The relatively high cost of food in Rufiji further exposed any would-be full- time fisherman to risk, as few people in Rufiji could afford not to farm (J.L. Paul, pers. comm.). This could help explain why every fisherman on our survey maintained ties to larger households even if unmarried and/or an outsider, and nearly all had access to farm income from their own and/or household members’ land. In this way, most fishermen in Rufiji district appeared to be engaged in a “multi-active” strategy (as per deHaan 1999), working together with other household members to build diversified, more secure livelihoods. I did not explore how such support networks worked in practice, beyond hearing fishermen’s frequent reports of returning home to help out with agricultural tasks. There appeared to be an expectation that young, unmarried men could keep their fishing earnings for themselves, however, with several mentioning that they might contribute small amounts to their household occasionally but were not obliged to do so.
The presence of a research team closely monitoring malaria with prompt and efficacious treatment is likely to have contributed to reducing parasite prevalence in Nyamisati and other closely monitored communities [30,31]. Already one year after the medical services were established in Nyamisati, mothers reported that their children’s health status had improved . Nonetheless, the parasite prevalence continued to decrease after the research team left the village in 2000, suggesting that other factors contributed to the declining transmission. Also at a nearby Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS), parasite prevalence decreased from 23 to 14% by microscopy during 2001–2006 . Although the lack of data in Nyamisati between 2000 and 2010 is a limitation of the study, it is also interesting that transmission de- clined despite the research team not being present. A factor that could have contributed to the decline is im- proved socio-economic status . The village was ini- tially very remote and isolated. Transportation improved over the years with tarmac roads and daily busses that began coming to Nyamisati in 2004, as it became the main port for ferries to Mafia Island. Nevertheless, hous- ing conditions in the village remained similar during the study period.
2.3.5 Climate, Topography and Vegetation
The district has hot weather throughout the year and two rainy seasons; short rains (October to December) and long rains (February to May). The average annual precipitation in the district is between 800 to 1000 millimeters. Rufiji District has an overall mean altitude of less than 500 meters. Its vegetation is mainly formed of tropical forests and grassland. A prominent feature in the District is the RufijiRiver with its large flood plain and delta, the most extensive in the country. Mangrove forests flank the tributaries of the delta. The river, from which the District takes its name, divides the district geographically into approximately equal halves. The district is also a gateway to Selous Game Reserve. The reserve has a variety of wild animals such as zebras, buffaloes, hartebeest, monkeys, lions, hyenas, warthogs and elephants.
Rufiji district located at S-8.1022° latitude and E 38.3756° longitude; is one of the districts in the Coastal Region and offers potential for agricultural and livestock production. The district covers 39.8 percent of the total 33,539 km 2 of Coastal region area, which offers potential for mixed agriculture . The average rainfall in this zone ranges from 900 mm - 1000 mm per year. For- merly, out of the total countrywide population of live- stock, only 0.44% of the cattle and 1.7% of the sheep and goat populations were available in the area before the mass settlement in 2007 . According to the 2002 national census, Rufiji had about 22.8% (202,001) of the total population of the Coastal region, which stood at 885,017. The district is also endowed with 482,466 potential arable hectares; however, only 20.7% is utilized for crop production. Residents practice subsistence farming of crops like cassava, rice, maize, sweet potatoes and legumes, sorghum, cashew nuts and coconuts and fruits of various types especially oranges and mangoes. Small scale fishing is practiced in the Indian Ocean and RufijiRiver . The influx of pastoralists from the northern areas of the country is set to increase agro pas- toral practices in the district.
According to the projection from the 2002 population and housing census the population in Rufiji district in 2007 was estimated at 240,000 with a yearly growth rate of 2.5% . Geographically the Rufijiriver intersects the district from West to East dividing it into flood plain, coastal-delta, and plateau zones. The district experiences a heavy rainy season from February to May and a less intense one from October to December. The majority of the population are peasants growing cassava, rice, sorghum and maize as food crops. Cashew nuts and coconuts are the main cash crops available. Com- monly their farms are located some distance from the family home and residents shift to temporary dwellings at the farms during the heavy rain season. Transport in the district includes canoes, boats, motor vehicles and bicycles. Most of the roads in the district are unpaved and difficult to pass especially during the rainy season.
