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Research of Supercapacitor Voltage Equalization Strategy on Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane Energy Saving System

Research of Supercapacitor Voltage Equalization Strategy on Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane Energy Saving System

Abstract: A model for supercapacitor voltage equalization strategy is analyzed, and on this basis a supercapacitor voltage equalization method for Rubber Tyred Gantry Crane (RTG) energy saving system is proposed, namely active voltage equalization method based on Buck-Boost converter. The equalizing speed of the proposed method is fast. Firstly, the working principle and process of the voltage equalization circuit is analyzed in detail. In addition, design of active voltage equalization circuit parameters and control strategy are given. Finally, simulation analysis of the series connection of supercapacitors module is performed. Results show that this method for equalizing voltage can avoid over-voltage of each cell and possess practicable and high value for supercapacitor RTG energy saving system.
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Reducing Fuel Consumption Using Flywheel Battery Technology for Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

Reducing Fuel Consumption Using Flywheel Battery Technology for Rubber Tyred Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) is used as an energy regeneration sys- tem to help with reducing peak power requirements on RTG cranes that are used to load or unload container ships. Nevertheless, with the use of FESS, Port Operator can deploy undersized generator for new RTG as this will fur- ther reduce fuel consumption. This paper presents the investigation of the amount of energy and fuel consumption that can be reduced in Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes in container terminals by the use of simulation. In addi- tion, Variable Speed Generator is integrated to the simulation-hybridized RTG. Simulation results reveal that the total energy saving exceeded 30% rela- tively to conventional RTG. A hardware-in-loop system is introduced for the purpose of validating the simulation results. The hardware components pro- cured include a FESS, a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) and brake resistors.
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INFLUENCE OF QUAY CONTAINER CRANE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RUBBER TIRED GANTRY CRANE ON PRODUCTIVITY OF STEVEDORING COMPANY IN JAKARTA-INDONESIA

INFLUENCE OF QUAY CONTAINER CRANE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RUBBER TIRED GANTRY CRANE ON PRODUCTIVITY OF STEVEDORING COMPANY IN JAKARTA-INDONESIA

Licensed under Creative Common Page 552 This research aims to show the relationship between quay container crane planning and rubber tyred gantry crane implementation with stevedoring productivities. This research uses quantitative method and collected data are analyzed with inferential statistics while data is tabulated by using SPSS software (Statistic Product and Service Solutions).

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Analysis of Electric-Rubber Tyred Gantries for a more green Durban Container Terminal

Analysis of Electric-Rubber Tyred Gantries for a more green Durban Container Terminal

In the wake of severe energy shortages and higher energy costs around the world, some equipment(such as RTGs and straddle carriers) with large operating costs are being phased out in favour of handling facilities offering energy savings, environmental friendliness, and electric power systems. Electric Rubber Tyred Gantry (E-RTG) cranes offer maintenance and repair costs that are 30% lower than for standard diesel RTGs, and also provide additional fuel cost savings of as much as 70%. The use of E-RTGs can reduce CO2 emissions by 60-80% compared with conventional diesel powered RTGs, which can result in overall terminal CO2 emissions decreasing by 20% per TEU handled, and the retrofitting of the majority of the existing 400-unit APM terminal RTG fleet with electrical systems will reduce CO2 emissions by 70,000 tons annually (APM, 2011)
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CORRELATES OF SUCCESS IN JAVA PROGRAMMING: PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF 
STUDENTS IN A JAVA COURSE FROM THE RESULTS OF LOWER LEVEL COURSES

CORRELATES OF SUCCESS IN JAVA PROGRAMMING: PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN A JAVA COURSE FROM THE RESULTS OF LOWER LEVEL COURSES

