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Women Empowerment for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Voices From Kenyacation

Women Empowerment for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Voices From Kenyacation

Nakuru County on the eastern edge of the Mau Forest Complex, the largest single forest block in Kenya. The area lies between the forest and Lake Nakuru National Park, a world famous flamingo habitat. Njoro sub-county is situated between 35º 28' – 35º 36' E longitude and 0º 13' – 1º 10' S latitude. It also stands at an altitude of 1,800 m (6,000 ft) above sea level. Temperatures range between 17–22° C, while the average annual rainfall is in the region of 1,000 mm. The sub-county has five administrative divisions (Njoro, Lare, Kihingo Mauche and Mau-Narok). In 2009, the population of Njoro Division was 87,489. The estimate for 2017, using a growth rate of 2% per year, is 96,595 (National Population Commission, 2012). The main livelihoods of the people of Njoro sub-county are saw-milling, cattle-keeping and crop farming. In the past, the land was covered with forests but due to the expansion of agriculture and the general population growth, these have receded. The primary occupation of most households in Njoro sub-coumty is crop farming and livestock production. Other major occupations that form sizeable proportions of households income is value addition of farm produce and trading (Auta, 2014). A multi stage sampling method was employed for the selection of respondents. Firstly, two zones were identified horticultural crops producing zones (Mauche and Maunarok) and cereal crops and livestock production zones (Njoro, Lare and Kihingo) out of the five administrative zones in Njoro subcounty were purposively selected, each zone representing 50% of women in groups dealing with sustainable rural livelihoods activities. Secondly, from each selected zone, two agricultural extension officers were randomly selected, representing 40%. The selected blocks were Njoro, Lare, Kihingo Mauche and Mau-Narok. Thirdly, 10% of registered women groups dealing with agricultural related sustainable livelihoods activities were selected. From which group members or participants were randomly selected from each block to obtain a sample size
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The interaction of Community Forestry with rural livelihoods in Myanmar: Challenges and opportunities

The interaction of Community Forestry with rural livelihoods in Myanmar: Challenges and opportunities

Chapter 3 presents the research methodology for this study, as well as the rationale for selecting research sites, my data collection and analysis methods, questions of positionality and research limitations. It explains how a multiple case study approach (3 case study sites, located in the Dry Zone, the Delta Zone and the Hilly Zone respectively) is used to assess the interplay of CF and rural livelihoods across case studies in three different socio-ecological sites where CF is being implemented. The research primarily draws on qualitative data, with some quantitative analysis of household survey data. The next three chapters present the findings from the three different agro-ecological zones, discussing how the cases provide a window to investigate various livelihoods activities and CF outcomes. In each of these chapters, I not only discuss findings from my case studies but also provide the implications of the findings, generating key insights. In Chapter 4, I address my research questions in a village-level case study in the Dry Zone, by comparing two villages: one which is implementing CF and one which is not. In this chapter, I present a portfolio of livelihood activities and livelihood strategies pursued by rural households in both study villages. I then discuss the perceptions of rural people on how CF impacts (positive and negative) their livelihoods with respect to benefit flow from CF and their community forest management regime at village level. In this case study, I argue that under the existing policy settings in Myanmar, CF makes a negligible contribution to the overall economy of the village and to households across all wealth strata. Although the community forest has started to provide forest products to the villagers, it is a very tiny portion and insufficient to provide direct household-level benefits. This is because the community forest in this case is relatively small compared to the village size and local demand for forest products. On the other hand, villagers without community forestry claim an interest in becoming involved in CF, in order to acquire household property rights over this resource. I argue that CF in this case does not support households in diversifying their livelihood options because most households are highly dependent on agricultural-based livelihoods. They could not rely much on forestry- based livelihoods because their community forest plantation is still immature, although there are indirect ecosystem benefits from CF in this case.
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Climate Change, Adaptive Strategies and Rural Livelihoods in Semiarid Tanzania