The study was conducted in Rufiji, a rural district in the southern, coastal Pwani region of Tanzania. With its lowland, tropical forests, hot weather, rainy seasons and the Rufiji River’s large floodplain and delta area, Rufiji is a holo-endemic malaria area. Malaria and other febrile illnesses are among the major causes of mortality among the inhabitants. Two hospitals, five government health centers and 48 government dispensaries are distributed over an area of 14,500 square kilometers. The majority (89%) of the population lives within 5 km of one of these formal health facilities. Residents frequently buy medicines from local shops and visits traditional healers. Each village has a primary school, but 34% of the men and 66% of the women are illiterate. The main economic activity is farm- ing of crops .
Rufiji in the Pwani region is a relatively poor sub- sistence rural area in Tanzania. The Rufiji district is one of the six districts of the Pwani region, Tanzania. It has a population size of about 226,000 of which 87,000 (about 38% of the district) are under periodic surveillance (14). The Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS) com- menced field operations in November 1998. The DSS approach involves periodic monitoring of households and members within households in cycles or intervals, known in the RDSS as ‘rounds’ every four months, that is, three times a year each. The RDSS collects information on demographic, socio-economic, and environmental char- acteristics of a population of about 87,000 people in 31 villages along the coastal area of Tanzania, south of Dar es Salaam in the RufijiRiver basin. A team of trained fieldworkers went from household to household to collect this information in Swahili after obtaining informed consent from each household head. At first glance, the population of RDSS appears to be uniformly poor. However, within this community there are poverty gradients; hence, the focus in this current analysis is to investigate whether, among poor rural Tanzanian popu- lations, wealth index as a proxy for SES and health inequality assessed by concentration index and poorest/ least poor quintile mortality rate ratio is related to under- five mortality.
It is Sal who becomes responsible at this point for Thornhill‟s life. She “[takes] charge,” devising a plan to save him from the gallows (60). Through the story she constructs for him to tell the court, it is Sal‟s intervention and literary acumen that literally save Thornhill‟s life, returning to him that illusory power over his own body in which he invests such value. With this intervention, Sal is ultimately responsible for their transportation to New South Wales. She is not only figuratively responsible, but legally also. On their arrival in the colony William Thornhill, convict, is assigned to Sal Thornhill, free settler, who will be his “master” while he serves out his term in the penal settlement. This is the second time that Sal becomes Thornhill‟s master, and it represents a subversion of a conventional power balance within a heterosexual relationship. Thornhill is not comfortable with the inversion of this binary when it first occurs, with Sal as his academic “master.” While William clearly loves Sal and enjoys her desire to teach him skills beyond what might otherwise be available to him, his discomfort with the balance of power is tangible during this period, as his frustration nearly drives him to “[tip] the whole table over there and then” and flee “down to the river [Thames],” the place where he can be in control, and “any feat of strength or endurance would be within his grasp” (34).
There is considerable public concern about river water quality in Malaysia and this has arisen over the last few decades as rivers play important roles in our daily life as well as to other living organisms. In addition, rivers also have very fragile ecosystem (Md. Pauzi et al., 2000). Unfortunately, clean fresh water is becoming scarce. This is due to various kinds of land development activities which have taken a toll on our riverine habitats, the very systems that provide sustenance to our socio-economic well-being and to the natural inhabitants of our forests and aquatic environment (Fatimah and Zakaria, 2005). Hence, a few river rehabilitation project were proposed but the success rate is very low or almost none. Based on information obtained from official sources of the Department of Drainage and Irrigation Malaysia (DID), there were five rivers identified by the government for rehabilitation or restoration programme in Malaysia. Among the rivers were Sungai Pinang in Penang, Sungai Melaka in Malacca, Sungai Tebrau, Skudai and Segget in Johore. Total budget spent for the whole programme was RM 1.09 billion where RM 30 million was spent to rehabilitate Sungai Pinang, another RM 160 million for Sungai Melaka and RM 900 million for Sungai Tebrau, Skudai dan Segget. Activities involved in those river rehabilitation programmes were river beautification, desiltation, channel straightening, riverbank concreting and rubbish trap for rubbish collection. All the rehabilitation approaches was based on physicochemical water quality of the river.
