Abstract - In Mobile Ad hoc network (MANETS), no fixed infrastructure is available. Different wireless hosts are free to move from one location to another without any centralized administration, so, the topology changes rapidly or unpredictably. Every node operates as router as well as an end system. Routing in MANETs has been a challenging task ever since the wireless networks came into existence. The major reason for this is continues changes in network topology because of high degree of node mobility. The MANET routing protocols have mainly two classes: Proactive routing (or table-driven routing) protocols and Reactive routing (or on-demand routing) protocols. In this thesis, we have analyzed Random based mobility models: Random Waypoint model using AODV and DSDV protocols in Network Simulator (NS 2.35). The performance comparison of MANET mobility models have been analyzed by varying number of nodes type of traffic (CBR) and maximum speed of nodes. The comparative conclusions are drawn on the basis of various performance metrics such as: RoutingOverhead (packets), Packet Delivery Fraction (%), Normalized Routing Load, Average End-to-End Delay (milliseconds) and Packet Loss (%).
Abstract - In Mobile Ad hoc network (MANETS), no fixed infrastructure is available. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are future wireless networks consisting entirely of mobile nodes that communicate on-the-move without base stations. Nodes in these networks will both generate user and application traffic and carry out network control and routing protocols. Rapidly changing connectivity, network partitions, higher error rates, collision interference, and bandwidth and power constraints together pose new problems in network control—particularly in the design of higher level protocols such as routing and in implementing applications with Quality of Service requirements. The MANET routing protocols have mainly two classes: Proactive routing (or table-driven routing) protocols and Reactive routing (or on-demand routing) protocols. In this paper, we have analyzed Random based mobility models: Random Waypoint model using AODV and DSDV protocols in Network Simulator (NS 2.35). The performance comparison of MANET mobility models have been analyzed by varying number of nodes type of traffic (TCP) and maximum speed of nodes. The comparative conclusions are drawn on the basis of various performance metrics such as: RoutingOverhead (packets), Packet Delivery Fraction (%), Normalized Routing Load, Average End-to-End Delay (milliseconds) and Packet Loss (%).
AbhishekDixit(2015) et al: The scenario of directional meta material antenna is simulated for comparing and analyzing of different routing protocols such as AODV, DSR and ZRP using QualNet simulator 6.1. The metrics used for performance evaluation of different routing protocols we used throughput, average unicast end to end delay, and average unicast jitter of routing protocols. Ajay Singh(2014) et al: The performance comparison of MANET mobility models have been analyzed by varying number of nodes, type of traffic (CBR, TCP) and maximum speed of nodes. The comparative conclusions are drawn on the basis of various performance metrics such as: RoutingOverhead (packets), Packet Delivery Fraction (%), Normalized Routing Load, Average End-to- End Delay (milliseconds) and Packet Loss (%).
During the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the design of energy efficient protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks. Node within an ad hoc network generally relies on batteries (or exhaustive energy sources) for power. Since these energy sources have a limited lifetime, power availability is one of the most important constraints for the operation of the ad hoc network. Therefore energy efficiency is of vital importance in the design of protocols for the application in such networks and efficient operations are critical to enhance the network lifetime. A routing protocol that does not take into account of congestion control will result in usage of paths that are already heavy in traffic load. It will add more burdens on the energy consumption to these paths and indirectly lead to imbalanced energy consumption of the whole network. The nodes in a high traffic load path will ‘die’ off faster than nodes in paths that have lower traffic load. AOMDV protocol is provided the alternative path from source to destination so that if one path is congested another path can be use to send the packet from source to destination and thus reduce energy consumption. in these research work we are using threshold value to choose some path from the selected path then average energy scheme is used to choose the path for packet delivery.
