According to the World Health Organization (WHO), road accidents are regarded as one of the leading causes of death. The trend of a road accident can change in future as it is hard to predict the rate at which road accidents are taking place. The road accident leads to an unacceptable loss in terms of property, health and other economic factors. There are instances where road accidents occurred more frequently at a specific location. Some of the road accident features influence road accident to occur frequently. So, it is essential to identify the correlation in various attributes of road accident for predicting road accident. Data mining techniques are widely used to find the correlation in various attributes of the large database. A data mining approach was proposed to characterize road accident locations. In this approach, the Apriori algorithm was applied to characterize locations by generating rules. The Apriori algorithm has high space and time complexity problem and it is also costlier process owing to a large database. In this paper, Frequent Pattern-growth (FP- growth) is introduced for road accident prediction. In FP-growth, the larger feature space is condensed into smaller sub- spaces so that the costly repeated scans are avoided. Then the attributes with high confident values are trained by a decision tree classifier called as J48. It trains and classifies the data as critical and non-critical accident type. Hence by using FP- growth space and time complexity of association rule mining based road accident prediction is reduced and its accuracy is improved by using J48 classifier.
The One Belt One Road, one of the latest and largest planed initiatives, has been following the identical rules in various venues without exceptions. In its recent roundtable forum consisting of leaders of 132 countries and 70 interna- tional organizations, a joint communiqué was signed by all the participants to promise to honor the principles of the UN Charter and international law. These include seeking reciprocal benefits; adhering to non-discrimination and con- cerning the perspectives of all stakeholders; respecting the sovereignty and terri- torial integrity of countries (Yamei, 2017), as well as a great number of other guidelines for economic convergence and prosperity. OBOR’s well received mis- sions and goals parallel with the UN’s principles, rules and norms, and won in- dispensable legal endorsement and moral support from international organiza- tions. UN Resolutions S/2274 and A/71/9 of 2016, passed by unanimous vote, acknowledged the contents of the OBOR initiative and called upon all countries along the Belt and Road for cooperation (People’s Daily, 2017).
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If we do consider the last 5 years of the Monte Ca rlo co mpetit ion, 3 with the naturally aspirated 2.4 liters V8 and a very small M GU-K of 60 kW, and the latest 2 with the turbocharged 1.6 liters V6 with the la rger but still sma ll present MGU-K of 120 kW, clea rly the latest F1 are much slo wer than their predecessors no matter the c laim of preserving the ma ximu m power output to preserve performances. In 2011, with sunny, fine and dry conditions, the best qualifying time for pole position was 1:13.556 while the fastest lap during the race was 1:16.234. In 2012, with warm and sunny conditions, about same fine conditions except the threat of showers at the end of the race, the best qualifying time fo r pole position was 1:14.381 while the fastest lap during the race was 1:17.296. In 2013, with sunny and dry conditions, the best qualifying time fo r pole position was 1:13.876 while the fastest lap during the race was 1:16.577. During the first season wit h the new rules, in 2014 with sunny and dry conditions, the best qualifying time for pole position was 1:15.989 while the fastest lap during the race was 1:18.479, roughly 2 seconds slower. Finally, this year, 2015, with sunny and dry conditions, the best qualifying time fo r pole position was 1:15.098 wh ile the fastest lap during the race was 1:18.063. Therefore, the new ru les have certainly slowed down the cars . Some imp rovements have however been achieved in terms of fue l economy, even if the 100 kg of ma ximu m fuel pe r a race is not yet the driving force for the further development of the ICE and the ERS to drastically reduce the fuel consumption.
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that formed the basis of the study. The 20 road police units were divided into 10 matched pairs (‘blocks’), according to: predicted volume of encounters; similarity of procedures and policing focus; geographical proximity; and public perceptions (gleaned from existing Scottish survey data). Within each pair one unit was randomly assigned to the control group and the other to the treatment group. The control group conducted ‘business as usual’ traffic stops throughout the campaign period, which involved speaking with the driver of the vehicle to ascertain whether a breath test might be appropriately requested and running a series of safety checks on the vehicle. The treatment group received basic training on the concept of procedural justice and how to successfully apply the ‘full’ model during routine encounters with the public. This was implemented via the incorporation of key messages into encounters intended to communicate or enable core aspects of procedural justice: dignity and respect; equality; trustworthy motives; neutrality of decision making; clear explanation; and the opportunity for citizen participation or ‘voice’. Crucially this introduced a consistency in the verbal communication with drivers but, to further strengthen and standardize the experiment encounters, a leaflet was also issued emphasizing the road safety concerns behind the campaign and the stop to assure drivers of the motives of the police involved. Results from the experiment itself will be described elsewhere; here, we simply use the survey as a cross-sectional ‘snapshot’ of drivers attitudes.
