Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim , Mohammad M. Qabajeh, Othman Khalifa and Liana Qabajeh, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, IIUM, Malaysia, “Review of Multicast QoS Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.12, December 2008.  J. Abdullah, Dept of Communication Engineering,
The Mailbox may also be referred to as a message queue or a buffer attached to at least a single actor - this is where messages are sent to, so that the actors never directly receive messages. The Actor System is responsible for routingmessages to the given actors mailbox and the actor then picks up the message from its attached mailbox. This is to ensure that should an actor stop working for any reason such as entering into an exceptional state and receiving a termination message from its supervisor, messages that are sent to that actor while it is shutting down are not lost and as such buffered in the mailbox, waiting for the next actor to take control.
Based on onion routing for route discovery, ANODR uses one-time public/private key pairs to achieve anonymity and unlinkability, but unobservability of routingmessages is not considered in its design. During the route discovery process, each intermediate node creates a one-time public/private key pair to encrypt/decrypt the routing onion, so as to break the linkage between incoming packets and corresponding outgoing packets. However, packets are publicly labeled and the attacker is able to distinguish different packet types, which fails to guarantee unobservability as discussed. Meanwhile, both generation of one-time PKC key pairs (this can be done during idle time) and PKC encryption/decryption present significant computation burden for mobile nodes in ad hoc networks.
The first Proficient and extended version of AODV is Proficient AODV (PAODV) that depends on asymmetric cryptography. In PAODV protocol, the routingmessages (RREQ, RREP, and RERR) are encrypted by digital signature to ensure the authenticity and integrity. Because of not propagating the RREQ for external nodes, this routing protocol prevents from external active attacks. All nodes are authorized by a unique password. When a source node wishes to forward the RREQ, it first authenticates its neighbours by that password and then floods the message. In PAODV, the forwarder signs the routingmessages by its private key and the recipient verifies them by the sender’s public key. Due to incrementing the hop-count in every step of routing discovery, the forwarder cannot encrypt it. Thus, for protecting this field (i.e. not permitting malicious node to decrease it), PAODV utilizes hash chain. This structure is hard to utilize when an intermediary node has a route to destination node in routing table however RREP essentially has to have destination signature. For solving this issue, PAODV utilizes double signature. In this process, RREQ has a second signature that is always recorded with the back path route. An intermediate node, which wishes to response RREQ, utilizes second signature and adds it to RREP. Then it is forwarded to the source node. The RREQ and RREP messages fields are: Since, PAODV messages are importantly larger and need heavy computation due to digital signature, particularly for double signature. PAODV solves the routing tables overhead by updating them in specific time. So PAODV prevents the black hole attack. In comparison with AODV, because of an encryption in PAODV, malicious node cannot access the messages content; nevertheless cryptography process increases routing delay and the message length.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network is capable of clearing lots of challenges involved in the real-world communication. They are used in emergency response schemes, military field operation, oil drilling and mining operations. Transmitting video over MANET is an active research area due to their potential wide spread applications. In the last decade, both mobile and multimedia communications have experienced unequal rapid growth and commercial success. However, transmitting multimedia flows over wireless Ad hoc network remains an extremely challenging issue due to the limited battery lifetime of the wireless nodes. Providing good quality end-to-end video communications over mobile ad-hoc networks is more challenging due to the dynamically changing topology of the ad-hoc networks and the unreliable wireless channels. Multiple Description Coding (MDC) is an effective coding approach to enhance the error resilience of video transmission over any lossy networks. When MDC is combined with multipath transmission, MDC enables traffic dispersion and it alleviates the error propagation caused by the packet losses and hence reduces the network congestion. The error prone nature of the adhoc network always causes the frame to get corrupted. When MDC is used with such a network, it uses these corrupted frames as a reference frame and through motion compensation it compares the current frame with the reference frame and leads to error propagation throughout the network which results in video quality degradation. So, in this work, routingmessages of AOMDV is used as the feedback messages after estimating the packet loss in the network and video coding is adapted accordingly with respect to the feedback messages and thus the quality of the received video is improved. AOMDV also saves the energy of the nodes by multipath routing. This work deals with comparing video quality using MDC, MDC with feedback based SMR (Split Multipath Routing) and MDC with feedback based AOMDV (Ad-hoc On demand Multipath Distance Vector routing). The experiment has been conducted using NS2 simulator along with EvalVid for evaluating the video quality. The results demonstrate that MDC with feedback based AOMDV gives good PSNR value under different packet loss rate and guarantees good video quality for large number of users in the network and at the same time the PSNR is examined by varying the number of nodes in the network resulting in decreased PSNR while trying to increase the number of nodes involved in the network.
