S-Allyl cysteine

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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced
nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Historically plants have been used as folk medicine against various types of disease. Remedies from plant sources (Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda) have proved to be very popular in primary health care in India for a long time. Chemical agents are avoided against heavy metal toxicity. The aged garlic extract compounds evoke antioxidant and protective responses under several experimental conditions. Among these constituents S-Allyl cysteine the most abundant organosulfer molecular with reported antioxidant properties exerts its protective actions through its ability to scavenger O 2 and H 2 O 2 these preventing H 2 O 2 endothelial cell damage and lipid peroxidation
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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Test for Tannins and Phenolic Compounds: Small quantities of various extracts were taken separately in water and tested for presence of phenolic compounds and treated with 1 Dilute ferri[r]

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IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF GARLIC EXTRACT AND PURIFIED ALLICIN AGAINST LIVER (HEPG2) AND COLORECTAL (HCT-116) CANCER CELL LINES

IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF GARLIC EXTRACT AND PURIFIED ALLICIN AGAINST LIVER (HEPG2) AND COLORECTAL (HCT-116) CANCER CELL LINES

µM .While the Allicin (62 µM) exerts cytotoxic effects on HCT-116 and induces apoptosis via a mechanism associated with transactivation of the transcription factor Nrf2. [28] When compared to the oil-soluble garlic extract DADS had pronounced effect in HepG2 cells. [42] Water- soluble extracts induced p53/p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and apoptosis by the activation of c-Jun-NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun phosphorylative cascade. Also DADS/DATS were effective in GSTP expression mediated through JNK- AP-1 and ERK-AP-1 signaling inducing phase II detoxification system. [43] antigenotoxic potential of purified garlic compounds like Allicin, DAS, DADS, S- allyl cysteine (SAC) and allylmercaptan (AM) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2and found to protect human hepatic cells against the genotoxicity induced by indirect-and direct-acting genotoxic agents primarily by the inhibition of CYP enzymes and induction of phase II enzymes. [43]
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Differential sialotranscriptomes of unfed and fed Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, with particular regard to differentially expressed genes of cysteine proteases

Differential sialotranscriptomes of unfed and fed Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides, with particular regard to differentially expressed genes of cysteine proteases

Cathepsins, another component of the tick multiple enzyme system, are believed to be involved in the diges- tion of blood. The current knowledge of the molecular characteristics of tick digestive enzymes began to be as- sembled in the 1980s to 1990s by isolation and partial characterization of acidic aspartic peptidases of cathepsin D from soft and hard ticks [40, 41]. Later, Mendiola et al. reported that aspartic (cathepsin D-like) and cysteine (cathepsin L-like) peptidases are the major hemoglobino- lytic enzymes in R. microplus. Two cathepsin L-type cyst- eine peptidases were partially characterized and cloned from the midgut of Haemaphysalis longicornis (H. longi- cornis) [42]. Another cysteine peptidase gene homologous to cathepsin L (BmCL1) was shown to be expressed in the gut of partially engorged R. microplus females, and recom- binant BmCL1 was optimally active against bovine hemoglobin at acidic pH [43, 44]. The research on Ixodes ricinus shows more detail about the cathepsins. There is a mechanistic model of the proteolytic pathway of hemoglobin degradation in the digestive vesicles of I. ricinus gut cells [26]. Cathepsin D (CATD), supported by cathepsin L (CATL) and legumain (AE), is respon- sible for the primary events in the cleavage of Table 4 The summary of GO terms about proteases
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Evaluation of Methionine and Related Metabolites in Hyperhomocysteinemia

Evaluation of Methionine and Related Metabolites in Hyperhomocysteinemia

While homocysteine, through methylation pathway, is re-methylated into methionine, it is catabolized to cysteine through the transsulfuration pathway via cystathionine. People with high plasma homocysteine levels, have statistically and significantly low cysteine levels (Melynk et al.,2000). In the same study, a negative correlation was found between the levels of plasma homocysteine and plasma SAM/SAH ratio with plasma pyridoxyl 5-phosphate concentrations. Researchers suggest that the decrease in plasma pyridoxyl 5-phosphate concentrations arise from dietary deficiency in vitamin B 6 and the decrease in cysteine concentrations support this explanation (Melynk et
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Investigation of Electrochemical Behaviour of 3-Allyl-4-Hydroxy-3'-4'- Dimethylazobenzene

Investigation of Electrochemical Behaviour of 3-Allyl-4-Hydroxy-3'-4'- Dimethylazobenzene

The synthesis, spectroscopic properties and purity of 3-allyl-4-hydroxy-3'-4'- dimethylazobenzene are reported elsewhere [15,16]. Stock solution of 1.10 -3 M 3-allyl-4-hydroxy-3'- 4'-dimethylazobenzene was prepared in absolute ethanol and stored in the dark bottle at room temperature. More dilute solutions were prepared daily with deionized water and absolute ethanol just before use.