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The overgrowing population leads to steep rise in motor vehicles. This leads to heavy traffic in the roads particularly in the urban areas. Among others, the speedy movement of vehicles and non-adherence to the traffic rules responsible for most of the accidents. After the world's first automobile related fatality which occurred in London in 1896, the coroner court said “This must never happen again”. Since then 25 million people would have been died in vehicle related accidents, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Even though, significant advancement has been made in vehicle safety technology, the number of people killed in accidents rising continuously. Approximately 1.2 million people die each year in road accidents and that number is expected to rise by 65 percent by the year 2020 as per WHO report.
conducted by Roy, sudden increase of E-Rickshaw population has resulted in traffic congestion, shrinkage of road space and increase possibilities of accidents. 7 It also pointed out that events of accidents had increased after the initiation of E-Rickshaw service and most of the E- Rickshaw drivers were unaware of the traffic rules and regulation. The present study revealed similar findings as only around 1/5 th of drivers were estimated to have good knowledge and favourable practice on road safety. The motor vehicles (Amendment) ordinance, 2015 legalized e-rickshaws, but findings of the present study have stretched the issue further. Problems created by sudden upsurge of this para-transit system must be addressed immediately. Registration and regularization of all the vehicles and their drivers while banning the unregistered ones along with periodic inspection of the vehicles and conduction of road safety awareness programs among the drivers are some of essential steps need to be taken. E-Rickshaw service is still in its infancy in our country, but it has huge potential considering both the economic and environmental impact it can have on a long run. Immediate measures are warranted to address the problems of the least carbon foot print producing public transport system.
• Insufficient standardisation of shipping documents and technical regula- tions is the main administrative and legal obstacle to the increase of freight traffic among the PRC, EAEU member states, and the EU . In most European countries, railway freight traffic is regulated by the Convention concerning Inter- national Carriage by Rail (COTIF). CIS countries, the Baltic states, Albania, Iran, the PRC, the DPRK, Vietnam, Mongolia, Hungary, and Slovakia use the Agree- ment on International Goods Transport by Rail (SMGS). The use of the CIM/SMGS common consignment note gives a strong competitive edge to railway shipments through Eurasian space. However, more work needs to be done to standardise nor- mative documents and technical regulations used in Eurasian countries (rules for shipping various types of cargoes, rolling stock operating parameters, environ- mental standards, etc.).
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other bad actions that just steps to the road, especially in peak hours, you will be "eye contemplation" terrible. What is the cause of traffic jams? This is indeed true and I believe it can be said in a series. First, there are people pouring too much traffic leading to congestion and when jams, people do not need to know what the traffic rules are. Everyone wears a hat, everyone is strong and goes home first. As mentioned above, they are ready to take the car onto the sidewalk - one way to get around, get things done, in time, quickly get home without taking care of others. Whoever says something, say who. Whistles whistle, our way, what we do. That is the motto and also the general psychology of all people involved in traffic jams. This is the most common cause of traffic jams. The next cause also contributes to the "social destructive" this is the traffic lights at the intersection, the fall has broken many days that no one cared for. That is the favorable conditions and even the reason for people to move freely at their own will. Imagine, just in a crossroads, but all four sides go to the same mass to go straight, in a crossroads where the four all together to go straight forward, turn left, back Turn right, you can rush to each other at the same time, no traffic jams is strange. No traffic lights, thus people do not comply, but the big crossroads are full of light, people are not ready to obey-what a chaotic chain. The turbulent nature of the traffic has also become a terrible mess. But it cannot be said that the cause of traffic jams is also due to the authorities contribute a small part. Sometimes, during peak hours, the "valuable" appearance of police officers "liberated the battlefield", then the broken lamp posts
Road safety publicity, targeted traffic law enforcement, hazardous location identification, pedestrian awareness, upgrading drivers skill and behavior both technically and with respect to keeping rules should get due consideration . We studied the occurrence and driver characteristics associated in Dubai. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence density of hospital treated motor vehicle injuries and to identify driver and vehicle characteristics placing them at increased risk of inflecting injuries. 3.2 Accident Data Set: Data Understanding A good understanding of the data at hand leads to a better success in achieving the data mining goal. The success criterion for this data mining research is the discovery of accident severity classification rules that would find out and differentiate accidents which are serious to those which are potentially not serious in different levels. Provided that reasonable accident severity classification rules are discovered, the office could device a means to reduce the number of fatal and serious injuries and be able to recognize the level of severity when an accident has occurred. In short, this can help decision makers to formulate better traffic safety control policies. The target attribute has five classes: death, severe, moderate, minor, and no injury.