To reverse long ‐standing declines in river environments and functions, we propose a paradigm shift in restoration theory to re ‐ envisage “restoration design” and redefine “natural processes.” This is now possible, because science at the interfaces among geology, hydrology, and biology has developed sufficiently that, for the first time, we can properly appreciate, and to an extent quantify, the capacity of living organisms to influence river form and process. Rivers are critical components of the biome within which they are situated, where the biome is defined as an area characterised by gen- eral similarity in ecosystems comprising plants and animals that are adapted to the regional environment. Biomes are identified through the analysis of geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology that affect or reflect differences in eco- system quality and integrity. Changes to river channel form and dynamics can alter the surrounding biome, for example, through low- ering of the regional water table, whereas alterations to the biome, such as deforestation or species invasion, can instigate river responses (e.g., Beschta & Ripple, 2009). It follows that reintegrating rivers so they are in sync with their biomes provides a more sustain- able basis for restoring rivers.
Stations were created at intervals of 400 meters along the coastlines namely from left to right Ndoni river, Ahoada river, New Calabar river Tombia river, Buguma river and Bonny estuary respectively. In-situ data such as substrate type, shore slope, exposure to wave energy, number of flora and fauna species present and socio economic features present were collected. Geographical coordinates of all features and points of interest were taken with the aid of a hand held GPS device. The in- situ data gathered were used to build up a data base for the shorelines on the updated Digital Base Map (UDBM) to derive level 1 GIS map modified into ESI map after including biological and socio-economic features as point symbols on the map then copied into Google map.
Since the focus of this study is to determine the effect of river diversions, it is important to determine not only how much sand is transported in the main channel but also how much sand is transported in the outflow channels. Almost no coarse sediment is transported at low flow conditions so we will concentrate on peak flow results (Q~35,000 m 3 /s or 1.2x10 6 cfs) and intermediate flow results (Q~22,000 m 3 /s or 750,000 cfs). Figure 6.61 and Figure 6.62 show, respectively, the sand concentration results obtained at peak flow and at intermediate flow conditions. These results show that the concentrations at peak flow are more than double of the ones at intermediate flows. It is important to state that the sand load is not directly proportional to the water discharge, e.g. in this case, an increase of less than 40% in the water discharge leads to an increase of more than 50% in the sand concentration. Increasing the water discharge increases the sand concentration and, thus the sediment load, which is a product of the concentration by the water discharge, will be approximately three times higher for peak flows than for intermediate flows.
Climate data were obtained from Tanzania Meteorological Authority (TMA) head office in Dar es Salaam. These data includes monthly mean rainfall, and maximum and minimum temperature. TMA provides meteorological services, weather forecasts, climate services, and warnings including daily forecast information for each region in Tanzania. The climate data are collected through different gauges located in different stations in each district. In Ifakara HDSS, villages located in Kilombero district used climate data from Kilombero Agricultural Training and Research Institute (KATRIN) weather station. Other villages in Ifakara HDSS used Mahenge weather station data for villages located in Ulanga District. In Rufiji District, Utete and Kibiti are the two weather stations which records climate data. Kibiti weather station is located in Rufiji HDSS site which provided data used in this study.
4) The project remains challenged by the need to improve standards in fisheries, where standards are weakest and the project is not centrally mainstreamed. Further work in KVRS is foreseen as part of the GMP. Given the mentioned discontinuity of external TA support in Rufiji the effectiveness of more support to that is questionable and wrapping up and discontinuation should be considered, also as a way of focusing resources on the most promising models. RDC staff and BMUs can rather be involved in future KVRS fisheries work for capacity building purposes.
