Key to the success of this initiative is the face to face nature of advice provision. Prior to this service, over the phone advice was the most readily available service to aid with debt problems in rural Cambridgeshire. Although this is useful in ruralareas, particularly due to access problems for those without their own methods of transport to rely on, faceless provision can be less effective at creating the necessary relationships with clients to develop trust and understanding. Although reliance on one particular advisor is discouraged, regular face to face contact with, if necessary, a number of workers is encouraged. Online and telephone advice can require some form of spoken or written language competence and confidence which could act as a deterrent to those who find it difficult to seek advice. Using range of different ways of advertising the service has meant that interaction with local residents is extensive across all geographical areas and personal circumstances. Close knit relationships between workers themselves has also allowed for personal development in the workplace, and a greater spread of knowledge about local problems and respective solutions. A support network for advisors is also an important factor to bear in mind when considering the skills needed to absorb such disruptive personal problems, and aid clients to overcome them with the necessary social distance without losing the key basis of trust and support needed in client-worker relationships.
Although there is little evidence that the prevalence of mental illness is any greater in rural than in urban areas, mental health services for those who do suffer from such illness tend to be less available in many ruralareas 53 . Where such services do exist, geographical constraints may make them less able to respond to a crisis 54-56 . The availability of services outside working hours may be further reduced because of the difficulty in sustaining on-call arrangements in large areas with widely distributed staff.
Collecting data on these measures has been one of the most neglected functions of pretrial justice programs, whether they are large programs serving major urban centers or tiny programs serving small ruralareas . Tracking outcomes, public safety measures and costs is vital in the current economic environment . While rural pretrial justice programs may not have the same resources that are available to their counterparts in larger jurisdic- tions, they do have one advantage – the relatively smaller volume of cases means that there are fewer cases to be tracked .
When solving the questions of employment, it is nec- essary to take into consideration the regional specifics. It is necessary to consider ruralareas as disadvantaged regions. The possibilities for people are limited, because there are no big companies which could give them work. The education structure of ruralareas is low and that has supported the migration to cities. Another problem is a limited possibility of commuting, because the economic situation cannot sustain a sufficient transportation sys- tem. So the entrepreneurship is slowly becoming a clue for smaller municipalities, where it can provide activities and secure services for its inhabitants (more information Majerová et al. 2002). Another possibility is the devel- opment of agro-tourism and growing plants for use in supplying energy. This is in accordance with the EU spec- ifications, which require that more attention be given to preservation of the natural environment and strengthen- ing of the multifunctional elements of agriculture.
Village is a habitat for human in which agriculture is the main activity of the residents. The population and facilities of life is less than city (Taghavi, 2008). Rural society traits include peasant economy, livelihood and self-sufficient economy, underdevelopment of industry and services sectors, agricultural ownership, primary division of labor, extended family, living simply, collaboration and cooperation, social surveillance, homology of social identity, cultural homogeneity, cultural unity and traditional culture, etc. it is good to be mentioned that, these definitions and characteristics of the rural communities change with variation in the level of development and cultural and social relations in the recent years. These variations can be seen in development of social relationships, developing the human resources, increase of facilities and service levels, etc. in the ruralareas of Iran. Rural development is a process with aim to encourage and promoting the rural studies to plan for progress and growth of these societies in order to improve the human environment and social conditions and making it suitable for living. Rural development planning is divided into two sections including theoretical (research) and operational (planning) which encourages the rural people to participate in conducting the programs in order to planning tasks progression. Rural development is emphasized and considered as the goal of development or the strategy to achieve it, has an important role in the economy of many countries and particularly developing countries in which a major part of the population live in villages. Rural development programs must be planned and performed in order to increase production, improve