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This research was conducted to answer the question of the influence of governmen- tal laws on the expansion of MT industry, and the impact of managerial performance. Overall, the results showed that the role of healthcare providers is more prominent. In other words, the government has to pave the road by implementing supportive rules and regulations, tourism organization has to create attractive environment by providing appropriate services, and medical centers have to provide high quality cares with rea- sonable costs.
The road opted for survey was in front of Mahalaxmi Chambers, which is basically a commercial building located in the hustling bus stand area. Almost hundreds of people visit here daily for business purpose. Also there are various travel agencies here whose buses are parked daily on the road. Although there is separate parking space available for two wheelers in the rear side of the building it is a bit insufficient. Which results in parking of vehicles on the front side of the building. This leads to parking of the vehicles on the footpath. Also there are lot of shopkeepers who place their advertisement boards right in between the walking area which creates a problem to the pedestrians. There are always buses and auto-rickshaw parked on the roadside, this creates traffic congestion. Also there are a very few pedestrians who try to walk on the footpath, thus making them useless. There are also a few hawkers who occupy some part of the road. Also some four wheelers are also parked on the other side of the road thus making lesser road available to use. The main traffic consist of buses, auto rickshaw, two wheelers and cars. However LCV are also seen around here often. Since the road over here is always having traffic there are very few times when maintenance work is carried out here. The marking on the road are almost faded away. There are very few sign boards, which indicate any traffic rules. There are no proper markings for the parking facilities which leads to improper and disruptive parking by the people.
Directive 2006/22/EC also called the "Enforcement Directive" aims at verifying compliance and ensuring application of the driver's hours rules established by Regulation (EC) No 561/2006. The Directive promotes harmonised interpretation of social rules in road transport by means of minimum requirements for the uniform and effective checking by Member States. The minimum threshold of checks of the total number of days worked by drivers falling under the scope of Regulation (EC) No 561/2006 and Regulation (EEC) No 3821/85 1 is set at 3% from 2010. In addition, the total number of working days actually checked should be carried out in proportional manner for checks at roadside and at premises of transport undertakings; 30 % and 50 % respectively. In order to encourage cooperation between Member States, an obligation of minimum 6 concerted roadside checks per year undertaken by two or more enforcement authorities was introduced.
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It is concluded that the operating parameters of the asphalt concrete road samples after processing by impregnating composition substantially did not change during the operation period under the high temperature drops in the winter operating conditions and during exposure of high temperature and solar radiation conditions in the summer operation. Atmospheric precipitation also did not influence on the asphalt concrete pavement samples operational parameters after processing by impregnating composition.
While primary level data are useful, such data are generally not adequate for evaluating the effectiveness of changes in road or vehicle design or enforcement methods. For such assessments, it is important to lead extraordinary investigations and gather information in a lot more noteworthy detail than accessible from essential sources. These top to bottom examinations require individuals uniquely prepared for the undertaking .
Subsequent to the Appellate Rules Committee's meeting, the language adopted by the advisory committee was circulated to Professor Kimble for style review. Professor Kimble argued that the authorship and funding disclosure provision should be placed in a separate subdivision rather than being placed in existing subdivision (c)(3). In the light of the Appellate Rules Committee's goal of listing the required components in the order in which they should appear in the brief, the decision was made to place the authorship and funding disclosure provision in a new subdivision following existing subdivision (c)(3). Though this requires renumbering the subparts of Rule 29(c), those subparts have only existed for about a decade (since the 1998 restyling) and citations to the specific subparts of Rule 29(c) do not appear in the caselaw. Given that this change entails renumbering some subparts of Rule 29(c), it also seems advisable to move the corporate disclosure provision into a new subdivision (c)(1) and to renumber the subsequent subdivisions accordingly. Professor Kimble also suggested two stylistic changes to the language of what will now become new subdivision (c)(5). First, instead of using the language "unless filed by an amicus curiae listed in the first sentence of Rule 29(a)," the provision now reads "unless the amicus curiae is one listed in the first sentence of Rule 29(a)." Second, the words "indicates whether" have been moved up into the introductory text in 29(c)(5) instead of being repeated at the outset of the three subsections (29(c)(5)(A), (B) and (C)). Also, a comma has been added to what will become Rule 29(c)(3).
