The respondents were very similar in their perceptions regarding the level of importance of community participation in planning phase in agriculturalextension and ruraldevelopment programs when they were grouped and compared, based on selected demographic and occupational variables, for example (years of working experience, job grade, and current job). Table 3 presents the outcomes of the one-way analysis of variance on the level of perceptions regarding importance of community participation in planning phase in extension and ruraldevelopment programs when extension personnel are grouped by years of working experience. Three significant differences were found. The results of Scheffe ̄ tests at the 0.05 level indicated that the first significant difference was found in group 1 (4 or less) at level 0.03 concerning the statement: "Community participation in sorting, and prioritizing needs and problems". The second significant difference was found in group 2(5 to 9) at level 0.04 concerning the statement: "Community participation to analyze community customs, traditions, and indigenous knowledge". The third significant difference was found in group 5 (25 or over) at level 0.04 concerning the statement: "Community participation in preparing the calendar of work". The remaining activities were rated similarly by all groups.
In addition to the above, a number of interviewees informed that the viability of the FLE groups was negatively affected by the day-to-day lifestyle of the menfolk. The men in the villages are usually indifferent towards development activities. Quite often they are seen spending time chatting with their neighbour, gossiping in local tea stalls, smoking bidis 22 , and chewing paans 23 or just sitting around; rather than utilising the time for some income-generation activities. According to some NGO and DAE workers who have long been working in those communities, the reason for such indifference was their low demand for material well-being. Despite poverty, they are content with whatever little resources they have. In an interviewee’s account, their demand is limited to “earning the day’s meal”. In contrast to the men, however, the women are generally more hard working and have a higher propensity to participate in development activities. This is because of their changing attitude that has been occurring during the last couple of decades (also discussed in earlier paragraphs). The women now want to be financially independent and emulate the men. This is a reason why it was possible for some of the female groups to sustain the FLE activities, compared to the males.
Hooker, Olive Pimentel and Jamie Hooper. I am grateful for the support from the staff and colleagues at the School of Agriculture and Environment. Special thanks to Professor Peter Kemp and Steward Denise. I also appreciate the support from the Ministry of Agriculture Development and the Department of Agriculture, Nepal for granting me study leave for the PhD study. My special thanks also go to all my friends and Nepalese community in Palmerston North who provided me with company during my stay in a foreign land and culture.
A sample cannot fully be pre-determined in case study, but often evolves after the actual fieldwork starts (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The actual case selection was initiated in February 2012 when this researcher went back to Chitwan from New Zealand for data collection. The researcher visited the DADO, Chitwan, a public agriculture extension organisation in the district responsible for the overall district level agriculture development in the crop and fishery sub-sectors. The objectives of this visit were to inform them about the research and obtain permission to conduct the study. A meeting was organised with the DADO to explain the purpose of the study and discuss the criteria for identifying suitable cases. The DADO staff at the meeting suggested the researcher select farmer groups from the Khairahani Village Development Committee (VDC) 7 . This was mainly because of the following reasons. First, the staff member assigned to this VDC was a very helpful person and could provide the necessary assistance required by the researcher to conduct the study. Second, the staff member had worked in this area for more than two years and he had a good knowledge of the local farmer groups. Third, the village had a wide range of farmer groups in terms of the heterogeneity of membership in relation to gender, social and economic status (for example, male, female and mixed gender groups; upper caste and Tharu ethnic people groups; poor and well-off groups) that would provide a rich source of information for the study topic. The researcher then met the staff assigned to the VDC on the same day to inform them about the study. The next day, the researcher visited the ASC 8 in Khairahani to obtain an overview of the farmer groups in the VDC. It was
The population of this study included agriculturalextension and education master and PhD graduated student, (N = 750) in selected seven university in Iran, of which 315 student was selected that appraisal for SSAA. Also 315 graduated students were asked by questionnaires to extract another variable. The research based on the Cochran formula and using stratifies random sampling, questionnaires and checklists. Questionnaires face validity was established by a panel of experts consisting of faculty members and graduate students at Tehran University and Islamic Azad University, Iran. A pilot test was conducted with 25 students in the same field.
The renewable agriculturalextension methods and organizational characteristics need to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and ruraldevelopment, if it is to serve the needs of the human beings whose livelihoods are based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agricultural production is a key to rising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. The purpose of this research paper is to provide an overview of the extent to which agriculturalextension methods and organizational characteristics on sustainable agriculturaldevelopment. This purpose is carried out through the sustainable benefits. However, in an effort to establish content and background information, the literature review consists of a mixture of research and polemics (i.e. farmer field schools on agricultural productivity, the role of local leaders in sustainable agriculturaldevelopment and partnership of public agriculturalextension and private sector).