The analysis is carried out on DHS data from ruralareas of 48 developing countries. Countries are divided according to the following geographical distribution: 30 African, 10 Asian, and 8 Latin American countries. With regards to the time-frame, DHS data are not available for the same year in all the countries; these surveys were realized in different periods, varying from late 1980s to 2004. We decided to consider only data for a ten years period, i.e. between 1995 and 2004, because it is assumed that in such a period the structural nature of the relationship between the two variables does not have a significant modification. This is a reasonable assumption because in most of developing countries new educational policies were adopted around the middle 1990s. During this period the criticisms addressed to the structural adjustment policies led the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to launch a new strategy based on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Thanks to the studies of eminent scholars and to the pressures of the civil society organizations, these economic institutions had to reconsider at least in part their development policies and strategies. This led to a universal
specializing in issues related to quality of life. Among these, hagerty’s (2001) crucial article has been our main source of inspiration, along with other texts by cummins (2000), Spellerberg et al. (2007) and others, including the First European Quality of Life survey (Fahey et al. 2005). As for czech authors, many of their academic texts and papers touch upon the issue, but only few are directly concerned with the quality of life. Two of those were of major importance for us: the works of Potůček et al. (2002), focusing on various objective indicators for the measurement of the quality of life, and research by Majerová et al. (2005), concerned with the “objective” aspects of quality of life as well as examining the differences in quality of life in urban and ruralareas and the representations of them. The general problem with the up to date research seems to be its emphasis on international comparison: a vast majority of studies and measures of quality of life are designed in order
Disinfection inactivates or kills completely disease-causing organisms in water supply schemes and provides 99% bacteriological contamination free drinking water for the welfare of public health. The drinking water schemes add disinfectants to destroy microorganisms which cause diseases in human beings due to Bacteriological contamination. The Surface Water Treatment Rule make sure that the water schemes should disinfect the drinking water obtained from surface water sources and the groundwater sources or sub surface water sources which will be under the influence of surface water. There are so many methods of disinfection technologies which are in practice providing potable drinking water to the public. There are two kinds of disinfection mainly: 1.primary method of disinfection which kills completely or inactivates the microorganisms whereas 2. Secondary method of disinfection maintains their residues which prevent the re-growth of microorganisms in the storage unit even after the supply of water. The Primary methods of disinfection which are practiced are chlorination, ozonization and ultraviolet light. Out of which, Chlorination is the primary and most important method used in most of the ruralareas. The use of chlorine for the eradication of microbiological pathogens is essential to protect the public from the blaze of waterborne diseases. In this study, the comparison of various forms of chlorination to the raw water supplied to different public places by various sources of water in and around West Godavari district of southern India was monitored and analyzed
nergy flows from many sources, exists in a variety of interchangeable forms, and drives all systems. It is fundamental to the quality of our lives and today, we are dependent on an abundant and uninterrupted supply of energy for living and working . Due to their geographical location and the lack of critical mass, ruralareas are mainly suitable for renewable energy off grid application, systems which are connected to a battery via a charge controller, which stores the electricity generated and acts as the main power supply . Access to electricity is still a dream for 20% of the world’s population. Most of them are about 85%, live in ruralareas where the extension of utility grid is either complex or very expensive. This is due to the features of rural populations, which are remote and disperse, have small incomes and whose electric consumption is low. The International Energy Agency (IEA) foresees that if current policies do not change by 2030 there will still be 1.2 billion people without access to electricity . The most of the population in India lives in villages and a large number of villages are not served by the national grid due
According to census 2011, of the 121 crore Indians 83.3 crore [68.8%] lives in ruralareas. The centre for monitoring Indian economy has estimated the average income of rural households in the year 2012-13 at Rs.116, 672 which was about half the average household income in urban areas. According to socio-economic and cast census 2011[SECC 2011] manual casual labour[51%] and cultivation[30%] constitute the main source of income in rural households. About 9.7% of rural households run on salary income, 56% households are landless.3/4 of rural Indians earn less than rs 5000 per month. In 74.5% of rural households, the highest earning member earns less than Rs.5000 per month. A household do have more than One earning member, means children also help their parents in earnings 1 .
district 5 . The availability and accessibility of food does not guarantee to good health unless food absorption is existent. A number of factors may affect the food absorption, such as malnutrition, diarrhoea, respiratory illness and other communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases account for lower health status. Prevalence of bad practices due to ignorance and illiteracy of mothers increases morbidity. In our model child immunization, female literacy rate, safe drinking water, number of hospitals in the ruralareas of the district and locality of the district are included. Food absorption depends on reduced morbidity and infection, that is ultimately connected with immunization. It is hypothesized that food absorption is positively related to child immunization. Many studies have examined the effect of mother’s education on household nutritional status. In our model, food absorption is also hypothesized to be positively related with female literacy. For the household where females are literate the dietaries of household members are improved as they have better knowledge about nutritional values derived from foods. Most of the modern hospitals are located in urban centers. In ruralareas, particularly in remote regions, residents are less likely to have a ready means of transportation to take the sick individuals to the nearest health facility. Longer the distance lower would be the probability of visiting a health facility and ultimately food absorption. Safe drinking water and number of hospitals that are part of public utilities contribute towards food absorption. Balochistan is again different from other provinces and Northern regions of the locality in terms of availability of safe-drinking water and health facilities. It is sparsely populated province. Hospitals are usually located at district head quarters, which are not easily accessible to population living at long distances in ruralareas. Immunization coverage is difficult in sparse areas. To see the food absorption in districts of the provinces and
UK as of 1998 (the 2007 map had not been produced at the time this research was making study location selection). The map is obviously constantly updated and reviewed but the map highlights the variation in sizes of travel to work areas. It also highlights how in ruralareas they tend to be much larger; this is especially true in Wales. This is because people have to travel larger distances to their workplace. By using travel to work areas as the case study regions it was hoped that a more valid measure of the local labour market, and the employment prospects within it, would be obtained than that given by local authority areas. Whilst there is no appropriate figure for how large the sample of this research should have been, the decision was taken that the survey would be distributed with 1 in 10 households in the travel to work areas. This meant that assuming the pilot study response rates could be matched (approximately 25%) in the full household survey a pool of 500-600 households would be identified. This was achieved and provided enough data for analysis using SPSS assessing themes and commonalities. A larger sample may have allowed more findings to be statistically significant. However the costs associated with extending the survey beyond a 10% ratio were prohibitive
rural development is a multi-level process with its roots in historic traditions. it arose on all levels as an answer for the previous model of modernization. The basic level of rural development results from the global relations between agriculture and society. it is clear then, that agriculture must have changed its orientation to fulfil the rapidly moving needs of the population of Europe (otepka and habán 2007). The times, when towns expected the surrounding countryside to supply them with a cheap foodstuff only, are away. nowadays, the urbanized towns have new needs and expectations. A wide supply of the non-market public goods, such as the beautiful coun- tryside, natural values, is expected of ruralareas and agriculture. There is a direct competitive relation between social demands for the manifold utiliza- tion of the countryside and the traditional values caused by agricultural production. Agriculture is increasingly perceived as a segment utilizing land and other resources for the production of various goods and services required by the society (Buchta and Buchta 2009). A bigger amount of free time and a higher income are projected in the changes of the lifestyle and the consumers’ habits. The post-modern society requires productive ruralareas as an object of consumption available for recreation, vacation and hobbies (Van huylenbroeck and Durand 2004: 17). With respect to this, it is inevitable to draw at- tention to the fact that not all ruralareas or rural municipalities have preconditions for the fulfilment of new forms of demand, nor ability to adapt to the changed consumers’ expectations towards such areas (chrenková 2009). The main objective of the scien- tific work was to identify the developing potential of rural municipalities with respect to tourism in the area of the nitra Self-governing region, to evaluate this potential using the valorisation method and to define the individual categories of rural municipali- ties. The analysis helped to select the municipalities with optimal conditions for the development of tour- ism and, simultaneously, municipalities which are suitable for the allocation of resources supporting tourism. This regards the category i and category ii municipalities where there is a high natural and cultural and historic potential available, together with a stable environment, unaffected by industrial activi- ties, a quality and sufficient infrastructure (regarding capacity) allowing for long-term stays of tourists, and a quality human potential. The development of tour- ism in these municipalities links to longer traditions; many of them were classified as recreational villages according to the former regionalization of tourism.
Prediction of accurate human disease based on patient’s basic symptoms is one of the essential topics in medical diagnosis. The proposed work is to classify the different disease according on symptoms of the patient before recommending treatments for the prevailing general diseases. This will also provide remedy for calculated particular diseases. People can self-analyze their health state and can take precautions as per the results. It would help the practitioners / Doctors to analyze the health state of the patient and based on that the manual diagnosis of the disease can also be possible by using the disease prediction system. We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bays classification techniques to predict the exact disease name. As our project's main focus is providing medical assistance to people living in ruralareas to provide them with free treatment for general diseases which they tend to neglect. This will provide early diagnosis of the disease which is not possible with the help of manual diagnosis.
