During its initial period of existence, the NSG did not have any fixed criteria for membership. Although the group was formed as early as 1974, its first formal plenary meeting was held only in 1992 in Warsaw. At that meeting, the 27 participating governments took a decision by consensus requiring the application of the full scope of IAEA safeguards to all current and future nuclear activities as a necessary condition for all significant and new nuclear exports to NNWSs. It was only in 1993 that procedural requirements for membership were introduced in the guidelines for the first time. As per this procedure the membership of the group would initially consist of the countries adhering to the NSG Guidelines. Other countries could be invited to join the NSG by a consensus decision of its members. Although at this time, the NSG had no NPT requirements – in view of the fact that it had adopted full-scope safeguards as a condition for nuclear exports by NSG members – from 1993 onwards, the NSG had an unwritten requirement of full-scope safeguards as a precondition for NSG membership. Participation in the NSG, as of 11 May 2001, thus, consists of those participating governments adhering to and having exchanged diplomatic notes of acceptance of the guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology, and the guidelines for transfers of nuclear related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. Accordingly, the participating governments have to consider certain important factors while dealing with the possible acceptance of a new participating member. Such factors include: the applicant should have in force a legally-based domestic export control system which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines; the applicant must be a party to the NPT, the Treaties of Pelindaba, Rarotonga, Tlatelolco or Bangkok or an equivalent international nuclear non-proliferation agreement and be in full compliance with the obligations of such agreement(s); as appropriate, the applicant must have in force a full-scope safeguards agreement with the IAEA; and, lastly, be supportive of international efforts towards non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicles, among others. However, how far NSG, as a group, has followed its own rules is a matter of debate. 25 A
During the discussion that followed, several participants noted opportunities for Australia and Japan to assist countries in the region (specifically, Burma, Fiji and Indonesia) with their peacekeeping engagement efforts. Session 3: Sustaining rules-basedorder in international trade and economic cooperation Session 3 explored international trade and economic cooperation as the basis of significant opportunities for continued growth across the Asia–Pacific. The session was chaired by Professor Peter Drysdale AM of the Crawford School of Public Policy at the Australian National University. He first noted that, while economic rules are central to relations between states in the Asia–Pacific, those relations are dominated entirely by the globalrules-basedorder that governs the trade and economic system. The system under which international trade arrangements have been built has underwritten post-war growth, prosperity and participation in the Asia–Pacific. Professor Drysdale noted that the international trading system has both economic and political aspects. While there are concerns that the World Trade Organization (WTO) hasn’t moved forward on new issues or responded well to the emergence of new powers, it has provided powerful protection against both economic and political forces that might have encouraged deep protectionism through the global financial crisis. A plethora of bilateral trading agreements diverge from the core
The global information society consumes a large quantity of resources. Information is an important source for decision-making. It is needed in an optimal format, quality and time. Implemented information technology must understand user requirements, effectively apply available resources, simplify the learning process and support the required relationships between users and IT. IT services need active monitoring with stored data in a transparent format. This is in order to understand the realized activities and to quickly reaction to events. IT uses high-level architecture which provides monitoring capabilities based on tools and processes for measurement of expected security and trust. The principles for improved process management are analogues with standard principles of quality of service at businesses:
One of the popular tasks in data mining which involves predicting unseen target attribute (the class) based on learning from labelled historical data (training data set) is classification. The main goal of any classification technique is to accurately estimate the value of the class of an unseen data normally called the test data (Thabtah et al., 2015). This type of learning that occurred on the training data set is restricted to the value of the class attribute and therefore it falls under the category of supervised learning research area. Common applications of classification are medical diagnoses (RameshKumar et al., 2013), phishing detection (Abdelhamid et al., 2014), fraud detection (Whitten and Frank, 2005), etc. Some of the main classification approaches developed in data mining include Decision Trees (DT) (Quinlan, 1993), Neural Network (NN) (Mohammad et al., 2013), Associative Classification (AC) (Thabtah, et al., 2004) (Thabtah, 2005), and Rule Induction (RI) (Cendrowska, 1987). The latter two approaches extract classifiers that contain human interpretable rules in the form “If-Then”, which explain their wide spread applicability. However, there are differences between AC and RI especially in the way rules are induced as well as pruned. This article focuses on RI based classification.
From Tables 7 and 8, the number of non-zero flows in TCM (14) is smaller than that in PTCM (18). This is to avoid the flow with tax. The number of flows without tax in TCM (3) is smaller than that in PTCM (8). The flows of the path p = 1, 66431, 132679, 132861, 132863, 132867, 199291 appear both in TCM and PTCM. However, the rest of paths are different between TCM and PTCM. All of flows in TCM are either flows in single country or flows across two countries. On the other hand, there are some flows across more than three countries in PTCM. The results indicate the importance of tax considerations in global supply chain management. These results indicate that the tax planning and alignment with the FTA might have a significant impact on the decision-making in the global supply chain for multi-national operating companies. Therefore, the multi-national operating companies need to be aware of importance of what-if simulation before or after FTA changes. Considering the quantitative implications jointly, the analysis provides a valuable tool to support rational decision-making and implementation in practice.
