Rooted Stem Cuttings

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Production System Influences the Survival and Morphology of Rooted Stem Cuttings of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)

Production System Influences the Survival and Morphology of Rooted Stem Cuttings of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)

In both experiments, stem cuttings rooted in the GT-TP system produced planting stock with the largest shoot height, shoot dry weight, root collar diameter, root dry weight, and shoot: root ratio. For both the GT and JF transplant production systems, earlier transplant times produced larger size rooted cuttings, while later transplant times resulted in greater survival rates. The TP cuttings rooted in higher percentages and grew to a larger size in the GT rooting sponges than in the JF peat pellets. DS system rooted cuttings receiving a greater duration of mist had greater shoot height, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Shade had a minimal effect on DS system survival and morphology. In the second experiment, over 90% of the rooted cuttings produced in the production systems tested attained acceptable seedling grading standards. These results demonstrated that the three rooted cutting production systems evaluated are capable of producing high quality planting stock and that two full production cycles can be obtained in one growing season for the CT and TP systems. Installation of field trials designed to evaluate survival and field performance of rooted cuttings of loblolly pine representing these stock types will permit development of individual stock type grading standards. However, results of these field studies may indicate that new grading criteria are only necessary for containerized and bare-root rooted cutting stock.
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Factors affecting graft success and early growth of Fraser fir

Factors affecting graft success and early growth of Fraser fir

Plagiotropism is radial asymmetry in growth. It can reduce uniformity of rooted stem cuttings and grafted material and decrease overall shoot growth (Timmis et al., 1992). The most obvious problem with plagiotropism is that there is not a vertical leader; it continues growing like a branch. If plagiotropism is negligible, using different portions of the tree for scions could increase the availability of material for grafting Fraser fir. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate effects of 1) season (late summer vs. spring), 2) grafter experience, 3) effect of scion origin based on height (five heights), and 4) lateral branch order (first and second) on graft success and
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Adventitious Rooting and Physiology of Stem Cuttings of Loblolly Pine

Adventitious Rooting and Physiology of Stem Cuttings of Loblolly Pine

13 were field planted along with seedling controls and data were recorded after 5 years. The authors concluded that rooted stem cuttings do not need separate culling criteria prior to field planting to have similar survival rates and stem volumes as seedlings (Frampton et al. 2002). Further evidence has supported the absence of a meaningful relationship between either the number of roots or root system symmetry of rooted cuttings of loblolly pine prior to field planting, and subsequent shoot height or rcd after several years of field growth (Foster et al. 2000, Goldfarb et al. 1998). Other investigators have found either weak or no correlations between various morphological traits of cutting root systems of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and their subsequent field performance (Struve and McKeand 1990, Struve et al. 1984). Alternately, some researchers suggest that root mass [root dry weight (dw)], volume, and absorbing area of the cutting root system are more important predictors of field growth, but simultaneously caution that the effects of root system morphology on long-term field performance are yet to be determined (Foster et al. 2000, Goldfarb et al. 1998).
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Evaluation, Propagation, and Improvement of Gordonieae Trees and an Interspecific Hypericum Hybrid

Evaluation, Propagation, and Improvement of Gordonieae Trees and an Interspecific Hypericum Hybrid

taxon were trimmed to 3 to 4 in. (7.5 to 10 cm) in length and the basal 0.4 in. (1 cm) was dipped in 0, 2500, 5000, 7500 or 10000 ppm K-IBA dissolved in water. The cuttings were then inserted 0.4 in. (1 cm) in plastic flats (40 cm L x 40 cm W x 15.2 cm D) filled with a rooting substrate of 2 peat:3 perlite (v/v). Stem cuttings were misted intermittently for 8 sec every 10 minutes between 0600 and 1800 HR. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with five K-IBA treatments and 6 replicates per treatment combination. Each replicate consisted of 6 cuttings (subsamples). Each taxon was considered a separate experiment. Cuttings were harvested and data collected after twelve weeks, with the exception of data for hardwood cuttings of S. remotiserrata, which were collected after twenty-four weeks due to the slow rooting of this taxon. At the time of harvest, percent rooting, number of roots, and length of longest root were determined. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis where appropriate (Proc GLM, SAS v. 9.1.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC).
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Ex Vitro Propagation of Rubber Tree (Hevea Brasiliensis) using Stem Cuttings