Hybrid protocols combine aspects of reactive and proactive routing protocols. Approaches such as the Zone Routing Protocol (Haas, 1997) establish a routing zone around a node, with a radius measured in hop distance, in which routingmessages are proactively distributed. Nodes which receive these messages update their routing tables and can then route packets to the source as required. If a destination node is not present in a source’s local zone, a query is sent to nodes on the periphery of the local zone. These nodes propagate the query to neighbouring zones until the zone containing the destination is contacted. A response is sent containing the forwarding path to the destination and the source can then send its messages. This approach combines advantages from both reactive and proactive protocols. Overheads generated by the proactive topology message advertisement process are isolated to the routing zone surrounding each node and are thus reduced compared to a full proactive protocol. Overheads are further reduced by ensuring that reactive queries are sent to zone periphery nodes only, rather than flooded in an uncontrolled manner.
Abstract. This paper discusses on the cyber-physical system technology that assures the interoperability of manufacturing control system and equipment in intelligent manufacturing domain. This technology involves an information exchange and communication process, where broad manufacturing resources of production workshops in advanced manufacturing industries such as control system, equipment, personnel, and materials may freely enter or exit from the distributed self-organizing peer-to-peer network as independent message nodes. In this process, an improved filtering and routing algorithm based on topic and eigenvalue similarity is also employed to group and compress massive manufacturing messages in the light of semantics and message clusters for the purpose of intelligently identifying, positioning, tracking, monitoring and managing manufacturing resources. Based on the features of manufacturing process, this paper filters messages and implements end-to-end batch compression and transmission so as to ensure that the massive messages transmitted among different manufacturing resources in the intelligent manufacturing process are equipped with the advantages like real time, fault tolerance and high robustness when data validity is guaranteed.
ABSTRACT: Efficient routing and service provisioning in MANET is a big research challenge. In centralized directory-based schemes, some mobile nodes hold the service directory to assist the communications between service providers and clients. Although service co- ordination is easier, such centralized management is hard to scale and the centralized directories lead to bottlenecks. Later Hybrid and Distributed schemes constructed local directories which form the backbone of the network. But its topology-based scheme is still hard to scale to a larger network (e.g., with several hundreds of nodes). The existing service provisioning techniques makes use of hierarchical decomposition of the geographic area into zones and selects a core node in each of the zones to act as an agent for all the nodes in its zone. The existing techniques use node ID or hash value to select a core node. This paper deals with Adaptive service coordination, by a rendezvous node which delivers efficient tracking and coordination of services. This rendezvous node identifies services that can be grouped and maintains information about available services, and helps in reducing the overhead and network traffic.
Work on DTN networks shows that it is possible to automatically route in networks, even when nodes are mobile and the link quality varies. There is a huge body of work on routing protocols [13-15] and metrics [16, 17] for this environment. However, these protocols and metrics find end-to-end paths, and do not support communication between nodes in different network partitions.Recent studies on routing problem in DTN’s have focused on the analysis of real mobility traces (human , vehicular  etc.). Different traces from various DTN environments are analyzed and the extracted characteristics of the mobile objects are utilized on the design of routing algorithms for DTN’s. An approach that uses a single copy of each message is presented by Jain et al. .