To date, the use of expert knowledge for guiding or even replacing weight learning has only received limited attention. One exception is , which con- structs an MLN based on (potentially inconsistent) conditional probabilities pro- vided by domain experts. While this can be useful in some applications, it relies on the ability of experts to provide meaningful probability estimates. However, humans are notoriously poor at judging likelihood. For example, properties that are common among the typical elements of a class of objects are often assumed to be likely in general . Moreover, experts may be able to specify which prop- erties are most likely to hold, in a given context, without being able to quantify their likelihood. In such situations, our default-rule-based approach would be more natural than approaches that force experts to estimate probabilities. On the other hand, our approach will only provide meaningful results for MAP queries: numerical input will be difficult to avoid if we want the constructed MLN to produce satisfactory conditional probability estimates.
Should an individual in government service have accumulated 5 points, and should the individual be in good standing, the awards committee shall recommend to the Committee on Honors that the President consider the conferment of the Order of the Golden Heart ad diploma. Once a member of the civil service has accumulated a total of 10 points, awards committees may consider a recommendation for one of the Senior Orders of the Republic. For the civil service, it shall be the Order of Lakandula; for a member of the Foreign Service, the Order of Sikatuna; and for a civilian employee of the Philippine Coast Guard, the Philippine National Police the Armed Forces of the Philippines, or an employee of the Department of National Defense, the Philippine Legion of Honor.
On the one hand, the EU may export its policies through its bilateral relations with third countries. Here, the EU can incorporate its own rules and po- licy solutions in trade and association agreements, relying on the power of its large market and exper- tise as incentive for rule export to partner countries. The EU constitutes the world’s largest single market. It is not only the world’s biggest exporter of goods and services, but also the biggest market for im- ports with more than 500 million consumers. On the other hand, the EU can use its presence in internati- onal organizations and policy networks to export its policies. Here, the EU exports its policies by injecting its preferences in multilateral negotiations.
o that the sponsor has justified the role is supernumerary, the applicant will not be filling a vacant position that could otherwise be filled by a settled worker, and the applicant intends to be based in the UK for the duration of their permission to stay o that the role involves living mainly within and being a member of a religious order, which is a lineage of communities or of people who live in some way set apart from society in line with their specific religious devotion, for example an order of nuns or monks
The sensory order thus forms a cognitive framework for individual choice. Physical events in the environment which meet the human organism start its function. These physical events are classified through the sensory order. The perception of individuals will be filtered by an act of classification. Hence, the sensory order is unable to capture all the relevant aspects of an incoming event since it is formed through pre-sensory experiences. At the beginning of human evolution, only certain aspects that are crucial for the survival of the individual can be captured and classified and thus transmitted towards the creation of an abstract perception. 18 This “pattern recognition” enables what Hayek calls the ability of recognizing only certain aspects of physical events. An individual cannot understand complex phenomena like markets or other systems of social order with respect to all their aspects. Hayek’s point is that since they are simply not known at all, individuals may only predict the pattern of an event, but not the event itself.
diﬀerential inequality in the existing literature for the Caputo fractional derivative, with 0 < α < 1, is improved, which plays a central role in the synchronization analysis. Secondly, hybrid control strategies are designed via combing open loop control and adaptive control, and unknown control parameters are determined by the adaptive fractional updated laws to achieve global projective synchronization. In addition, applying the fractional Lyapunov approach and Mittag-Leﬄer function, the projective synchronization conditions are addressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to ensure the synchronization. Finally, two examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
challenge for the European Commission since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the role of the EU in shaping developments on competition policy at the international level. I argue that the failure of the WTO initiative does not signify that the EU’s efforts at internationalizing competition policy proved unsuccessful. While attempts at creating a truly global competition order through the WTO failed, the EU continues to ‘export’ its competition regime to its economic partners through bilateral and regional agreements, and informal dialogue with competition authorities around the world. The paper explores and evaluates EU’s various attempts at internationalizing competition policy and the conditions under which they have been successful. My argument is that in an international environment in which a multilateral competition regime could not be established, the EU’s most successful strategy has been to work bilaterally to convince its trade partners to adopt competition laws along the lines of EU’s competition policy. This has worked relatively well for countries at the EU’s periphery, such as candidates and prospective candidates. With stronger trade partners such as the United States (US), however, the relationship is more complicated. The EU finds that it is frequently at the receiving end of policy influences from the US, and uses bilateral and informal multilateral networks in order to manage this relationship on a more equal footing.