Ex Vitro Propagation of Rubber Tree (Hevea Brasiliensis) using Stem Cuttings

Comparatively, Clone II significantly developed more shoots and roots than Clone I. In addition, the length of sprouts and roots in Clone II was significantly longer than Clone I. The difference in performance between the two clones could be due to the drastic environmental changes which had adverse effect on Clone I than Clone II. The type of clone or genotype of stem cutting under propagation has a great influence on the survival and the growth of plant species. Stem cutting, the most frequent propagation method for woody and herbaceous plants is usually faced with challenging factors resulting from mother plant status/source, media, type of cuttings, plant growth regulators and environmental conditions (Hassanein, 2013). Irrespective of the method of propagation, the rooting percentage of plant species is influenced by different genotypes (clones) (Yang, 2009).
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Testing of microbial additives in the rooting of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L ] Karst ) stem cuttings

Testing of microbial additives in the rooting of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L ] Karst ) stem cuttings

ECMs were either formed by certain morphotype- related fungi or they were later developmental stages of lighter brown ECMs induced by ageing. Progres- sive methods of identification and quantification of ECMs would have to be used for consistent and reli- able analysis of ECM communities on roots of the evaluated cuttings (hönig et al. 2000; Kennedy 2010). The application of ECM inoculum to a sub- strate does not guarantee that ECMs will develop on a host plant (hönig et al. 2000; Repáč 2011). in addition to inoculum and inoculation pattern (type and age of inoculum used, inoculum dose, timing of inoculation, inoculum placement in the growing medium, etc. – Repáč 2011), the success of inocula- tion depends also upon interspecific and intraspecif- ic host-fungus variation, environmental conditions, seedling production practices, and other factors (Kropp, Langlois 1990; Rincón et al. 2007). one of the likely reasons for the reduction or suppression of ectomycorrhiza formation by introduced fungi was the application of systemic fungicide, which was indeed needful for the restriction of pathogen activ- ity in given environmental conditions of the glass- house. According to Chmelíková et al. (1992) the mycorrhiza development is much slower in cuttings compared with seedlings of the same age, cultured under similar conditions. The reasons are decreased photosynthetic activity of needles under lower il- lumination and utilization of almost all available assimilates for plant regeneration. ECM formation can be stimulated by soil bacteria – plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (höf-lich et al. 2001), es- pecially in adverse conditions for the development of fungi (Brulé et al. 2001). The rooting substrate amended with bacteria in our experiment (product BactoFil B) did not affect the ECM development; the result coincides with findings of Shishido et al. (1996).
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Effect Of Some Synthetic Plant Hormones On Root Initiation Of Cajanus Cajan Juvenile Stem Cuttings

Effect Of Some Synthetic Plant Hormones On Root Initiation Of Cajanus Cajan Juvenile Stem Cuttings

This study was conducted to determine the effect of some synthetic plant hormones on root initiation of stem cuttings from Cajanus cajan, a medicinal and food crop under-utilized in Nigeria. Out of two hundred and fifty seeds sown in the greenhouse, only one hundred and twenty-six germinated. Healthy seedlings were selected for uniformity on the seventh day when a pair of simple leaves appeared. Cuttings were made just above the roots. The cuttings were placed in glass beakers covered with black cloth. Each beaker contained a known concentration of plant hormone made from the stock solution. Stock solutions of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), Indole- butyric acid (IBA), 2-methyl-4- chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and Thiourea were prepared and the cuttings were treated with each of the following concentrations 0.1mg/l, 0.5mg/l, 1mg/l, 5mg/l and 10mg/l of the above- mentioned hormones for 24 hours. Distilled water served as the control. The treated cuttings were washed with distilled water. Roots were initiated after the hormonal treatment. Among all the plant hormones used, NAA gave the best result by initiating 32.8 mean number of roots and 23.3 mean length of roots. This was followed by IBA at 5mg/l with 28 and 15.3 mean number and length of root respectively. 0.5mg/l IAA, 10mg/l Thiourea and 0.2mg/l MCPA, each stimulated rooting more than the control. Cuttings treated with 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T at 0.1mg/l initiated roots less than that of the
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studies of Impatiens have revealed a low percentage of seed germination compared to other conventional techniques (Sreekala et al. 2011; Ramasubbu et al. 2011). In contrast, vegetative propagation is relatively simple and cost effective. Lopez & Runkle (2008) reported that photosynthetic day light integral (DLI) treatment during propagation influences rooting, biomass accumulation and subsequent growth and development of vegetatively propagated herbaceous ornamental cuttings, and conditions for successful vegetative propagation of Impatiens hawkeri using a supplemental light source have recently been reported (Currey & Lopez 2013).
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SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND PLANTING MEDIA ON ROOTING OF CUTTINGS IN NOTHOPODYTES NIMMONIANA MABBERLY

SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND PLANTING MEDIA ON ROOTING OF CUTTINGS IN NOTHOPODYTES NIMMONIANA MABBERLY

The physiological property of IBA is to enhance cell division and cell enlargement there by favouring root growth. In the present investigation cuttings treated with IBA 3000 ppm talc form initiated more number of roots (26.66) and high shoot length (96.66 cm) in comparison to that of IAA of the same concentration and form. Considering the growth regulators and their concentrations, IBA 3000 ppm in talc form reigned supreme in respect of all characters, viz., per cent of rooting of cuttings, shoot length, root length and number of roots per cutting (Table 1). The superiority of 3000 ppm IBA talc form has been documented in several species like Alstonia scholaris (Rao et al. 1999) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (Bulgannawar et al. 1992).
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Clonal variation in adventitious rooting of taxus baccata l  stem cuttings

Clonal variation in adventitious rooting of taxus baccata l stem cuttings

posed a serious threat to prosperity of this valuable Himalayan tree (Pant and Samant, 2008). Meghalaya, India was once home to very good population of Taxus baccata, but due to rapid destruction of its natural habitat, the species has now become rare and found only in sacred groves and nursery of government owned forest departments. Moreover, species poor natural regeneration process, its slow growth rate and long seed dormancy period of 1.5-2 years (Stenfield, 1992) contributes significantly to its conservation crisis. Clonal (vegetative) propagation could, therefore be one of the practical options to augmenting its natural regeneration. Taxus species is reported as plant with relative potential of regeneration by adventitious rooting of cuttings (Schneck, 1996). Unlike other Taxus species, Taxus baccata is difficult to root and requires longer time (Fordham and Spraker, 1977). Rooting of Taxus baccata using stem cutting is well documented (Mitter and Sharma, 1993; Nandi et al., 1996; Khali and Sharma, 2001), but majority of works reported so far were from Central Himalayan region. In addition, vegetative propagation technique of Taxus baccata L. for subtropical climate of Eastern Himalayan region is yet to be standardized. Hence, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the rooting potential of two types of cuttings obtained from different clones of Taxus baccata with application of IBA.
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OF AUXIN ON SBASONAL ROOTING RESPONSE OF STEM CUTTINGS OF BERBERIS SPECIES FROM DIFFBRENT ALTITUDES ·P.

OF AUXIN ON SBASONAL ROOTING RESPONSE OF STEM CUTTINGS OF BERBERIS SPECIES FROM DIFFBRENT ALTITUDES ·P.

It is in this con­ nection that the stem cuttings of six species of Berberis collected from different altitude were studied for their rooting behaviour during different se[r]

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Factors affecting the rooting of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) stem cuttings.

Factors affecting the rooting of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) stem cuttings.

involving rooting of Fraser fir stem cuttings, large influences were observed regarding the growth stage of the stock plants from which cuttings were taken (Wise, 1985; Wise et al., 1985a; 1985b). Most likely, these differences reflect underlying phys iological conditions of the stock plants and the cuttings at the time of cutting collection. In the current study, hardwood cuttings were collected in March from fully dormant stock plants in which chilling requirements for budbreak had been satisfied. Consequently, when placed into the warm greenhouse environment, apical budbreak on most (68%) hardwood cuttings occurred prior to rooting. As a result, resources such as mineral nutrients and carbohydrates likely were diverted from root formation, as suggested by lower rooting percentages, higher mortality, fewer and shorter roots, and poorer root symmetry than softwood and semi- hardwood cuttings. Early budbreak resulting in resource allocation problems has been reported in previous studies utilizing hardwood cuttings of Fraser fir (Hinesley and Blazich, 1980;1981).
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Rooted Cosmopolitanism