This protocol uses a reactive approach which eliminates the need to periodically flood the network with table update messages which are required in a table-driven approach. In a reactive (on- demand) approach such as this, a route is established only when it is required and hence the need to find routes to all other nodes in the network as required by the table-driven approach is eliminated. The intermediate nodes also utilize the route cache information efficiently to reduce the control overhead. The disadvantage of this protocol is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link. Stale route cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route reconstruction phase. The connection setup delay is higher than in table-driven protocols. Even though the protocol performs well in static and low-mobility environments, the performance degrades rapidly with increasing mobility. Also, considerable routingoverhead is involved due to the sourcerouting mechanism employed in DSR. This routingoverhead is directly proportional to the path length.
A Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between the nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. On Demand Routing Protocol provides a scalable and cost-effective solution for packet routing in wireless ad hoc networks. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad hoc network routing protocol is to provide correct and efficient route establishment between pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in time. MANETs are dynamic multi-hop networks consisting of a set of mobile nodes that intercommunicate on shared wireless channels. Each node can operate as a host as well as a router. Due to the limited transmission range of the nodes, the distant nodes intercommunicate through multi-hop paths. The main features of MANETs are ease of deployment and absence of the need for any infrastructure and it makes ideal network for many applications. Examples of such applications are disaster
The paper “ Neighbour Coverage: A Dynamic Probabilistic Route Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”  states that conventional on-demand route discovery methods in MANET employs blind flooding, where a mobile node blindly rebroadcasts received Route Request (RREQ) packets until a route to a particular destination is established. This can potentially lead to high channel contention, causing redundant retransmissions and thus excessive packet collisions in the network. Such a phenomenon induces what is known as broadcast storm problem, which has been shown to greatly increase the network communication overhead and end-to-end delay. In this paper, we show that the deleterious impact of such a problem can be reduced if measures are taken during the dissemination of Route Request (RREQ) packets We propose two new probabilistic methods for on-demand route discovery, that is simple to implement and can significantly reduce the overhead involved in the dissemination of Route Request (RREQ) packets. Our analysis reveals that equipping AODV with probabilistic route discovery can result in significant performance improvements on all the standard metrics.
A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. The widely accepted existing routing protocols designed to accommodate the needs of such self- organised networks do not address possible threats aiming at the disruption of the protocol itself. The assumption of a trusted environment is not one that can be realistically expected; hence several efforts have been made towards the design of a secure routing protocol for ad hoc networks. The main problems with this approach are that it requires changes to the underlying routing protocol and that manual configuration of the initial security associations cannot be completely avoided. In this paper we propose RIDAN, a novel architecture that uses knowledge-based intrusion detection techniques to detect in real-time attacks that an adversary can perform against the routing fabric of a mobile ad hoc network. Our system is designed to take countermeasures minimising the effectiveness of an attack and maintaining the performance of the network within acceptable limits. RIDAN does not introduce any changes to the underlying routing protocol since it operates as an intermediate component between the network traffic and the utilised protocol with minimum processing overhead. We have developed a prototype that was evaluated in AODV-enabled networks using the network simulator (ns-2).
After the proactive protocols, the reactive protocols appeared. DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)  is a reactive routing protocol that mainly avoids routing loops by inscribing the entire path on the data packet. On the other hand this protocol generates an important amount of traffic overhead. In , AODV (Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector) applies a different approach. This protocol doesn’t inscribe the path on the request packet to reduce the traffic overhead. All nodes that belong to a path memorize the next hop to the destination. Like DSDV, a destination sequence number is employed to indicate the freshness of the path and avoid routing loops. An extension of this protocol called AOMDV (Ad hoc On demand Multipath Distance Vector)  was made to construct multiple disjoined paths toward the destination. This protocol is well adapted to topology change but generate more traffic overhead.