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ABSTRACT: The construction of Concrete Block Pavement (CBP) on slopes provides interesting challenges for road engineers. The horizontal (inclined) forces exerted on the road surface are greatly increased due to traffic accelerating (uphill) and braking (downhill). These forces will cause horizontal creep of the blocks down the slope, resulting in opening of joints at the top of the road section. The objective of this study was investigate the effect of parameters include degree of slope, laying pattern, joint width, and thickness of paving block on the performance of CBP on slopes. A laboratory-scale test was used to study these parameters based on steel frame horizontal force and push in tests. Three different laying pattern (stretcher bond, herringbone 90 o and
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Many researches clearly demonstrating that poor drainage can adversely affect pavement performance. Rokade et al  reported that inadequate drainage leads to major cause of pavement distresses due to large amount of costly repairs before reaching their design life. He found that pavement service life can be increased by 50% if water can be drained without delay. Similarly, pavement systems incorporating good drainage can be expected to have a design life of two to three times that of undrained pavement sections. Cedergreenet al  evaluated early field tests that included both drained and undrained pavement sections. Based on these field data, he estimated that a flooded undrained pavement experiences 10 to 70,000 times the damage from a load event compared to a drained pavement. As a conservative single value, he suggested that an undrained pavement experiences 15 times the damage compared to a well-drained pavement. To achieve proper drainage, drains (or ditches) a long side of road are essential to collect water from road surface and surrounding areas and lead it to an exit point where it can be safely discharged. Forsyth et al.  presented a number of case studies related to pavement drainage. They report that the use of edge drains usually improve the durability of pavements. Forsyth et al. concluded that the percentage of cracked slabs in the undrained sections exceeds that in the drained sections by a ratio of 2.4 to 1. The use of edge drains was also examined by NCHRP  for conventional asphalt pavements with unbound dense-graded aggregate bases, the addition of edgedrains appeared to reduce fatigue cracking, but not rutting. The use of asphalt-treated permeable base sections with edgedrains produced significantly less rutting than did unbound dense-graded aggregate base sections. However, the fatigue cracking performance for both types of base sections with edgedrains was comparable.
and the increasing of intercity transportation’s movement in the main corridor cause the decreasing road’s level of service in Lawang – Singosari Street. The policy of Malang – Pandaan toll road development is expected to be able to decrease the congestion on the artery road. The aim of this study is to count the impact of land use in the road’s level of service on Lawang – Singosari street. The vehicle's movement from the land use's activities is analyzed using multiple linear regression, meanwhile, the analysis method used for the movement of continuous traffic and branching road is traffic flow and traffic diversion curve analysis. The result of this study shows the contribution of the attraction and generation volume of movement due to 33.5% of land use. The development of Malang – Pandaan toll road affects to the volume of the continuous traffic which is diverse through the toll road that reaches 61% and causes the increasing contribution of the attraction and generation volume of land use due to 50.1%.
“The new rules will have several potential impacts,” said Aikin, CEO of fi360, a Pittsburgh-based association that trains and certifies plan fiduciaries. “Part of the problem [for plan sponsor and vendors who have been sued for not monitoring plan fees] was that they weren’t able to make a full disclosure. But full disclosure also accentuates the burden that plan sponsors have to do due diligence. That’s how they will get the liability protection.
For one road vehicle in a determined time period or for a homogenous motor pool or a group of vehicles of the same capacity it is determined that the coefficient of dynamic-capacity exploitation is bigger or smaller than the coefficient of static ex- ploitation. This coefficient is bigger or smaller by the number of times the medium distance of the trans- portation of one ton of cargo is bigger or smaller than the medium distance of the drive with cargo: