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The potential of exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from rhizosphere of rubber plants for improving soil aggregate

The potential of exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from rhizosphere of rubber plants for improving soil aggregate

Forty-five isolates of exopolysaccharide- producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of rubber plants were inoculated on ATCC no.14 medium. Based on the morphological colony observations of these isolates, most of them had similarities of colour and shape so that only ten different isolates were obtained based on morphological colony after it was purified by streak method to obtain single isolate.

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The Potential of Exopolysaccharide-producing Bacteria From Rhizosphere of Rubber Plants for Improving Soil Aggregate

The Potential of Exopolysaccharide-producing Bacteria From Rhizosphere of Rubber Plants for Improving Soil Aggregate

Results and Discussion Isolation and identification of bacteria Forty-five isolates of exopolysaccharide- producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of rubber plants were inoculated on ATCC no.14 medium. Based on the morphological colony observations of these isolates, most of them had similarities of colour and shape so that only ten different isolates were obtained based on morphological colony after it was purified by streak method to obtain single isolate.

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A study on pusher box technology adoption automatic in rubber plants

A study on pusher box technology adoption automatic in rubber plants

This chapter will be discussed about literature review that about technology adoption of automatically pusher box at Rubber Plants. In emphasized organization adopt new technology in their work environment also and the same time can improved their quality of rubber. As we know, all organization is very concerned about quality of the product to an achievement their target every month. To achieve the objective of this study, the information about technology adoption, and the frame work were obtained from various sources i.e. published book, journal and online article. All the data collected is useful to organization for potential future.
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Evaluate Technical Process for Vietnamese Rubber Plants

Evaluate Technical Process for Vietnamese Rubber Plants

The prevention of pests and diseases on rubber areas in Vietnam has not been paid attention to, improper use of drugs, improper concentration and improper spraying of drugs, spraying of chemicals when pests cause rubber damage in the Severe diseases have caused pests and diseases to be drug-free and do not eradicate root pests and diseases. Besides, without pruning, creating weeds, cleaning weeds, plant residues in rubber gardens are also one of the causes of pests and diseases on rubber trees. In addition, rubber growing areas only use chemical drugs that cause environmental pollution and do not promote effective prevention effects after rubber diseases. Measures to effectively control pests and diseases on rubber trees are to use integrated control measures (IPM), implement uniformity in the following stages: Land planning, breeding, and the seasonal selection and reasonable farming regime.
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Suitability of Rubber Plantation Land Intercropped with Corn (Zea mays L) Plants in Betung Village of Banyuasin District

Suitability of Rubber Plantation Land Intercropped with Corn (Zea mays L) Plants in Betung Village of Banyuasin District

Banyuasin District; Organosols, Klei or humus in lowlands/swamps, Alluvial along rivers, and Podzolik in hilly areas. (BPS of Banyuasin District, 2018). The main source of income of the population and types of main agricultural commodities based on the villages of Betung Subdistrict is agriculture with the main type of agricultural commodity of rubber (BPS of Betung Subdistrict, 2018). While in the production of food commodities (Pajale) which is currently promoted by the government, corn is the second largest commodity produced after rice. In addition to the cultivation business, the Betung Village community also manages and develops livestock such as cattle. Smallholder rubber plantations where the land evaluation was carried out belong to immature rubber plantations. The age of the rubber plants was below 2 years having planting distance of 5 x 3.5 m..
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The Impact of the Efficiency of Rubber Production on the Welfare of Rubber Farmers in Jambi Province

The Impact of the Efficiency of Rubber Production on the Welfare of Rubber Farmers in Jambi Province

The results of the stochastic frontier production function model analysts show that a 1% increase in labour usage will boost production by 0.32%. Land area. The result of the estimation as shown in Table 3 explains that the level of production responsiveness to land expansion efforts is inelastic, as indicated by the resulting coefficient value of 0.34. That is, from every 1% increase in land area will increase production by 0.34%. Age Rubber Plant. Based on the results of analysis as shown in Table 3 obtained value of coefficient variable aged rubber plant of −0.33. This illustrates that the older age of the rubber plant, the level of production decreases. Facts in the field illustrate the condition of rubber plants owned by the average farmer has been aged 18 years, and there are 26.67% of farmers whose aged rubber plants above 21 years. Use of urea fertilizer. Based on the results of the analysis as shown in Table 2, the variable coefficient of urea fertilizer is 0.13, meaning that if the use of fertilizer increases by 1% it will increase production by 0.13%.
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Effort to increase rubber farmers’ income when rubber low prices