This operation is launched at boot time by a node, say T, that is configured to be a FAPD responder, and periodically later. Node T uses RLF, but with four duplicates instead of six. Each of the four packets contains a get friends request message, has the RLF bit set to 1, destination EUI to any (as T does not know the identity of FAPD responders), the TTL field set to 6, and destination LDA to one of four geographic points (FP1, FP2, FP3, and FP4). No anchors are used. Although we use here RLF , the goal is different: We want to establish some long distance friendships, we wanted to search a limited area for a given node. The four points FP1 to FP4 are selected in orthogonal directions at four times the transmission range of T. Once some FAPD responder, let’s say Y , on the way towards a point FPi receives the friends request message, it does not forward it. Then, Y sends back a friends reply message to T, which contains a list a friends, selected from Y ’s own list of friends plus Y itself. When node T eventually receives the friends reply message from the node Y , it combines the received information with the current one in its list of friends. How a node selects a number of friends from a list of potential friends. The key to generate the small-world phenomenon is the presence of a small fraction of long-range edges, which connect otherwise distant parts of the graph, while most edges remain local, thus contributing to the high clustering property of the graph. Consider geographic locations of nodes when building friends connections.
Pro-active (Table-driven) protocol tries to maintain consistent view of routes to all possible nodes from a given node. The protocol tries to maintain these routes even before they are ever needed or used. The Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) protocol is a table driven algorithm that modifies the Bellman- Ford routing algorithm to include timestamps that prevent loop-formation. The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) is a distance vector routing protocol which belongs to the class of path-finding algorithms that exchange second-to-last hop to destinations in addition to distances to destinations. Since these type of protocol try to keep track of all the changes in network topology, there is significant routingoverhead is attached to this class of MANET routing protocols.
The problem of energy efficiency in MANETs can be addressed at different layers. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the optimization of energy consumption of mobile nodes, from different points of view. Some of the proposed solutions try to adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes, other proposals tend to efficiently manage a sleep state for the nodes (these solutions range from pure MAC-layer solutions (as the power management of 802.11) to solutions combining MAC and routing functionality). Finally, there are many proposals which try to define an energy efficient routing protocol, capable of routing data over the network and of saving the battery power of mobile nodes. Such proposals are often completely new, while others aim to add energy- aware functionalities to existing protocols (like AODV, DSR and OLSR). The aim of energy-aware routing protocols is to reduce energy consumption in transmission of packets between a source and a destination, to avoid routing of packets through nodes with low residual energy, to optimize flooding of routing information over the network and to avoid interference and medium collisions.
These protocols (e.g., AODV and DSR) compute routes on demand, when they are needed for a specific traffic flow. Using AODV as a representative protocol, we shall explain the enhancements needed to compute minimum-energy reliable paths with a reactive protocol. Research about power-aware routing in show that such a routing algorithm reduces the cost/packet of routingpackets by 5-30% over shortest hop routing and even reduces the energy consumption by 50-70% when using protocols such as PAMAS   (Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol) or PARO (Power- Aware Route Optimization) . PAMAS is an energy-aware MAC/routing protocol, which proposes to set the link cost equal to the transmission power; the minimum-cost path is then equivalent to the one that uses the smallest cumulative energy. In the variable-power case, where nodes adjust their power on the basis of the link distance, such a formulation often selects a path with a large number of hops. This approach uses a modified form of the Bellman Ford algorithm. Therefore the selected paths have a smaller number of hops than in the power-aware multi-access protocol with signaling.
The simulation is done with the help of MATLAB The simulation setup is made of various nodes transmitting packets on WDM unidirectional optical network. To find out the blocking probability and other metrics, we need to find out the coverage set, so that shortest path can be found out. There are two cases, if source and destination are in the coverage set of the node then it is shortest path. In second case, if the second node is not in the coverage set of the current node than find out the nearest neighbor so that shortest path can be determined. Further it has also two cases, if node is positively detected then neighbor is on left side but if it is negatively determined then it is on right side. Then on the basis of it data transfer takes place.
Node Location information may reduce the overall communication overhead for packet forwarding in Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks (MANETs). This paper proposes a novel Geographic Location Aware Adaptive Routing (GLAAR) protocol to reduce the computation and communication requirement for selection of next node (hop) for packet forwarding. Proposed protocol fetches the node location information using GPS and follows the robust, adaptive and efficient routing algorithm to ensure communication occurs with minimum no’s of hops and computations.