Rooted Cosmopolitanism

In chapter one I briefly explored Pogge’s ‘negative/positive’ schema of accommodation that is worth further consideration here. Though the thesis appears attractive and somewhat intuitive, it misconstrues our obligations by presenting them in a strict negative or positive setting. On Pogge’s reading, we have positive obligations that can be owed to significant others (i.e. the differentiated treatment generated by partiality), but these obligations cannot override or violate our negative general obligations. For example, I may want to do anything I can to assist my family, but I may not violate the fundamental negative rights of strangers in assisting them. The issue with this analysis comes when we look at what Pogge considers to be the fundamental negative obligations, and as I discussed in chapter one, it quickly becomes clear that our negative obligations will necessarily incorporate positive duties as well (e.g. the duty to not impose unjust economic institutions relies on an active change in the global economy). This does not mean, however, that we have to reject this two-staged approach to partiality. In fact, by describing partiality in this way we can make better sense of rooted cosmopolitanism. Partial treatment is only justified once the basic principles of global justice have been secured. This leads to a very important discussion of the requirements of global justice that is beyond the scope of this chapter, but discussed in detail in chapter six.
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Possibilities of influencing the rooting quality of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L ] Karst ) cuttings

Possibilities of influencing the rooting quality of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L ] Karst ) cuttings

ABSTRACT: The influence of the date of cutting collection and cutting position in the crown on rooting quality was evaluated in cuttings taken from seven-year ortets. The evaluation of various dates of cutting collection in spring demonstrated a possibility of successful propagation by cuttings during a relatively long period from full bud dormancy to flushing onset. The relationship between the development of aboveground parts (flushing, shoot and bud formation) and rooting quality was not established. The exposure of cuttings in the crown of parent tree with respect to the cardinal points did not influence rooting percentage and qua- lity. A somewhat higher rooting ability was observed in cuttings from lower parts of the crown in comparison with cuttings taken from the highest whorls. Differences were more perceivable in generally weak-rooting clones. The comparison of rooting quality in cuttings from seven- and eight-year mother plantations with cuttings from a sixteen-year mother plantation confirmed that not only the rooting of cuttings collected from older mother plantations is weaker but also their growth is slower and their plagiotropic growth continues for a longer time.
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Influence of Mineral Nutrition on Stock Plant Yield and Subsequent Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Scaevola, New Guinea Impatiens, and Vegetative Strawflower

Influence of Mineral Nutrition on Stock Plant Yield and Subsequent Rooting of Stem Cuttings of Scaevola, New Guinea Impatiens, and Vegetative Strawflower

induced in stock plants of 'Florabella Pink' strawflower [Bracteantha bracteata (Vent.) A.A. Anderberg]. Stem cuttings were harvested when initial foliar symptoms were first expressed and later under moderate deficiency symptoms. A sub-set of cuttings were analyzed for mineral nutrient levels and the remainder rooted in perlite for 3 weeks and evaluated for root quality and root and shoot dry weight. Nutrients at an incipient or moderate stage of deficiency that affected rooting quality negatively were P, Ca, and Zn. Low K tissue levels near 1.5% affected rooting positively. Calcium and B should be applied to stock plants at recommended concentrations because cuttings will develop shoot tip necrosis under high humidity environments. Although Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, N, and S deficiencies did not affect rooting of cuttings at an incipient stage, they produced cuttings with foliar symptoms not desired by propagators.
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Genetic effects of rooting loblolly pine stem cuttings from a partial diallel mating design

Genetic effects of rooting loblolly pine stem cuttings from a partial diallel mating design

Seasonal rooting responses for loblolly pine stem cuttings have been observed in other studies. Early rooting trials of loblolly pine cuttings reported best rooting from cuttings set from September through January (Cech 1958; Reines and Bamping 1960; Grigsby 1962; Marino 1982). These early experiments concluded that increased temperatures in the greenhouse in spring and summer trials decreased rooting. In fact, Cech (1958) reported a threefold increase in rooting un- der cool conditions compared with rooting under warm con- ditions. However, Foster et al. (2000) observed an overall rooting of 50% for a rooting trial established in March, while only 20% rooting for a trial established in September. They hypothesized that the reduction in September rooting was due to a decrease in metabolic activity because of the decrease in photoperiod. Rowe et al. (2002a, 2002b) re- ported trends in rooting similar to those of the current study. They observed 59% rooting for spring cuttings versus 40% rooting for winter cuttings and 35% rooting for summer cut- tings. Cooney and Goldfarb (1999) also reported high root- ing percentages for spring cuttings (62% and 83% in two successive years). In contrast, Murthy and Goldfarb (2001) reported higher rooting percentages for winter cuttings (85%) than for spring cuttings (60%). Winter cuttings often take longer to root, but overall rooting may not be different than that of spring cuttings. Perhaps the slight reduction in root- ing frequency for the winter02 setting versus the two spring settings was a function of rate of rooting.
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Macropropagation of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. clones

