipleship, that Social work is often limited to financial and material assistance to the needy, he stresses that little or no efforts are made to mobilize communities to take action to solve common problems that affect the community.
The main issue about teachers is that during decades they have been taking part into practices that differ a lot from what the new curriculum models and proposals expect, especially when the transformations are prescribed or imposed by the educational authorities and do not come from the needs experienced by the teacher of his/her educational community. For this author, it is unlikely that the teacher changes what M. Fullan calls “his/her significant structures”, above all because the change is presented to the community by means of a discourse that conveys a series of technical and academy-oriented conceptions associated with the neoliberal discourse and because those conceptions usually do not recognize, or even deny, the meanings that teachers have been constructing throughout his/her career and that are part of his/her meaning depositories. On the other hand, the reforms use to overlook that those teachers tend to react in very different ways according to their knowledge and acceptance of the educational models that authorities want to implement in their educational institution. The knowledge they have about it varies from familiarity and clarity to opacity and little transparency; this means that the farther they consider the cultural object that authorities pretend to impose to them as coordinate for their teaching practice, the more negative the opinions will be and consequently the stronger the resistance to it (Valdez, 2013).
Abstract As China becomes a more international platform, studying abroad is an increasingly popular choice for Chinese students. Business is the most popular major Chinese students choose when studying abroad but a growing number of Chinese students are interested in psychology. To ensure a meaningful experience, it is essential to understand the differences of curriculum and instruction between Chinese universities and American universities. As is the case with many international students in American universities, Chinese students often face language issues. However, they might also encounter other issues related to the difference between American and Chinese culture. These cultural differences can add pressures to many Chinese students, which can negatively impact their academic progress.