Nowadays, the vital role of rural women in many aspects of ruraldevelopment is recognized worldwide (Shabanali- Fami, 2009). Different reports show that rural women’s share in agriculture and agricultural related activities is different in each country. For example in the Philippines rural women share is 35 percent, in Malaysia is 35 percent, in Indonesia is 54 percent and in Thailand is more than 60 percent (ESCAP, 1996). Emadi (2001) asserts that in developing countries, rural women share in production is 60 percent in rice production, 90 percent in vegetables, 50 percent in cotton production, 30 percent in gardening, 90 percent in silkworm farming, and finally 65 percent in livestock production and handicrafts. Habibi and Zandieh (2011) reported that the participation of rural women in rice farming is more than 50 percent. In addition to participation in agricultural related activities, women are responsible of decision- making in economic and social activities of family (Sathar & Kazi, 1997). Moreover, rural women still have their traditional duties such as cooking, washing, cleaning, child caring, etc.
from abroad. Some of these ideas were requested and accepted in haste with the result that most of them have been improperly defined and poorly understood by agricultural and ruraldevelopment policy makers and administrators. This scenario was brought about mainly by the unstable political system in the country with each incoming government looking outside for a new way to effectively handle the myriad of ruraldevelopment problems. The result has been the burgeoning of many different agricultural and ruraldevelopment agencies with a variety of approaches to the pertinent issues (Ogunsumi and Abegunde, 2011). However, research and extension in Nigeria has been widened in scope and organizational involvement.
As summarized by Del Carpio and Maredia (2009), there are a relatively small number of rigorous impact evaluations of agriculturalextension and rural credit market projects in the literature. Their survey of the literature from 2000 to early 2009 identified 20 studies of agriculturalextension projects and 10 addressing rural credit interventions that satisfied a few basic criteria for categorization as a rigorous impact evaluation. 1 When the scope of these studies is limited to evaluations of projects that combine extension services with credit, the number becomes smaller still. One recent example is Ashfar, Giné, and Karlan (2009), who evaluate the impact of DrumNet in Kenya, a program designed to increase participation of horticulturalists in export markets. The authors of that study randomly assign groups of farmers to treatments including extension services, extension with a joint liability loan, and no treatment. They find significant impacts of both versions of the program on production of export crops, formal
The Directorate of Extension Education (DOEE) is the nodal agency of SAUs for promoting agriculturaldevelopment in the state through quick transfer of technology by providing training, consultancy and farm information to line departments’ professional extension personnel and farmers. It also involves the assessment, refinement and adoption of technology through on-farm testing and front-line demonstrations. The directorate provides guidelines, monitors and evaluates the extension programs of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) functioning under SAUs. The directorate also extends its support to the state departments through disseminating farm information by publishing literature on different agricultural disciplines and related subjects. Thus, the three principal, functional areas of the DoEE are training, consultancy and communication. The directorate has a team of multi-disciplinary scientists who work in participatory mode in close coordination with the Department of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture, Forestry, Cooperatives, Panchayat Samities and other agencies engaged in the betterment of rural people.
Saha (1993) in a study, “BKB’s linkage program in credit delivery”, observed that BKB has taken the advantage of bringing the asset owned rural population into its credit net directly and indirectly the asset less rural people through the organizations associated with the “target group approach”. The study shows that BKB’s linkage program with the Grameen Bank (GB) project, Swanivar Bangladesh (SB) and CARE are the oldest. Profit sharing concept was then associated only with the BKB’s credit delivery program with CARE and recently SB has accepted the profit sharing concept. Presently, Government Organizations (GOs), Foreign and Local NGOs, Private individuals etc. are associated with BKB’s linkage program with profit sharing concept/interest spread sharing concept. Still now, only an insignificant portion of the total loan is linked with such type of financing and the major linkages are Agricultures Extension Project, Mymemmsingh (Danida Funded), Rural Women Employment Creation Project (ADB loan 1067), Small Holders Livestock Development Project (IFAD Funded), etc. The study concludes that under the new approach, technologically developed economic activities are to be resorted to financing and the task of identifying viable economic activities, skill training, group formation, social cohesiveness creating and financial discipline related tasks may be given to the NGOs and bank will be only in the financing task.
Land Grant universities in the United States, through their respective cooperative extension services, developed and conducted educational programs for rural citizens focused on preparing and filing federal income tax returns beginning in the 1940s. These educational programs, initially delivered at the county level grew into state-wide educational programs for the emerging income tax preparation industry. In North Carolina, the first extension tax school in 1949, was known as the “Farm Tax School” and used the NCFMEC publication as the text. North Carolina State University conducted its sixty-third two-day Income Tax School for tax practitioners in November and December of 2012 through the Office of Professional Development (OPD) an office in the Division of Continuing Education. Kentucky’s tax education programming began in 1963 also as a “Farm Tax School” and evolved into “Income Tax Seminars” for a wide range of tax professionals.