Macropropagation of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. clones

various rooting viz., Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) at various concentrations ranging from 1000 to 5000 ppm on quick dip basis. Such treated cuttings were planted in different rooting media viz., standard nursery mixture (1:1 ratio of soil and sand M 1 ), coir pith (M 2 ) and sand

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Responses of ornamental Mussaenda species stem cuttings to varying concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid phytohormone application

Responses of ornamental Mussaenda species stem cuttings to varying concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid phytohormone application

This study evaluated the rooting and sprouting responses of four ornamental Mussaendas species (Flag bush) stem cuttings to treatment with varying concentrations of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Species evaluated include Mussaenda afzelii (wild), M. erythrophylla, M. philippica and Pseudomussaenda flava. Different concentrations of NAA phytohormone were applied to the cuttings grown in mixed river sand and saw dust (1:1; v/v); and laid out in a 4 x 4 factorial experiment in completely randomized design (CRD; r=4). Results showed that increasing concentrations of NAA application slowed down emerging shoot bud in M. afzelii, P. flava, M. erythrophylla and M. philippica. While other species responded positively at some point to increased concentrations of the NAA applications, the P. flava showed retarding effect of phytohormone treatment on its number of leaves. However, M. afzelii, M. erythrophylla and M. philippica, showed marked boost in their number of roots (NR) with the NAA increased application. The 0.2% NAA treated cuttings gave highest mean NR (4.6 roots) per stem cutting followed by the cuttings that received 0.4% NAA treatment which gave 4.3 mean NR, all of which were significantly different (p≤0.05). In terms of species response to the phytohormone positive effect, M. philippica gave highest mean NR (6.1 roots), followed by M. afzelii and M. erythrophylla which had 3.8 and 3.4 roots per cutting respectively. Evidently, the study has contributed to the conservation and propagation of ornamental Mussaenda collections in addition to providing vital information towards domestication of the wild indigenous species Mussaenda afzelii.
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A screening test for the determination of cut flower longevity and ethylene sensitivity of carnation

A screening test for the determination of cut flower longevity and ethylene sensitivity of carnation

Morphological parameters of the cuttings. Morphological parameters were registered every five days during the trial. The values of these pa- rameters were the mean of 25 cuttings. Stem diam- eter and root length were measured with a digital LIMIT calliper (Whitworth, New York, USA) with a sensitivity of 0.01 mm. The number of internodes and root initiation development were counted. Fresh and dry weight was measured at the end of the trial. Roots and stems, petioles and leaves (aerial part) were weighed separately on a COBOS series CSC scale (precision 0.01 g) to determine fresh weight. Afterwards, they were dried in a NüveE FN500 oven (Nuve, Ankara, Turkey) (range 30°C to 300°C) at 60°C for 48 h to determine dry weight.
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A Rooted Net of Life

A Rooted Net of Life

Authors’ response: We broadly subscribe to process and “pattern pluralism”, specifically that different repre- sentations of relationships will be appropriate for different purposes. We hope we have been more precise in commu- nicating that the rooted Net of Life is intended as a phylo- geny retaining the power of retrodiction where the resolution of reconstructed component gene trees allows. Other (and we would say, less narrative) ways of depicting relationships between extant organisms are certainly valuable as discussed in our response above. These approaches, such as an unrooted network with weighted edges defined by the proportion of homologous sequences shared between pairs of nodes representing genomes (Figure 1in [105]), and different approaches to extract and compare phylogenetic information retained in a set of genome [87,88,105-108]certainly depict evolutionary information, but largely serve a different purpose. In addi- tion to the ribosome, other characteristics have been used to place organisms into a taxonomic framework, and, per- haps surprisingly given what we have learned about gene transfer, many of these approaches have resulted in simi- lar groups as the ribosomal rRNA [109]. There is value in exploring different taxonomic classification schemes [110], but here we restrict ourselves to discussing a particular phylogenetic framework, that at least initially will not impact current microbial taxonomic practice. Given that the rooted Net of Life includes reticulations, it is not intended as an explanandum for Darwin’s explanans [58].
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