During 2000 to 2011, rubber plantations rapidly expanded in northeast Thailand, which had not been historically planted. Information about planted areas and their distribution is a prerequisite for formulating land use planning and understanding its consequences on ecosystems. This study aimed to establish a model for digitally devising a synergistic approach to distinguishing the different stages of rubber plantations in the northeasternmost region of Thailand and a small portion of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The combination of Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), Vegetation Canopy Density (VCD), plant phenology and intensive ground observation was applied to THAICHOTE satellite data. Two levels of classification based on OBIA approach were performed. At the first level, multi-scale image segmentation of pansharpened imagery was performed to divide the image set into objects with different spectral and spatial characteristics. Incorporating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and brightness index (BI) into the objects, the image set was subdivided into four different subsets of VCD. Analyses were then performed at the next level classification on each of VCD subsets by using certain and a range of different approaches to discriminate stand age rubber tree plantations. Rubber tree phenology and OBIA feature optimization were used to differentiate the different stages of rubber plantations. The results indicated that the agreement between field-based classification and image-based classification was well correlated. The overall accuracy of 79.00 % and Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.77 were achieved for the integrated models for the different stage of rubber plantations.
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Comparison of Different Control Algorithms for a Gantry Crane System

Comparison of Different Control Algorithms for a Gantry Crane System

Four control algorithms were implemented on the de- scribed gantry model. A parallel P-controller, cascade P-controller, fuzzy controller and an internal model con- troller were implemented. Reason for this choice is that these controllers could easily being implemented on a Labview system. In this paragraph a short description is given for each algorithm.

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The technology and economics of recycling scrap rubber

The technology and economics of recycling scrap rubber

lubber particles had average diameters of less than 20 pi, which corresponds to AS TM 500 mesh. Data for (Eq)^ and (E^qq)q for this micronised crumb composites are presented in Figure 5*^« The value of (Eq)g for the micronised crumb composites have been calculated from the hardness values ( Shore A) given by the authors, assuming the Shore A hardness approximately equals IR HD and using the relationship between IR HD and Eq given by Gent (l*+8) (also described in Figure C.5 of Appendix G). Following from the discussion of elastic modulus and the predictions of the Kemer model given in Appendices C and D, the relationships presented in Figure 5 A would imply that the elastic modulus of the micronised crumb particles was less than that of the rubber matrix material. It can also be seen from the Figure that the shape of the modulus ratio curve is different to that predicted by the Kemer model; the experimental data shows an increasing negative
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Modeling Of A Gantry Crane Using On-Off Motor Implementation

Modeling Of A Gantry Crane Using On-Off Motor Implementation

There are many types of the approach that can be used to implement in gantry crane. Some of the approaches are open-loop and close-loop. The open-loop approach is the input shaping where input shaping is a feedforward control technique for improving the settling time and the positioning accuracy, while minimizing residual vibration, of computer-controlled machines. Moreover the close-loop approach needs the feedback controller to do the correction on the system.

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Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature) and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*), storage modulus (G’), loss modulus (G”) and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle ( δ ). Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G’, G’ and δ ) and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.
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Dynamic modeling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system

Dynamic modeling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system

ii. Most of the gantry crane is manually controlled by the skillful and experience operators in handling cranes in order to make sure the payload stop swaying at correct position. A manual control is one of the factors that cause an accident in case of carelessness in handling the cranes. If the load becomes larger, it may cause accident and also harm people surrounding.

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Dielectric Studies on Some Industrially Important Rubber and Polymeric Materials at Microwave Frequencies

Dielectric Studies on Some Industrially Important Rubber and Polymeric Materials at Microwave Frequencies