Climate Change, Adaptive Strategies and Rural Livelihoods in Semiarid Tanzania

The general community concern about decreased amounts of rainfall is supported by long-term rainfall data from Shinyanga meteorological station (Figure 3). About 7.3% of the respondents reported that rainfall has increased over the past few years. These could possibly be motivated by the extreme events such as El Niño that took place fifteen years ago. The increasing rainfall trend is evident in the meteorological data from Manyoni me- teorological station (Figure 4), which shows a slightly increasing trend since 1985. This trend seems to support the concern of some of the respondents that rainfall is increasing. However, in both districts, rainfall exhibited considerable annual variations. Despite the slight in- crease since the mid-1980s, rainfall records from the early 1960s for Manyoni district show that there has been a steady decrease in amounts. Both patterns may imply a changing climate, with variable impacts on agricultural production and rural livelihoods as discussed in Section 3.2.
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The Impacts of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic on Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Livelihoods in Zimbabwe

The Impacts of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic on Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Livelihoods in Zimbabwe

Abstract: This paper discusses the impacts of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods in Zimbabwe. It is based on research findings from a survey of secondary sources of data. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is significantly transforming the structure of rural families and communities in Zimbabwe. It is giving rise to single-parent, female and child headed households which have implications for agricultural planning. Agricultural production is central to the rural economy in Zimbabwe. Smallholder agriculture, at one time a strong and resilient backbone of Zimbabwe’s national food security strategy, is under threat from the devastating effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Impacts at household level include reduced income from agricultural production and non- agricultural activities, diversion of productive labour time from agriculture to caring for the sick in the family, and reallocation of cash resources from agriculture to meeting medical expenses. Redirecting of food reserves to funerals, withdrawal of children from school to reduce household costs and to replace the dwindling farm household labour, are yet other impacts. Agricultural extension services in Zimbabwe have also been hard hit by AIDS-related illnesses and deaths, making them less able to respond effectively to the changing needs of their target farmers. The impact of HIV/AIDS on agriculture directly affects food security, as it reduces food availability through falling production, loss of family labour, land and other resources, and loss of livestock, assets and implements. It also reduces access to food through declining income for food purchases. Livelihoods derived from natural resources management have also been impacted on by HIV/AIDS. The pandemic has reduced the numbers and capacity of qualified, willing, capable and productive people in the natural resources sector. This has negatively impacted the conservation, management and sustainable utilization of natural resources. In addition, the negative effects of the epidemic have been to accelerate the rate of extraction of forest products to meet the new and increased demands of those affected and infected by HIV/AIDS. Therefore, there is need to strengthen the health delivery system in Zimbabwe to cope with the increasing burden of HIV/AIDS and chronic illnesses. At the same time, it is important to capacitate Home-Based Care programmes in terms of the training of caregivers, equipping them with appropriate care facilities as well as linking them with the national health delivery system for follow-ups. Above all, it is necessary to intensify HIV/AIDS interventions at all levels in order to continue reducing the prevalence and incidence of infections and illnesses.
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Fuelwood Scarcity, Energy Substitution and Rural Livelihoods in Namibia

Fuelwood Scarcity, Energy Substitution and Rural Livelihoods in Namibia

Per capita GDP of N$ 46,000 (US$ 7,400) 5 masks acute income inequality and widespread poverty. An estimated 90 percent of the population lives on less than US$ 2 per day, with dependence on natural resources for livelihoods. Fuelwood is typically gathered in land that the government classifies as ‘public forest’. Namibia’s forest resources are, in effect, de facto open access. Relatively little was known about forest utilization rates and the direct use values derived by local people, particularly those that are unmarketed or traded in the informal sector. Namibia’s MET in collaboration with the IIED designed a survey to assess forest resource utilisation for rural livelihoods, forest cover and both the regional and national economies, through the development of asset and flow accounts (see Barnes et al., 2005).
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Out-migration and rural livelihoods in the southern Ecuadorian Andes

Out-migration and rural livelihoods in the southern Ecuadorian Andes

Drawing on a variety of theoretical frameworks, previous authors have suggested a number of pathways by which out-migration might influence rural livelihoods including smallholder agriculture (Skeldon, 1990; Black, 1993; Taylor et al., 1996; Jokisch, 2002). The immediate consequences of the departure of a migrant for household livelihoods are likely to be largely negative. Departure leads to an immediate decline in the amount of labor available to the household. When the decline in labor availability is greater than the migrant’s previous consumption demands, out-migration may lead to adoption of labor- saving strategies, the abandonment of labor-intensive strategies, or an overall decrease in agricultural activities. Departure also removes access to the skills, knowledge, and social contacts of the migrant and may entail significant expenses, thus potentially reducing the household’s human, social and financial capital. Departure of either a male or female migrant also alters the sex ratio of adults in the households, potentially altering livelihood strategies given the strong gender norms which influence participation in agriculture and other activities in Ecuador and much of the developing world (Katz, 2003; Deere, 2005).
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Climate Change Impact on Rural Livelihoods of Small Landholder: A Case of Rajanpur, Pakistan

Climate Change Impact on Rural Livelihoods of Small Landholder: A Case of Rajanpur, Pakistan

Abstract: Climate change is one of the major challenges for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for billions of poor people in the world. Agriculture is most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather. Asian agriculture sector is already facing many problems relating to sustainability. The present study was conducted to identify the impact of climate change on the socio-economic status and livelihood of farmers. A sample of 280 farmers’ respondents was selected from tehsil Jampur of Rajanpur district. The data were obtained through well designed interview schedule and analyzed statistically. All the respondents reported that climate change had always influences on the income and agricultural yield. Climate change had influenced on income and economics weighted scores (1400). Although there were differences between (before -2930832.1) and (current -2684400.0) annual income. All of the respondents reported that climate change had very high effect on the practicing crop diversification while, more than half (53.0%) of the respondents reported that climate change had very high effect on planting different crops. The rank order regarding crop diversification was on high rank due to the high weighted score (1400). All of the respondents reported that climate change had greatly extent on forest burning. The comparisons of different means of different factors like mobility, health, economics, income, environmental destruction, agricultural yields and size of land holding affected by climate change were non-significant. The comparisons of different means of different factors like deforestation, pollution from vehicles, pollution from power generation, pollution from waste, pollution from agri. Activities, shifting cultivation, forest burning and any other factors were non-significant.
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A review on the link between nonfarm activities, land and rural livelihoods in Vietnam and developing countries

A review on the link between nonfarm activities, land and rural livelihoods in Vietnam and developing countries

Due to the importance of land to rural livelihoods, a huge number of studies have investigated the relationship between land and rural livelihoods in developing countries (e.g., Bryceson, 1996; DFID, 2002b; Griffin, Khan, and Ickowitz, 2002; Jansen, Pender, Damon, Wielemaker, and Schipper, 2006; Mattingly, 2009; Rigg, 2006; Shackleton, Shackleton, Buiten, and Bird, 2007; Shackleton, Shackleton, and Cousins, 2001; Soini, 2005). A large-scale study of many African countries indicated in past decades, urbanisation and the underperforming industrial sector growth, have been unable to absorb the surplus rural labour available. Meanwhile the increasing population density in rural areas has led to a rapid decrease in farmland size per household, posing severe challenges to rural livelihoods in this continent (Bryceson, 1996). Soini (2005) examined the interactions between land use change and livelihoods in the Chaga farming system on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. They showed that due to increased population and global climate change, farm size had declined at an alarming rate, which induced farmers to expand cultivation to the lowlands to support their living. Simultaneously, farmers adapted to new circumstances by intensifying farm production and diversifying their livelihood. Unfortunately, due to a lack of skills and adequate support, not all households were able to equally access attractive non-farm employment. Additionally, the absence of supportive factors such as credit and markets has considerably restricted farmers from farm production diversification and intensification.
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Diversification of rural livelihoods in Bangladesh

Diversification of rural livelihoods in Bangladesh

Agriculture has been the primary source of livelihoods of rural Bangladeshi since many years. But, recently livelihoods are gradually diversifying away from agriculture towards business, remittance, non-farm wage labor, agro-processing and cottage industries, construction and transportation operation, petty trade and various services. Agriculture is no longer the key occupation of rural livelihoods in Bangladesh (Hossain, 2010). Agriculture’s share to rural household income dropped from about 60% in 1988 to 45% in 2008. One major reason is the declining farm size. In Bangladesh, the average landholding per household has declined from 0.61 ha in 1988 to 0.53 ha in 2000 and only 0.30 ha in 2013 (Hossain and Bayes, 2014). As a result, the role of
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Rural livelihoods, forest products and poverty alleviation: the role of markets

Rural livelihoods, forest products and poverty alleviation: the role of markets

Assertions by proponents of FBPA make a case for interesting and yet challenging enquiry into the role of forests in rural poverty alleviation. Although they argue that the changing context creates conditions for poor people to lift themselves out of poverty through forest based activities, little empirical work has been conducted to verify these claims. A few recent studies in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g. Babulo et al. 2009; Kamanga et al. 2009; Mamo et al. 2007) show that contribution of forest products is high (typically > 25 % of total income) but variable between sites. Equally, the contributions of trade to household income and poverty alleviation are variable, and have largely been examined through market chain analyses (e.g. Cunningham 2011; Ingram et al. 2008; Shackleton et al. 2011) rather than household level studies. Such assertions can only be verified through approaches that not only seek to broadly understand but more concretely measure credible poverty proxies at the forest-livelihood nexus. The complexity of markets, the unpredictability of stakeholders, the natural limitations of forest products, and the multi- faceted nature of rural livelihoods make it all too difficult to conclusively predict likely impacts of all these changes on people’s livelihoods.
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The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

The differential impact of microcredit on rural livelihoods: Case study from Ethiopia

This paper examines the differential impact of credit on rural Ethiopian households. Though credit is generally expected to have a positive impact on household livelihoods, this paper argues that credit affects households differently depending on wealth. Results show that credit failed to enable poor households to move out of poverty and food insecurity, whereas better-off and labour rich households used credit to improve their livelihoods. For poor households, rather than achieving long-term livelihood improvements, access to credit only means short-term consumption smoothing with a risk of being trapped into a cycle of indebtedness. Participation in a safety net programme could, to some extent, break through this cycle, because such participation enhanced the credit- worthiness of poor households. The paper is based on ethnographic research, including a survey of 106 households, and a series of monthly in-depth interviews with a group of 15 households in the district of Ebinat, northern Ethiopia, over an 18-month period, from February 2009 to July 2010.
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Evolutionary institutional change for sustainable rural livelihoods in Central and Eastern Europe

Evolutionary institutional change for sustainable rural livelihoods in Central and Eastern Europe

Notice the role of surprise in moving us to question the efficacy of the status quo ante institu- tional setup. We are surprised to learn about the health implications of rural water supplies. Once we learn of these surprises, doubt sets in. Why is this happening? The essential animat- ing ideas in the evolution of human systems are surprise and doubt. Because these circum- stances are unexpected we are surprised by them. It is their quite unexpected properties that give rise to doubt and surprise. Things are not supposed to be this way. Doubt and surprise challenge the "fitness" of the specific institutional architecture that stands as the plausible ex- planation for these surprising outcomes. Perhaps these particular institutional arrangements are no longer suited (fit) for the tasks they were originally designed to perform.
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Financial Inclusion Through Self Help Groups for Rural Livelihoods – An Analysis

Financial Inclusion Through Self Help Groups for Rural Livelihoods – An Analysis

In spite SHG-bank linkage has contributed well towards achieving the objective of equitable financial inclusion yet to expand financial inclusion is essentially a small step in a long journey. The financial inclusion attained through SHGs is sustainable and scalable on account of various positive factors. One of the distinctive features of SHG-Bank Linkage programme has been very high on time recovery. SHGs are playing vital role in providing livelihoods of the rural people. Rural India has been busy setting up micro-enterprises by forming good number of SHGs. The group numbers use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure appropriate use of fund and members come together towards collective action for common cause. They good able to meet economic needs without depending on external assistant in emergency time. SHGs have also been taken as a means for empowerment of rural women. It also proved successful not only in improving the social economic conditions through income generation but in creating awareness about health and hygiene, sanitation and cleanliness, environmental protection, importance of education and response for developmental programmes. However, the programme confronts many challenges for further scaling up, these challenges needs to be addressed. ™ Expansion of the branches of banks should be
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An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

An integrated approach to improving rural livelihoods: examples from India and Bangladesh

Water and food security are vital for improving livelihoods in disadvantaged rural areas. Hydrological understanding is central to the design of watershed development works in- tended to improve water security. However, whether new wa- ter resources are made available through WSD or not, it is important to address the design and management of farming systems to ensure water is used productively and sustainably. It is also vital for social constraints and equity to be consid- ered. Finally, a participatory learning approach is useful for ensuring that any watershed development work is effective in producing long-term improvement in livelihoods.
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Fishing and hunting in the Amazon floodplain:linkages among biodiversity conservation, rural livelihoods and food security

Fishing and hunting in the Amazon floodplain:linkages among biodiversity conservation, rural livelihoods and food security

Assim, meu objetivo geral nesta tese foi abordar estas e outras lacunas de conhecimento, investigando as causas e dinâmicas da exploração contemporânea dos animais selvagens na Amazônia e as consequências para a biodiversidade bem como para segurança alimentar rural. Eu me foco no povo da Amazônia rural, onde se identificaram altos níveis de marginalização social, pobreza multi-dimensional e insegurança alimentar. Essas pessoas estão justapostas entre as vidas tradicionais, onde as estações ditam a pesca e a caça de subsistência, e uma Amazônia moderna em que os meios de subsistência rurais são cada vez mais influenciados pelas demandas de áreas urbanas crescentes, onde três quartos da população da região vive hoje. Este estudo foi projetado para capturar as influências do pulso de inundação sazonal e dos mercados urbanos em uma área altamente florestada na várzea da Amazônia. Isso foi atingido através de entrevistas em domicílios durante os períodos de cheia e seca ao longo de um trecho de 1.267 km do rio Purus. Este é o rio mais importante para a pesca comercial de Manaus, a maior cidade da Amazônia com mais de 2 milhões de habitantes. A segurança alimentar foi avaliada durante 556 visitas domiciliares, nas quais foram entrevistados cerca de 600 moradores sobre as suas atividades de pesca e caça, incluindo dados de captura e esforço relativos a 886 viagens de pesca.
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Vulnerability and adaptation of Ghana’s food production systems and rural livelihoods to climate variability

Vulnerability and adaptation of Ghana’s food production systems and rural livelihoods to climate variability

Physical capital assets that were assessed included the presence of irrigation facilities and ownership of radios, television or mobile phones by a household. Irrigation facilities are crucial for rain-fed agriculture-dependent communities, as these facilities help farmers to practise dry season farming. It is hypothesised that households with irrigation facilities will be less vulnerable to changing rainfall patterns. Hence, households without irrigation facilities were scored 1, whilst those with these facilities were scored 2. The presence of radios, television or mobile phone in a rural household can be an effective tool for communication and accessing information on changing weather patterns (Naab and Koranteng, 2012). Here, households with any of these three assets were scored 2, and those without any scored 1. Physical assets such as road networks and the availability of markets and health facilities may enhance the adaptive capacity of a household (Zhang et al., 2007). For instance, the development of rural infrastructure could encourage the development of non-farm enterprises (Gbetibouo et al., 2010). Good road networks will mean that farm produce is transported to the market in good time and sold in order to obtain financial resources that can be used to purchase food items to reduce the vulnerability of households to drought-related food insecurity (Zhang et al., 2007). These assets were not included in the vulnerability computation because, during fieldwork, it was discovered that these assets did not significantly differ amongst various households either in the resilient or vulnerable communities.
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Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Women's Access to Resources in a Southern Ghanaian' Forest Community

Sustainable Rural Livelihoods and Women's Access to Resources in a Southern Ghanaian' Forest Community

In addition, GAD pinpoints other relational areas or spheres, processes and mechanisms where exclusionary prescriptions and processes to some social groups of women and men make it [r]

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Urban dimensions in rural livelihoods: Implications for grassroots development and sustainability in the Brazilian Amazon

Urban dimensions in rural livelihoods: Implications for grassroots development and sustainability in the Brazilian Amazon

Another important element of the "principles" refers to the conditions of production for both rural and urban sectors (point 4). Within the rural one, land redistribution, suitable credit systems, targeted agricultural research, anti-downward spiral poverty-environmental degradation measures, and a concern not to make independent efforts cancel each other out, are the core issues. In the urban environment, measures should stimulate labour-intensive work by cutting protection, and supporting the informal sector against formal sector bias. The emphasis on "releasing the potential skills and entrepreneurship of the poor" resembles the liberal debate presented in chapter 2. Moreover, the international organisations prescribe improved social services and the application of safety-nets (points 3 and 6) to improve the quality of the labour supply (human development) and guarantee against shocks. These nets are to be established by the State, NGOs, families, communities, individuals, and firms. Finally, the set of measures also indicates a need for the sustainable use of the environment (point 10). However, it takes on the quite generic definition of the 1987 report "Our Common Future".
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Rural livelihoods in the farm ecology of an economically backward district of West Bengal, India

Rural livelihoods in the farm ecology of an economically backward district of West Bengal, India

structures, institutionalization of unique leadership instilled deep into the power fabrics and the economic reconfiguration followed by land reform and implementation of Panchyati Raj at a unique pace and level as well. Since 1990-91, due to the new Economic policies, the area under food grains and coarse grains have declined by -2 and -18percent respectively while area under non-food cash crops such as cotton and sugar-cane have increased by 25 and 10 percent respectively. However, production of milk has increased from 84.4 m tonnes (2001-02) to 97.1 m tonnes (2005-06). Production of eggs has increased from 38729 million (2001-02) to 46231 million (2005) (Ghatak, 2007). The World Bank estimates that 456 million Indians (41.6 % of the total Indian population) now live under the global poverty line of $1.25 per day (PPP). This means that a third of the global poor now reside in India. However, this also represents a significant decline in poverty from the 60 percent level in 1981 to 42 percent in 2005, although the rupee has decreased in value since then, while the official standard of 538/356 rupees per month has remained the same. Income inequality in India (Gini coefficient: 32.5 in year 1999- 2000) [6] is increasing. On the other hand, the Planning Commission of India uses its own criteria and has estimated that 27.5% of the population was living below the poverty line in 2004–2005, down from 51.3% in 1977–1978, and 36% in 1993-1994. The source for this was the 61st round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) and the criterion used was monthly per capita consumption expenditure below Rs. 356.35 for rural areas and Rs. 538.60 for urban areas. 75% of the poor are in rural areas, most of them are daily wagers, self-employed householders and landless labourers.
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Broken promises : food security interventions and rural livelihoods in Ethiopia

Broken promises : food security interventions and rural livelihoods in Ethiopia

The study was undertaken in Ebinat district, one of the chronically food insecure districts in the northern part of Amhara region. About 94 percent of the district’s population live in rural areas. People’s livelihood is highly dependent on rain fed agriculture. Rainfall patterns are, however, unreliable with rains often starting late or stopping early resulting in crop loss. About 95 percent of the rural population earn their livelihoods from agriculture directly or indirectly. Food insecurity in the study area is generally a long-term phenomenon caused by a combination of both natural and man-made factors. These include unreliable rainfall pattern, land degradation, lack of modern agricultural inputs, limited credit facilities and lack of alternative income sources outside agriculture. Based on information obtained from the district agricultural office, average land holding is very small with an average of less than a hectare per household. As a result, production of cereals is very low and insufficient to support an average family size of 5.5 people per household. Large numbers of households are thus vulnerable to chronic food insecurity. The vulnerability of the district is further aggravated by environmental degradation, frequent drought, dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, poor soil fertility, and fragmentation of land and population pressure. The district experiences both chronic and acute food insecurity problems for more than two decades. As a result, large numbers of people in the district depend on food aid to cover part of household food gaps beginning from the mid-1980s. Information obtained from the district agricultural office indicates that, on average about a quarter of the households in the district have been receiving food aid on annual basis since the mid-1980s.
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