Clearly not all tourists embody the kind of one-dimensional structural power implied in neo- Marxist accounts of tourism (e.g. Britton 1991), nor are all hosts ‘powerless’ (Cheong and Miller 2000). The axes of power along which the diverse interactions between visitors and residents take place are more complex and multi-faceted than Bauman’s tourist / vagabond dichotomy reveals. It does not, for instance, capture the range of placements between the tourist and vagabond, the latter referring more to those with even more tenuous rights of mobility such as the illegal immigrant, asylum seeker, refugee, dissident or exile, each of which are loaded with myriad political connotations according to their socio-political contexts and encounters. Given the plethora of diverse mobilities traversing the globe, to reduce the different modalities of movement to a single category or binary opposition between two mutually exclusive categories is thus clearly inadequate. Consequently, there are various unique categories and permutations existing beyond the metaphorical use of the term ‘vagabond’, and the ‘tourist’ for that matter. It would be rather myopic to suggest that all the different categories can be reduced to a single category. However, different degrees of cross-border international mobility are not based on straightforward financial determinants and/or relative consumer power, but are further mediated by determinants of ethnicity, race, religion and gender, which serve to restrict the freedom of movement of those who inhabit the ‘margins’ of the global economy.
For some diﬀerence equations, although their forms (or expressions) look very simple, it is extremely diﬃcult to understand thoroughly the global behaviors of their solutions. Accordingly, one is often motivated to investigate the qualitative behaviors of di ﬀ erence equations (e.g., see [2, 3, 6, 9, 10]).
anisotropic nonlinear sixth order Schrödinger equation in . The asymptotic behavior in time of the solution has been obtained and it scatters to a solution of the linearized equation as t → ∞ in . It can be seen from the form of equation (1.1) that higher derivatives are not derived in every direction, so it is natural to think of such problems in anisotropic Sobolev spaces. In , the existence of local solutions of problem (1.1) in anisotropic Sobolev space H s 1
Perhaps deepening this tendency to overlook the role of market principles, constructivist work in international law, like variants of rationalist institutionalism, has also sometimes assumed a continuum of effectiveness that corresponds to the “hardness” or at least the “legalness” of the law in question. Suggesting the greater strength of more concrete legal forms, Finnemore notes that, “[p]articularly for new or emergent normative claims where few ‘hard’ law obligations exist, activists seek to generate this kind of felt obligation as a means of promoting ‘harder’ legal obligations in the future.” 194 Implying an intermediate or stepping-stone character of soft law, David Trubek notes that such instruments may help to develop “non-binding standards that can eventually harden into binding rules once uncertainties are reduced and a higher degree of consensus ensues.” 195 And a consideration of practice confirms this dynamic across multiple issue areas. For example, legally binding environmental treaties such as the Montreal Protocol on Substances Depleting the Ozone Layer, now involving third-party review of implementation, progressed from more aspirational language developed by key non-state and state supporters. 196 And perhaps the greatest success understood along these lines is the adoption of the Landmines Convention in 1997, only five years after the launch of the campaign to ban landmines by six NGOs in 1992. 197
It is therefore no surprise that managers of Western companies look towards Far-East Asia with some apprehension, and a fair amount of uncertainty as to their own long-term innovation prospects. The good news is that – so far – few reverse innovations have truly made a global impact. Much of the talk is perhaps just hype, as many of these reverse innovations appeal more strongly to low and mid-end markets in their own home countries than they do to the sophisticated customers in the West. However, this really is bad news, since it is presently predominantly Western companies that control the flow of innovations from China and India, and thus this is a sign that the West has still not even started to comprehend how to really leverage the creativity and innovation that emerges in the East. All the R&D investment in Asia, especially China, will take decades to ferment before it reaches market maturity in the form of new product innovations, and we expect a tide of reverse innovations to be launched by Asian firms in the next few years. While this sounds like bad news for Western companies, the good news ultimately is that these new technologies and innovations will increase the quality of life for everyone – including us Westerners – whether they are invented and originally owned by companies from China, Europe or the US.
To isolate the mechanism by which the prevailing MPV rule affects the incidence of dark trading and the supply of displayed liquidity, we turn to a regression discontinuity (RD) analysis of subpenny trading at the $1.00 cut-off established by Rule 612. We hypothesize that a primary channel through which the MPV rule affects the incidence of dark trading is through its effect on midpoint trading rather than through stepping-ahead. Specifically, we conjecture that for small orders investors generally prefer to buy (sell) securities through posting limit orders at the bid (ask) on exchanges’ displayed limit order books rather than taking liquidity through placing marketable orders and, consequently, paying the spread. 5 As emphasized by KMM, however, where spreads are constrained by the penny MPV, investors seeking to place aggressive buy (sell) orders will be forced to join long queues at the national best bid (ask) given the price-time priority rules by which limit orders are filled on exchanges. 6 It is in this environment that dark ECNs can compete with exchanges by offering midpoint pricing that enables investors to post nondisplayed midpoint orders that execute against marketable orders in the venue. Although turning to dark ECNs raises execution risk, the significant price improvement offered by midpoint pricing combined with the nontrivial execution risk of posting orders to an exchange should result in smart-order routing protocols first checking dark ECNs for midpoint liquidity. In contrast, when quotes are no longer constrained by a penny MPV, the finer pricing increments will more accurately reflect heterogeneous pricing among investors on public exchanges, which both lowers spreads and shortens quote queues at any single price point, including the NBBO. Both effects should reduce the attractiveness of using nondisplayed midpoint orders relative to placing displayed orders on exchanges.