Effort to increase rubber farmers’ income when rubber low prices

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email:iman_satra@yahoo.com Abstract Rubber is a plantation crop that has high economic value and the largest foreign exchange producer 10. Rubber producers in Indonesia consist of the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Indonesia is one of the largest rubber producers after Thailand with the number of people involved in rubber farming reaching 2.2 million households. The recent decline in rubber prices has affected the decline in rubber farmers' income. So a strategy is needed to increase the income of rubber farmers. This paper provides an overview of the strategies that rubber farmers need to increase their income. The strategy that was carried out was an increase in the adoption of superior clones at the farmer level, optimization of rubber plantations by modifying the distance of rubber plants to be wider so that they could be used to plant intercrops during the rubber crop cycle and farmers using rubber marketing through UPPB (row rubber material processing and marketing unit)because it could increase the share price received by farmers so farmers get high prices.
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ENR-50 compatibilized natural rubber/recycled

acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

ENR-50 compatibilized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

seen over the last couple of years all over the world. The reason is its excellent resistance to punctures and tears as well as the non-existence of leachable allergeneic proteins, unlike in natural rubber latex. Nitrile gloves are currently used in many areas such as the medical and dental fields to a greater extent, food industry, automotive industry and chemical industry and as a result significant quantities of rejects are generated worldwide daily (Ismail et al. 2009). Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ( NBR ) has superior

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STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN BY VARYING THE SIZE OF CRUMB RUBBER

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN BY VARYING THE SIZE OF CRUMB RUBBER

The present study had undertaken to determine a effect of different sizes of crumb rubber on the physical properties of bituminous mixes. Improper sizes of mix may affect its performance. Thus this study was envisaged to bring about awareness in the field engineers about the following temperature time line sand its effect on deterioration in stability and other physical properties. Accordingly crumb rubber sizes was varied at predetermined OBC i.e Marshall Specimens were prepared at 170°C for the types of binder sand tested for Marshall Stability. Marshall stability test is conducted on each specimen and the mean of Marshall stability value(after applying the correction factor if any, for thickness value so the than 63.5mm)and the flow value for specimens prepared using different binder contents are tabulated. Graphs is plotted with content of bitumen on the X-axis and i) density ii)Marshall Stability iii)flow value iv) air voids vs VFB on the y-axis. Individual values of optimum bitumen contents are obtained considering i) maximum density ii)maximum stability iii) midrange of recommended flow value iv) midrange of recommended voids content.
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Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

grade styrene–butadiene rubber of grade 1502 with 23.6 wt% of styrene content was used. The recipe of this study contained also other additives, namely: ZnO, stearic acid and tetrene. The first two additives act as accelerators as well as activators and their content was 5 wt% and 1 wt%, respectively. 1ml of tetrene, on the other hand acts as antioxidant Ingredients of the recipe were mixed carefully through a two roller mill of size 300 · 470 mm with a gear ratio of 1.14:1 at 80 C to obtain sheets, which were pressed to 1 mm thickness using a hot elec- tric press at 150 C for 20 min at a pressure of 16 MPa. Irradi- ation by gamma cell type 4000 A from India at a dose rate of 7.6 kGy/h, was carried out.
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A review on the effect of crumb rubber addition to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen

A review on the effect of crumb rubber addition to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen

Rubber addition can help to reduce the hardening rate and susceptibility of bitumen [49–51]. Rubber also helps in lowering viscosity buildup with aging at low temperatures [52]. Gel permeation chromatography analysis shows that a higher proportion of crumb rubber (15% to 20%) in the bitumen contributes to the reduction of large molecular size value of the binder. This is due to the ejection of lighter constituents that were earlier absorbed by the rubber from the bitumen [53]. This helps in reducing the rate of asphaltenes formation, therefore slowing the aging process [51]. In order to further improve the aging characteristics of CRMB, Chipps et al. recommend the use of low-asphaltene bitumen processed with high-cure (terminal blend) CRMB with minimum rubber content of 10% [48]. Although hardening of asphalt cannot be avoided, there are ways that aged bitumen can be rejuvenated to its original properties with the help of rejuvenating agent [54] or other substance such as recycled waste cooking oil [55]. This technology has the potential to be an excellent solution in using recycled asphaltic pave- ment.
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Physical properties and energy absorption of epoxidized natural rubber/reclaimed rubber foam

Physical properties and energy absorption of epoxidized natural rubber/reclaimed rubber foam

2 developed countries. By the middle of 1980s less than 1% of the worldwide polymer consumption was in the form of reclaim. At the beginning of 20th century half of the rubber consumed was in the form of reclaim. It is expected that in 21st century most of the scrap rubber will be recycled in the form of reclaim because of day to day increase in environmental awareness. One of the various problems which mankind faces as it enters into the 21st century is the problem of waste disposal management.