Species extension when seeking highly yield rapidly growth of population an improvement of peoples living standards demand a large amount of food, and here fore it is an inevitable to popularize the specific high-yield species of crops and live stock .more than 50species of paddy, soyabean and wheat for each are presently popularize more tan 30 for corn, fruit, sweet potato and peanut each. 18 for cotton, more than 20 for pigs, and 10 for cattle, sheep and horse each .however, the recorded or kept species are steamily abundant, eg. 48,000 paddy species and 20,000wheat where kept respectively. The problem is that some species have disappeared before they are collected, since 1950, 40% of the vegetable species has disappeared. Miscellaneous green crop have been discharged and some species such as metes buckwheat and small beans almost become extent. Some species live stock such as red cattle and downy goat in jia countries in hean and domestic goat in ningxia have crossbred and degenerated in quality and some of them are even one of the age of extinction.
Extension is an essential pillar for research and development. However needing of extension to Fundamental reforms , moving away from hierarchical (top-down) transfer of information or advice, towards Participation process can help better design of Agriculturalextension programs, enhanced uptake of technology and more desirable or less disruptive impacts on Sustainable agriculturaldevelopment. The purpose of this research paper is to provide an overview of the extent to which the Reorganization of AgriculturalExtension toward Sustainable AgriculturalDevelopment. This purpose is carried out through the sustainable benefits. However, in an effort to establish content and background information, the literature review consists of a mixture of research and polemics (i.e. of Agriculturalextension policy, Financial Resources, Cooperation between public AgriculturalExtension sector and private sector,, Local Leaders, Field Schools, Rural credit).
The Agriculture sector continues to play a central role in Pakistan’s economy. It is the second largest sector, accounting for 20.9 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2014-15 and is a source of livelihood of 43.5 percent of rural population. Increased agricultural production and high crops yield is essential for food security which make the farming systems less vulnerable to climate change. To make agriculture more effective in supporting sustainable higher economic growth trajectory and reducing poverty in Pakistan, a policy framework needs to be anchored coupled with favorable socio political climate, adequate governance, and sound macroeconomic fundamentals. The prime focus of the government is on high value agriculture including horticulture, livestock and fisheries. Concerted efforts are being made to improve farm level practices and developing linkages of farmers with markets and industry based on new technologies, ideas and future pathways for sustainable growth of agro industry. Nearly 62 percent of the country’s population resides in rural areas, and is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. The Agriculture sector’s strong linkages with the rest of the economy are not fully captured in the statistics. While on the one hand, the sector is a primary supplier of raw materials to downstream industry, contributing substantially to Pakistan’s exports, on the other, it is a large market for industrial products such as fertilizer, pesticides, tractors and agricultural implements. (Economic survey of Pakistan 2015)
La vinculación de la Economía Social con el empleo se remonta al siglo XIX, en las primeras asociaciones obreras integradas por grupos de trabajadores en Europa Occi- dental, surgidas en respuesta al proceso de mecanización extendido con la Revolución Industrial. Desde las primeras experiencias se ha evidenciado su estrecha relación con lo local y su identificación con los principios de solidaridad, democracia y responsabilidad. Como se ha expuesto anteriormente, uno de los principios cooperativos es la gene- ración de beneficios económicos y sociales en el entorno. Esto hace de las cooperativas y las entidades de la Economía Social, en general, el marco idóneo para el diseño y apli- cación de programas de desarrollo y de impulso al empleo, especialmente en los desti- nados a dinamizar áreas rurales deprimidas, que se ven beneficiadas no sólo por la dimensión social implícita, sino también por los efectos directos en términos de creación de empleo y la consecuente fijación de la población al medio frente al éxodo rural.
Rural economies in socialist times used to be more static than progressive. Delegation of power and critical questioning of what was to be done and could have been done better were neither encouraged nor desired. These societies had characteristics that significantly differed from those in progressive societies. One way to change mental models is to open up the society through interaction with other societies. The preferred instruments for this type of interaction are personalized contacts between people from different societies. However, this explicitly does not mean that the young people – with their usual high willingness to change – should permanently migrate out. The short-run gain in foreign currency that might be sent back from emigrants is outweighed by far by the long-run dangers of “brain drain”. Rural areas may become poorer if those who are willing to change leave the region and leave behind those who are either unable or unwilling to change.
This study compares the extension activities of AgriculturalDevelopment Programmes of Osun and Edo States. A multi-state random sampling method was used in selecting zones blocks, cells and the farmers. And interview schedule was designed to obtain data on the respondents demographic characteristics and extension activities. Data were gathered from 160 farmers from the two states. The result shows that majority of the farmers in both states have been farming for more than 6 years but Osun State has more experienced farmers than Edo State. In both states rentage and purchase accounted for about 26.3% of farm land. The study also shows that Osun State ADP rendered farm services more than Edo State in relation to equipment, but in Edo State most farmers get equipment from the Ministry of Agriculture and Public Hiring Unit. Farmers from Osun State intensively cultivate and have larger farms than Edo State. Farmers in both states acknowledged the assistance of ADP in the supply of improved planting materials and other inputs. In the area of infrastructure (Construction of dams roads processing unit and bore holes) both farmers and enclave communities benefited. T- test analysis shows that there is no significant difference between the extension services of the two states (t = 3.71, P>0.05).