Microwave measurements have been carried out on the industrially important rubber and polymer materials to study their dielectric behavior in X and K bands using microwave test benches equipped with Klystron and Gunn oscillators respectively and guided with rectangular wave guides. A decrease in dielectric constant with increase in microwave frequency has been observed for all samples. Some rubber materials were reinforced with carbon black as the reinforcing filler and vulcanized with sulphur as the principle vulcanizing agent in the industrial lab and their change in dielectric behavior was studied at microwave frequencies. The rubber materials after being reinforced and vulcanized have a high dielectric constant, low dielectric strength and hence have better electrical conductivity. One of the polymers Nylon 66 also showed an increase in dielectric constant after being reinforced with 30% glass fibre. To improve the applications of rubber derivatives, a blend is made between any two already available rubber materials which are thermodynamically compatible to one another. The dielectric behavior of two such polymer blends viz, NR+BIIR and NR+Reclaim was studied in the microwave frequency region. From the results obtained, it is observed that the electrical conductivity of the rubber derivatives increase after blending. Hence blending is a very important technique to improve the electrical properties of rubber materials.
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What Do We Mean When We Talk about the Linac Isocenter?

What Do We Mean When We Talk about the Linac Isocenter?

In the above sections, we have established the definitions of mechanical isocenters and radiation isocenter. Ef- forts are made to ensure that these definitions are compatible with the prevailing understanding of the isocenters of a conventional medical linac [1], the AAPM terminologies [2] [5], and occasionally, a regulatory definition. The rotation isocenters are geometric definitions per se. The linac isocenter and radiation isocenters are based on the trajectory of the X-ray source position; therefore, they are not purely mechanical concepts. We recommend that the linac isocenter be used as a spatial reference and the other isocenters be aligned with it. The only excep- tion is the collimator rotation isocenter, which is defined in such a way that it is determined at a single gantry angle, and its position is a function of the gantry angle. The reason for using this definition is to find the useful beam axis at each gantry angle. In this framework, the source to axis distance can still be 100 cm; however, this might not be true for the distance between the X-ray source and the linac isocenter because the definition does not force it to be so. The consequence is that, if a water phantom is aligned with the linac isocenter during output calibration, the nominal source to surface distance will be slightly different from 100 cm. In modern linacs, the resultant dosimetric changes should be usually negligible.
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Analysis of a Sponge Rubber using FEA Method

Analysis of a Sponge Rubber using FEA Method

The tensile result obtained from UTM and ANSYS show deviation of about 13.05 percent, which is acceptable. The combination of Natural Rubber and Styrene Butadiene Rubber in the sponge rubber compound improved the temperature operational of the pressure pad. Therefore making the pressure pad and thus the munitions effective in wide range of temperature. The new pressure pad developed facilitated the implementation of two-stage actuation mechanism possible making the land based munitions effective against the modern-counter measure systems. This was achievable only because of the re-assertion time exhibited by the sponge rubber pad, re-assertion time which natural rubber pad and neoprene pads failed to exhibit.
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The lead lag relationship between the rubber price and inflation rate: an evidence from Malaysia

The lead lag relationship between the rubber price and inflation rate: an evidence from Malaysia

Other measure that government could undertake is to control the supply of rubber either individually or working together with other rubber producer such as Thailand and Indonesia through International Rubber Consortium (IRCo). IRCo was established with the objective to promote sustainability of rubber production and the members are Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. This approach is not new to the commodity industry, as it was done by Malaysia in its Malaysian Crash Program 1974-1975 where government cut rubber production to control the price. Even the OPEC recently had done the same when the oil price was declining to the bottom. As a result, the oil price has stabilized again. This can be done through implementation of export quota. The government or the Consortium need to decide on the appropriate volume of rubber to be controlled so that buyer will not substitute to synthetic rubber instead. The excess rubber production may be stored at a special warehouse and to be used during shortage of supply. Furthermore, to ensure that producers adhere to the restriction, punitive export quota will be imposed to those exporter who breach the quota. The rubber price then to be reviewed on quarterly or half yearly basis, if the price is not within targeted price, government may need to further reduce the supply.
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Economic Analysis of Isoprene Production from Good Year Scientific Process