Abstract - Delay tolerant network (DTN) has been utilized for intermittent network, where no. of hosts are movable, there is no fixed topology and connection is opportunistic. It is challenging to transmit data in such opportunistic environment. DTN is also applied in Vehicular nodes known as Vehicular delay tolerant network (VDTN). The message transmission in VDTN using different routing protocols needs to be improved as VDTN suffers from the high speed of vehicles, short contact time and unstable topology and very high delay for message passing. The objective of this paper is to do comparative analysis of five different protocols of VDTN with variance of various parameters and suggest one protocol for optimum performance concentrating Overhead Ratio. Overhead Ratio is compared on parameters - variation in no. of nodes, buffer size and transmission data rate. Rating system is used to analyze comparative study. All protocols are implemented using The ONE simulator.
The problem of delivering/transferring data packets for dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in an efficient and timely manner is challenging issues in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Presently most of the ad hoc routing mechanisms are affected due to moving nature of node, mostly for networks which are large. For this issue Position/Location-based Routing mechanisms which take advantage geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless environment. Geographic routing makes use of location information of nodes to forward data packets, in a hop-by-hop routing way. Greedy forwarding is used to select next hop forwarder with the highest positive progress toward the destination. Existing traditional routing protocols are prone due to node movement. Where this Position based routing mechanisms is based on Geographic Routing is used to transfers the data packet based on the location of the destination.
Proactive routing protocol maintains fresh lists of destinations and their routes by periodically distributing routing tables throughout the network. Its advantage is the low latency and its disadvantage is high routingoverhead. Reactive routing protocol finds a route on demand by flooding the network with Route Request packets. Its advantage is low overhead and its disadvantage is high latency time in route finding. The Hybrid routing protocol is the combination of the advantages of proactive and reactive routing. The routing is initially established with some proactively prospected routes and then serves the demand from additionally activated nodes through reactive flooding. Proactive routing protocols are OLSR, Reactive routing protocols such as AODV, DSR, etc.,.
In DSR, the source node may get more than one routes of the same destination because the destination node replies to all requests reached in a single request cycle. Then, the source node will set the shortest (in hop counts) route as the primary one to prepare for sending data packets. Obviously, the shortest route maybe is not the most stable route for the different mobility of the middle nodes. And the previous researches  have shown that the stability is a key factor to the performance of ad hoc networks. It could improve the system performance to select more stable routes with mostly same hop counts. So the stability should be an important character to be considered in routes selection criterion. There have been some previous routing scheme studies on nodes stability, such as Signal Stability-Based Adaptive Routing protocol (SSA) . In SSA, the nodes will send out a link layer beacon to its neighbors once every time quantum, and every host records the signal strength when receiving the beacon. Each node classifies its neighbor as strongly connected if the node has been receiving strong beacons from the neighbor for the past few clicks; otherwise the neighbor is classified as weak connected. In routing table there is an entry to store this information of nodes (strong connected or weak connected) for each route. Then the source node will select stronger connected route to deliver data packets. SSA does consider the stability of the nodes, but it requires node to send link beacons periodically, which brings extra load cost to network.
overwhelming. Once the trail breaks, data packets can get lost or be delayed for a protracted time till the reconstruction of the route, inflicting transmission interruption. Pre-determination of an end-to-end route are made before knowledge transmission also no guarantee the info can send to destination. Without knowing location needs longer and energy to discovery and recovery the route to send data. Mobile Ad Hoc network are maintained dynamic topology with random mobility by that we can't identify the location of nodes. Multipath protocols have definitely sort the problem of single path by providing alternative route in between sender and receiver. It means, if the existing route is break than in that case the alternative route is available but it is not providing the location of mobile nodes. AODV has more message overheads during route discovery due to increased flooding and since it is a multipath routing protocol, the destination replies to the multiple RREQs those results are in longer overhead. The overhead enhancement are increases the delivery of routingpackets in network by that the data delivery are affected and end to end delay in the is also increases.