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ASTM Rubber Standards

ASTM Rubber Standards

See all versions Standard Test Method for Immunological Measurement of Four Principal Allergenic Proteins (Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02) in Natural Rubber and Its Products Derived from Latex D7558 - 09 Standard Test Method for Colorimetric/Spectrophotometric Procedure to Quantify Extractable Chemical Dialkyldithiocarbamate, Thiuram, and Mercaptobenzothiazole Accelerators in Natural Rubber Latex and Nitrile Gloves

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The rubber foot illusion

The rubber foot illusion

Nineteen able-bodied volunteers (10 females) participated in this study after signing a written informed consent. All experimental procedures were performed according to the standards set by the declaration of Helsinki for med- ical research involving human subjects. Each participant sat comfortably on a bed with both legs lying in a supine position and with his/her right leg out of sight, behind a screen. The participant was instructed to fix his/her sight on a rubber foot (single-axis foot, Ottobock Gmbh) during the experiment. Modality-matched and modality- mismatched stimulation conditions were tested. During the modality-matched conditions, congruent stimulation was delivered on the real and the rubber feet, using two paintbrushes, as in the original RHI experiment. In the modality-mismatched conditions the stimulation was incongruent; the rubber foot, in full view, was manu- ally stimulated with the paintbrush while the hidden real foot was stimulated by small vibrators taped on the first and second toes, triggered off by a keypad, as in our previous studies [9, 10] (as depicted in [Fig. 1]). Each vibrator (8 mm diameter, 3.4 mm height, 0.7 g weight) could be selectively activated to vibrate at a pre-defined vibration frequency (165 Hz) and force amplitude (0.36 N; i.e. largely supra-threshold) or deactivated. As soon as a specific key on the keypad was pressed, the correspond- ing unit would start vibrating, until the key was released. The time delay between the pressure of a key and start- ing of perceivable vibration can be considered negligible
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Allweather and Rubber Cables

Allweather and Rubber Cables

These robust rubber sheathed cables can be used where high demands are placed flexibility and mechanical stress. For application on construction sites, in steel works and rolling mills in heating and air-conditioning systems, in the bottling industry, in machinery and plant construction, in the chemical industry and painting systems, as well as for the professional and the hobby enthusiast. The choice of yellow as the sheath colour ensures additional safety. Can be used in potentially explosive areas acc. to DINVDE0165.

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INTRODUCTION. The styrene butadiene rubber, SBR, is the most widespread synthetic rubber in the world.

INTRODUCTION. The styrene butadiene rubber, SBR, is the most widespread synthetic rubber in the world.

The Industrial Complex of Camaçari is likely to have available the raw materials needed to manufacture Acetone, if an investment is made integrated for the production of cumene and phe[r]

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Processing and Material Characteristics of a reclaimed Ground Rubber Tire Reinforced Styrene Butadiene Rubber

Processing and Material Characteristics of a reclaimed Ground Rubber Tire Reinforced Styrene Butadiene Rubber

cosity of reclaim rubber as function of milling time and concentration of reclaiming agent. The optimization of the reclaiming agent concentration and time of reclaim- ing was also reported. The performance evaluations of such type of reclaim rubber/virgin natural rubber blend was also studied [9] by the author. In this paper mecha- nochemically partially devulcanized GRT was blended with fresh NR in 20% - 60% level. The reclaim rubber, prepared in this investigation, when blended with fresh NR has been found to reduce the tensile strength by about 7% for 20% reclaim containing vulcanizate and 46% for 60% reclaim containing vulcanizate. It is ob- served that the aging performances of the reclaim rubber containing vulcanizates are better than the control for- mulation, which does not contain any reclaim rubber. TGA shows that the thermal stability of the vulcanizate increases with increasing reclaim rubber content. Noor- dermeer et al. [10] reclaimed waste latex rubber by di- phenyl disulfide, 2-aminopheny disulfide and 2, 2'-diben- zamidodiphenyl disulfide as a function of concentration of reclaiming agent, time and temperature. The compara- tive study of the reclaiming efficiency of the three rec- laiming agents was carried out. From the study it was evident that 2, 2'-dibenzamidodiphenyl disulfide is able to break the crosslink bonds at around 20˚C. Sombat- sompop and Kumnuantrip [11,12] incorporated reclaim rubber from tire tread into two grades of NR and investi- gated various properties of the blend. They found that Mooney number, shear viscosity and cure rate increased with RR content but optimum cure time is independent of it. Sreeja and Kutty [13] studied the cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NR/RR blends, using the EV system. They reported that scorch time and tensile properties of the blend reduced with RR loading. The curing characteristics and mechanical properties of SBR/RR blend system was reported by the author [14]. Here reclaiming of waste rubber was carried by a simple process with an eco-friendly renewable resource material [15,16]. The main constituent of this material is diallyl disulfide. Other constituents are disulfides, mono sulfides, poly sulfides and thiol compounds. Nevatia et al. [17] mixed RR with recycled poly ethylene and evaluated physical properties, dynamic mechanical properties and rheological behaviors of the blend. They reported that 50/50, RR/PE vulcanizate showed optimum processibili- ty, ultimate elongation and set properties. Here sul- fur-accelerator cured system gave superior product prop- erties than peroxide cured system.
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Rubber plantation labor and labor movements as rubber prices decrease in southern Thailand

Rubber plantation labor and labor movements as rubber prices decrease in southern Thailand

*Corresponding author: t_uraiwan@hotmail.com; Tel.: +66-081-965-5583 Abstract: A decrease in rubber prices can initiate labor migration trends from rubber production to industrial or service sectors, which could further cause labor shortages in rubber production. This case was not studied in the different communities with a long history of rubber such as the center city of southern Thailand. This study analyzes the source of labor and movement of laborers working in rubber plantations in the context of decreasing rubber prices. We selected 3 representative areas, namely rural, suburban and urban communities in Hat Yai district, Songkhla province. Owners of rubber holdings were the target group for the survey, and individual interviews were conducted. We collected data between March and July 2015, engaging with 207 owners. The results showed that family labor and hired labor were widely used in rubber plantations in the three communities. Locally hired laborers and laborers from other countries were the main sources of hired labor for rubber plantations. The transnational laborers were a secondary source of labor for all communities, especially the rural ones. Family labor was the main source of labor for smallholder rubber plots, especially for the urban and suburban areas. Hired labor was used in all sizes of rubber holding in rural and suburban communities and were very common in the small rubber holdings in urban areas. This shows that the rubber production sector creates employment for local people and for migrants. Furthermore, low rubber price conditions did not significantly impact labor movement in rubber plantations. However, rubber plantations in urban and suburban communities lacked labor supply due to their proximity to the larger urban center of Hat Yai city. Therefore, the low tapping intensity and generate the diversified source of income to attract young labor generation to work on the farms should be policy to maintain natural rubber production in Thailand.
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Properties of Natural Rubber/Recycled Chloroprene Rubber Blend: Effects of Blend Ratio and Matrix

Properties of Natural Rubber/Recycled Chloroprene Rubber Blend: Effects of Blend Ratio and Matrix

2. Experimental 2.1. Material and formulation NR from Standard Malaysian Natural Rubber grade L (SMR L) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 50) were supplied by Rubber Research Institute Malaysia (RRIM), whereas Juara Resources (M) Sdn. Bhd. was the supplier for the recycled gloves. At first, the recycled gloves were grounded into powder form using a table-type pulverizing machine from RongTsong Precision Technology Co., Ltd. The average size of ground rCR was 600 μm. CB of high abrasion furnace (N330) was purchased from EXCELKOS Sdn. Bhd. All other reagents, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), sulfur (S 8 ), N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), tetramethylthiurammonosulfide (TMTM), magnesium
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Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen by Using Various Sizes of Crumb Rubber

Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen by Using Various Sizes of Crumb Rubber

The mixture showed improved performance in dynamic stability, 48 h residual stability, flexural strength and strain value. Asphalt containing 0.2 and 0.4 mm size rubber indicated the best laboratory results (Souza and Weissman ,1994). The particles size disruption of crumb rubber influenced the physical properties of bitumen rubber blend. In general, small difference in the particles size has no significant effects on blend properties. However, the crumb rubber size can certainly make a big difference. According to a study of Shen et al. (2009), the particle size effects of CRM on high temperature properties of rubberized bitumen binders was an influential factor on visco- elastic properties. The coarser rubber produced a modified binder with high shear modulus and an increased content of the crumb rubber decreased the creep stiffness which in turn showed significant thermal cracking resistance.
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