Economic Analysis of Isoprene Production from Good Year Scientific Process

Isoprene is a typical name for the synthetic compound 2- methylbuta-1,3-diene. At room temperature, purified isoprene is an exceptionally combustible, colorless liquid that can be effectively ignited. It is shaped normally in animals and plants and is the most common hydrocarbon in the human body. Natural rubber is a polymer of isoprene most often cis- 1,4-polyisoprene with a molecular weight ranging from 100,000 to 1,000,000 daltons. Normally, high quality natural rubber additionally contains a couple of percent of different materials, for example, proteins, fatty acids, resins, and inorganic materials [1].
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Gantry Crane With On-Off Motor Command : Design And Implementation

Gantry Crane With On-Off Motor Command : Design And Implementation

Gantry cranes are particularly suited to lift heavy objects in shipbuilding where the crane straddles the ship allowing massive objects like ship engines to be lifted and moved over the ship. Two famous gantry cranes built in 1974 and 1969 respectively are Samson and Goliath, which reside in the largest dry clock in the world in Belfast, Northern Ireland [ 1 ]. Each crane has a span of 140 meters and can lift loads of up to 840 tones to a height of 70 meters, making a combined lifting capacity of over 1,600 tones, one of the largest in the world [ 1 ].

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APPLICATION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ISOCENTER QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOTHERAPY

APPLICATION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ISOCENTER QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOTHERAPY

One of the major procedures for testing the geometrical accuracy of devices used in radiotherapy treatments is the test of the geometrical position of the radiation isocenter. The importance of the test reflects the fact that geometrical position of the radiation isocenter generally affects the tumor targeting. At present the geometric accuracy is assessed with the Winston-Lutz test which checks the position of an image of a ball marker with the respect to the center of the radiation field as projected on a detector plane. Obviously, determination of coordinates of a single marker is not sufficient to fully account for a complicated geometry of a therapeutic device. The purpose of the study was to design a new image analysis tool to better determine the isocenter. The proposed automated procedure for determining isocenter position uses projection data acquired for a special cube phantom. The projection images of a phantom are acquired for various angles of rotation of the gantry. A procedure is proposed to extract some geometric characteristics of a therapeutic device from the projection images.
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Design And Analysis Of Intelligent Multiple Gantries System

Design And Analysis Of Intelligent Multiple Gantries System

The intelligent multiple gantries system is a project that is build for the purpose to implement the intelligence in the gantry system so that it can do multi task operations based on the programming that has been design using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, this project also aims to show that using a mini model of the gantry system, a simple programming can be executed using the rule develop based on the distance of the gantry crane from the workplaces involve and the priorities set by the controller.

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Analysis Of Performance For Cart Gantry Crane System Using Scheduling Algorithm Via Controller Area Network (CAN)

Analysis Of Performance For Cart Gantry Crane System Using Scheduling Algorithm Via Controller Area Network (CAN)

Gantry Crane is a vehicle that is also known as cart. The cart used to carry loads from one place to another place in time. Gantry Crane Systems (GCS) need a good control system because GCS heavily involved in the work environment and must be controlled precisely to avoid any unwanted accidents in [1]. The GCS is the most popular in the form of container gantry cranes. It is used for loading containers used to load and transport hub in the outer container ships. It can be categorized as huge gantry crane "full", capable of carrying the heaviest in the world. The small gantry crane normally carries out the work of lifting loads less severe as the engine to be removed or inserted into the vehicle.
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Deterrence of transaxle gearbox damage during transmission using lifting plate

Deterrence of transaxle gearbox damage during transmission using lifting plate

The paper clearly indicates the performance analysis of the company production problems. It reduces the rework of the product (transaxle gear box). This project elaborated about solving the issue of the conveyor which lifts and drags the spare parts of the gear. So, while the conveyor is moving and manual transmission it experiences vibration and this issue brings damage like position change, noise problem, spare part damage to the product. These problems are avoided by gantry robotic with lifting plate. This method reduces the time consumption. It reduces the manual work and rework of the product.
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