This text is focusing on political mediation in czech ruralareas. it continues the article about the citi- zens’ local political participation in the Agricultural Economics (Čmejrek 2007). Political mediation is considered as an important part of the democratic political process. it creates a link between the citi- zens and the political power. Political mediation is complementary to political participation of citizens. Mediation and participation represent the tools avail- able for citizens to express their social, economic and political interests. Both processes provide legitimacy to the political power and contribute to a significant extent to the integration of the society. This applies to the political process on the national level as well as in the regions and municipalities. however, the local level comprises a broad spectrum of munici- palities: larger cities, medium-sized cities, smaller towns, non-urban municipalities of different size. Political participation is influenced by the size of the given municipality. imprimis, it is the case of voter turnout. Small rural municipalities achieve, when compared with the national average, a higher voter turnout in municipal elections. The differences in the voter turnout between urban and rural vot- ers are seen also in the instance of the elections to the Lower house of the Parliament (Čmejrek 2007). Moreover, the municipality size makes a valuable impact on the other aspects of local politics, public spirit and even private life, e. g. work motivation (Kolman et al. 2007).
These women are increasingly in the process of gradual transition from traditional organizations of female expression and agricultural production to Economic interest groupings. These are plural spaces to meet and exchange agricultural experiments and disseminate innovations. Today, this dynamic has resulted in the creation of women‟s cooperatives in ruralareas as it is the case of food cooperatives in Cote d‟Ivoire. These cooperatives, especially show the ability of rural women to adapt to new challenges of production and their desire to bring under control the process of marketing of their products. Cooperatives are indeed agricultural practices change drivers and a means of assertion of rural women in their communities. They also show the ability of these women to self-manage and participate actively in the economic and social development of their families, communities, villages, regions and nations. Because of their efficiency, these cooperatives are frameworks of dissemination and adoption of innovations by rural women (Zoundi and Hitimana, 2004). When they are well organized, they are economically strong and socially viable. So, these cooperatives can facilitate their members access to production factors (access to land, credit and agricultural inputs) that may increase the level of adoption of innovations (Kouassi, 2004; Zoundi, 2005).
Abstract: The articles deals with problems of diﬀerent development of ruralareas and their factors. In usual analysis of rural development, the position of agriculture is interpreted in broad range of opinions from the neglectable role to its non-substituta- bility in rural economics. The article follows strong sides of these concepts at simultaneous reduction of their weaknesses and is focused on problems of investigation of the mutual inﬂuence of endogenous as well as exogenous industries on rural regions. Applied approach leads to setting up model of economic base and deriving of multiplicators of rural development. It is obvious from the analysis that nonagricultural subsidy programs supporting development of the others industries in region have indirect inﬂuence upon its agriculture too. In diﬀerent regions, this inﬂuence varies due to the factors investigated in the paper.
MAY-JUNE, 2015, VOL. 3/18 www.srjis.com Page 111 programmes for extending credit facilities to the credit-starved rural households. The decennial All-India Rural Debt and Investment Surveys conducted by the Reserve Bank of India reveal that there has been perceptible improvement in the substitution of institutional credit for non- institutional credit in the borrowing pattern of rural households. With their enlarged presence in the ruralareas, banks have increased their lending activities through the rural branches. This has been further accelerated by policy intervention of the regulator, directing them to extend credit facilities to the priority sectors to formulate Service Area Credit Plans to minimize the credit gaps in the villages. As a result, the credit disbursed in the rural Branches have increased. Rural credit constitutes 10.6 per cent of the total credit lent by the banking sector. The non-availability of the other more qualitative data - relating to the differences in the operational efficiencies of rural and urban business and the spatial variations in the shares of non-performing assets - makes a comparative assessment difficult. There are reports indicating the growing menace of overdues, of agricultural advances in the ruralareas. Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) in rural advances are emerging as a result. This has an adverse impact on the earnings of the rural branches. However, the incidence of non-performing assets is more alarming in the urban and metropolitan branches, where all the sick industries exist. The factors depressing the profitability of the rural branches are the low volume of business handled and the lower interest rates charged, than the non- performing assets. But the fact remains that the rural business of both the public and private sector banks is not very significant, compared to their non-rural business.
areas, help farm- based households spread risks, offer more remunerative activities to supplement or replace agricultural income, offer income potential during the agricultural offseason and provide a means to cope or survive when farming falls. The basic purpose of the government measures for the development and growth of rural industries, handloom and handicrafts in ruralareas has been to modernize the production structure and improve the designs of the products to enable them to face the competition from factory produced items. So the policies must aim to improve the assets held by the poor or increase their productivity. Due to its relative importance, development of the rural non-farm sector should receive close attention in the coming years.