It represents as a few message copies into the network then route each copy independently towards the destination. Spray-wait which consists of two phases. Spray phase: every messages are originated at a source node; L copies of message are spread by the source to L distinct relay nodes. Wait phase: if the destination is not found in the spraying phase, each of the L nodes carrying a message copy performs “Direct transmission”.
Adaptive probability flooding protocol reduces large number of redundant messages of hovering information based on epidemic routing and increases the achieved reachability of message. To reduce the complexity of p and the number of broadcasting, a new probability flooding based on neighbor discovery is proposed.
Some schemes resort to maintaining a list of identifiers (typically UUIDs) associated with published messages to determine duplicates. This scheme obviates the need to maintain such identifier information. If the timestamps have millisecond resolution, this limits the rate at which secure messages could be published by an entity to 1000 per second. This limitation is circumvented by also including sequence numbering if the timestamps for two messages are identical. In this case, a broker maintains the timestamp and the sequence numbering within this timestamp. For two messages issued by an entity with identical timestamps a broker will not reject the second message so long as the sequence numbering for the second message is greater than the first one.
Many Hello messaging schemes focus on figuring out dynamic network topology or discovering live neighbors with an energy saving scheme , which requires all network nodes to continuously exchange Hello messages or beacons while they are awake. In such traditional Hello messaging schemes no start/end condition is described. This can cause unnecessary bandwidth usage and hidden energy consumption if MANET routing protocol (e.g., Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) , or Dynamic MANET On-demand routing (DYMO) is used, where a new path is discovered through Route Request (RREQ) and Route Response (RREP) packet exchanges. Two commonly used routing strategies are reactive and proactive. Reactive routing protocols creates routes only when they are required (e.g., DSR, AODV). Proactive routing protocols are table driven and utilize table to determine the next hop to reach the destination (DYMO, OLSR, DSDV). In MANETs, any node in a route can be turned off or can move away, which negatively affects route maintenance and this may cause delay in the data dissemination. It is important for a node in MANET to discover live neighbor nodes through hello messaging . Hello messages must be generated and transmitted at each MANET node independently. Two successive transmissions of hello message on the same MANET node must be separated by least hello interval .
Today the technology is rapidly entering into the lives of humans. The people nowadays, depend on these technologies for most of their work to be done. To make our lives more private & secure, we need some rules regarding our use of technologies. These rules are known in the technical world as protocols. They are of great importance to us in the current era & the years to come. These protocols change according to the demands, day-by – day. Routing is a process of finding of finding the best path in a network. The 2 types of routing are static routing protocol and dynamic routing protocol. The dynamic routing protocol is more robust than static routing protocol. _____________________________________________________________________________________________
In order to deploy overlay routing over the actual physical infrastructure, one needs to deploy and manage overlay nodes that will have the new extra functionality. This comes with a non negligible cost both in terms of capital and operating costs. Thus, it is important to study the benefit one gets from improving the routing metric against this cost.To concentrate on this point and study the minimum number of infrastructure nodes that need to be added in order to maintain a specific property in the overlay routing.Regardless of the specific implication in mind,to define a general optimization problem called the Overlay Routing Resource Allocation (ORRA) problem and study its complexity. It turns out that the problem is NP-hard, and to present a nontrivial approximation algorithm for it. They are only interested in improving routing properties between a single source node and a single destination, then the problem is not complicated, and finding the optimal number of nodes becomes trivial since the potential candidate for overlay placement is small, and in general any assignment would be good. To consider one-to-many or many-to-many scenarios, then a single overlay node may affect the path property of many paths, and thus choosing the best locations becomes much less trivial. To test our general algorithm in three specific such cases, It have a large set of source– destination pairs, and the goal is to find a minimal set of locations, such that using overlay nodes in these locations allows to create routes (routes are either underlay routes or routes that use these new relay nodes) such that a certain routing property is satisfied. The first scenario is consider is AS-level BGP routing, where the goal is to find a minimal number of relay node locations that can allow shortest-path routing between the source–destination pairs. Recall that routing in BGP is policy-based and depends on the business relationship between peering ASs, and as a result, a considerable fraction of the paths in the Internet do not go along a shortest path. This phenomenon, called path inflation, is the motivation for this scenario.
What can be inferred from Section 1.2 is that an efficient scheme not only has to exploit the advantages of the H.264/MPEG-4 standard and mesh-based P2P overlay networks, but it also needs to address existing open issues in RNC and routing protocols in WMNs. Recent studies such as the performed works by Anh et al. (2010), Wang et al. (2011) and Xingjun et al. (2012) show that RNC improves the perceived video quality on peers by addressing the content reconciliation problem in P2P networks and increasing the network throughput. Inefficient routing protocols in WMNs can noticeably affect the performance of RNC. In this regard, an efficient routing protocol which considers node mobility, stable paths, churning and interferences is needed. These problems are more visible when a delay sensitive stream such as a live video is propagating over the WMN. As a result, the big question is:
Traditional routing algorithm and approaches are not suitable for highly dynamic, and overhead on protocol can be increased with increasing of network size due to dynamic property, where large overhead can easily overcome network resources. For the design of design of protocols in wireless sensor networks, power limitation and other resources, we have to consider because the wireless channel’s time-varying quality, due to packet can be loss with delay. To solve this problem of design, there are many routing strategies for wireless sensor networks have been proposed.
of route failures. The correct approach is to analytically compute the probability of failures based on network in- put workload. As our efforts in this regard proved futile, we resorted to the use of simulation results. There are two possible ways this can be done: one is to use the fraction of empty cells per row in a routing table, the other involves tracking down all hops that are due to failed routes. We con- sidered the latter option over the former as it provides the actual failures from the simulation. As such, we tracked all instances in the simulator whereby a node fails to find a next hop reference in its routing table. If we denote the number of failed routes from the simulations, the total number of messages, and the average number of hops for simulations as F r , M , and H sim respectively, then, for each network
Abstract — Wireless Sensor Nodes are generally having less memory and low battery life. Due to this constraint, we need a strong algorithm by which we can reduce the energy consumption. The main energy is utilized during sending of the data. Some part of energy is utilized in processing the data. In this paper, we will give another approach for reduced energy consumption. We will consider the cost of sending as well as processing. So, we will use short distance path as well as compression of the data to reduce the power consumption. We have designed and implemented TARF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TARF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TARF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TARF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios
There has been a lot of work done on addressing packet loss in MANET. Yi Lu and Yuhui Zhong proposed a method to understand the main issues those are directly related to packet loss and showed that AODV has more packet loss due to the mobility as compare to congestion; hence AODV is more sensitive for mobility. Shalini Sharma et.al, proposed a method of secure channel to remove the problem of ambiguity and authentication which helps to minimize overhead and packets drop problem. Shiv shakti et.al., proposed method in which they used mix features of static as well as dynamic routing algorithm. The proposed system is capable enough to find out the next node for delivery of the packet. The proposed system checks the traffic density by calculating the ratio of incoming verses outgoing packet and compute the traffic density, and then decide whether to send the packet or not. It reduces the possibility of packet loss. Zhu qiankum et.al, implemented new advance AODV and observed the performance matrices such as network load packet drop, cost and delay for both normal AODV and the improved advance AODV and find out that advance AODV performs well and gives better throughput level with less delay and consume less energy. In advance AODV, packet loss is very less as compare to AODV. Hemant kumar et.al, proposed a method in which they introduced a method to identifie the broken links between two nodes, route can be repaired or can be discarded to avoid the packet loss. The proposed method can prevent the packet loss due to the traffic density and avoids from the malicious links.