The road to Garsen, and Garsen itself, are safe, I had told myself and my relatives, but then again the road led through ‘bush’ on the one hand, and on the other hand, ‘everything after Malindi’ was named unsafe according to international travel advice, coloured as ‘dangerous’ on the corresponding maps, and referred to as ‘not Kenya anymore’ or ‘almost Somalia’ by some Nairobians. With our drive towards Garsen, my classification of the topography into different degrees of security finally started to become grounded in experience and practice. Maps were accompanied by mapping (cf. Ingold 2000): a road became a tacit lifeline, both dangerous and a possible escape route; the end of a town (Malindi) an entry and exit; another town, Garsen, a rela- tively safe haven. Later on, a string of villages would become a safety belt, or treeless grassland and the river would become barriers against attackers. Upon my arrival in Garsen, I was told that the curfew would barely continue much longer, and would be lifted on the proclaimed date; that ‘they cannot strike here’, and that the attacks occurred ‘down there’ or ‘not in Tana River County but in Lamu County’ (the county border passes right through the delta). From the side of governmental officials, security forces and local media outlets, I faced silence and placation. It appeared as if the ‘peace imperative’ that had pervaded the national public discourse around election time and related to the experience of ethnic violence in 2007 (Wash- ington Post 11.08.17) also held Garsen in its stran- glehold. ‘Peace means business, peace means devel- opment, peace means tourism’, it echoed from the loudspeakers at the celebration of International Peace Day on September 21, 2017, accompanied by admonitions to respect each other despite the
107 The FD and SES FD indices displayed strong relationships with some of the land-use and river flow variables, suggesting the level of functional redundancy is dependent on landscape characteristics. SES FRic was typically higher than expected in semi-natural grassland. This provides some support for hypothesis two in suggesting that levels of functional redundancy are greater in more natural habitats; the semi-natural grassland category enveloped a range of natural habitats found in Great Britain, including reed swamp, saltmarsh, machair, water- meadow and grass moor (Table B1). Consequently, a degradation of natural habitats to modified land uses may act as a pervasive environmental filter that causes a reduction in the diversity of functional traits. However, the impact of urban or agricultural land use was of secondary importance to the patterns of the FD and SES FD indices relative to woodland; FRic, FDiv, SES FRic and SES FDiv were lowest and FEve and SES FEve highest in locations surrounded by woodland. These results suggest that in some landscapes, particularly those with a predominance of woodland but also farmland and urban habitats, functional redundancy is higher, as expressed by low functional richness and a rarity of species with unique traits at the edge of trait space. This reinforces the expectation that functional redundancy will be lower at locations with a predominant matrix of natural habitats. This finding is consistent with that of Flynn et al. (2009), who found functional richness to be lower than expected in 25% of bird communities in farmland. Luck et al. (2013) also found functional richness to decrease across a gradient of low to high land-use intensity.
The study site is located at the Lansheng Bridge on the Nan- shih River. Figure 2 shows the locations of the catchment area and gauge stations. Situated southeast of Taipei, Taiwan, the Nanshih River, an upstream branch of the Tanshui River, is a major fresh water source for the Taipei metropolitan area. To safeguard water quality and quantity, access to this area is restricted. Most of the area is thus untouched and forested. The area covers 331.6 km 2 and has an annual precipitation of 3082–4308 mm (average, 3600 mm). Days with precipitation are mostly concentrated in winter. The retreating monsoon produces fine rain in winter, whereas typhoons in summer bring heavy rains. The average monthly precipitation in the area from June to October exceeded 300 mm from 1992. Al- though a discharge measuring system that is composed of a radar sensor for measuring water stage and current meter for measuring velocity has been in place on the Lansheng Bridge since 2005, flood discharge was not measured until 2007. The average discharge of the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge is 26.9 m 3 s −1 ; the minimum is 0.9 m 3 s −1 , and the maximum is 2295 m 3 s −1 . The Nanshih River is about 35 km long from its source to the Lansheng Bridge and 45 km to the confluence of the Nanshih River and the Beishih River; its highest altitude is 2101 m on Mount Babobkoozoo, and the altitude of the river bed at the Lansheng Bridge is 106.8 m. Thus the stream gradient, which is the grade measured by the ratio of drop in elevation of a stream per unit horizontal dis- tance, of the upstream of the Nanshih River exceeds 10 %, and the average stream gradient to the Lensheng Bridge is 5.7 %. The stream gradient at the study site is about 1.5 %, which is still relatively steep.
river discharge all the analytical models approach the same asymptotic solution, which is due to the fact that the ap- proximations to the quadratic velocity U | U | is close to U 2 when the effect of tide is less important and the current no longer reverses. Actually, we can see that the parameter 0 in the friction term in T1, T2 and T5 (see Table 3) tends to (4/3)ζ ϕ 2 /(µ λ) when ϕ approaching infinity. Moreover, it can be seen from Fig. 4 that the performance of the hy- brid model is close to the average of Lorentz’s and the quasi- nonlinear method, which is to be expected since the hybrid tidal damping represents a weighted average of these two so- lutions. In addition, we note that the different methods tend to converge for large values of ϕ.