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Crystal structure of 4′ allyl 4,5,6,7,2′,7′ hexa­chloro­fluorescein allyl ester unknown solvate

Crystal structure of 4′ allyl 4,5,6,7,2′,7′ hexa­chloro­fluorescein allyl ester unknown solvate

group was found in a difference-Fourier map and freely refined [O—H = 0.74 (4) A ˚ ]. Most atoms except those of the allyl groups were refined anisotropically. Both allyl groups were found to be disordered and each disorder was indivi- dually modeled with the application of appropriate geometric (SADI) restraints or thermal parameters (EADP) constraints. The disorder was modelled over two positions (refined occu- pancies of 0.5:0.5 and 0.55:0.45). Similar distance soft restraints were used for the allyl groups. Hydrogen atoms were included in idealized positions for structure-factor calcula- tions.
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Characterization of S haplotype in a new self compatible Brassica rapa cultivar Dahuangyoucai

Characterization of S haplotype in a new self compatible Brassica rapa cultivar Dahuangyoucai

Upon self-pollination, the pollen-borne ligand, SCR, binds specifically to the stigma surface with the extracellular domain of its cognate, SRK, in an S-haplotype specific manner, which activates the kinase domain of SRK and triggers the signal- ling cascade that results in the SI reaction. Some downstream signal factors, including three positive mediators, MLPK (M-locus protein kinase) (Mu- rase et al. 2004), ARC1 (Arm-repeat containing 1) (Stone et al. 2003) and rdr6 (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) (Tantikanjana et al. 2009), and two negative regulators, Exo70A1 (exocyst complex subunit) (Samuel et al. 2009) and THL (Thiore- doxin-h-like) (Cabrillac et al. 2001), have been characterized comprehensively. The knocked-down expression or increased expression of these factors leads to concomitant changes in the self-pollen rejection responses. However, the complete regu- latory network of the signal transduction pathway downstream of SRK remains poorly understood.
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Allyl 4 hydro­xybenzoate

Allyl 4 hydro­xybenzoate

Atoms C111 and C121 were found to be disordered with, respec- tively, C112 and C122. Site-occupancy factors (SOFs) were re®ned in two parts, with the sum of the SOFs for the two disordered compo- nents constrained to 1, and converged to 0.50 (2). H atoms for the hydroxyl groups, H3 and H13, were found in difference maps, while other H atoms were placed at idealized positions. All H atoms were treated as riding atoms, with CÐH distances constrained to 0.93 (aromatic CH, allyl CH and CH 2 ) or 0.97 AÊ (methylene CH 2 ), and

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The cathepsin S cysteine proteinase of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is essential for the reproduction and invasion

The cathepsin S cysteine proteinase of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is essential for the reproduction and invasion

studied in recent years. CL is essential for embryogene- sis and development in Caenorhabditis elegans [10, 13]. Guiliano et  al. [14] demonstrated that CL proteinases in filarial nematodes are associated with larval molting and cuticle and eggshell remodeling. CB plays impor- tant roles in molting, the successful development of Onchocerca volvulus fourth-stage larvae [15] and in the invasion and pathogenesis of Fasciola hepatica and Angi- ostrongylus cantonensis [16, 17]. At present, CB genes have rarely been cloned in plant parasitic nematodes, and only CB of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (GenBank No: GU130153) and R. similis (GU360972) are cloned. How- ever, many CL genes have been cloned in plant parasitic nematodes, such as Heterodera avenae (ACJ13100), H. glycines (Y09498), H. schachtii (ACJ13098), Globodera virginiae (ACJ13094), G. Mexicana (ACJ13096), Meloi- dogyne incognita (CAD89795), Rotylenchulus reniformis (AAY45870) and B. xylophilus (ACH56225) [7, 18, 19]. Li et al. [19, 20] reported that Rs-cb-1 plays key roles in reproduction, development, hatching and pathogenesis in R. similis. However, the cathepsin S gene (cps) has rarely been reported, and only the cps genes of H.glycines [7], R. similis (EU659125) and H. avenae [21] have been cloned. The functions of cps in plant parasitic nematodes have not been explored. In this study, the expression and tissue localization of Rs-cps in R. similis were investigated using qPCR and in situ hybridization, and the roles of Rs- cps during reproduction and pathogenesis were studied using RNAi combinated with inoculation of carrot callus and tomato plants in pots. This study is the first to exam- ine the functions of cps in plant parasitic nematodes and suggests a promising new target for controlling R. similis.
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Mass Spectrometric Analysis of l Cysteine Metabolism: Physiological Role and Fate of l Cysteine in the Enteric Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of l Cysteine Metabolism: Physiological Role and Fate of l Cysteine in the Enteric Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

through a number of databases for the possible compounds and structures, including PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov/) and ChemSpider (http://www.chemspider.com/). Finally, their identities were confirmed by comparison to commercially available reference standards (Table S2). The three unknown me- tabolites were unequivocally identified as thiazolidine-4- carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C). The changes in the profiles of these three labeled metabolites were similar; levels of these metabolites increased for up to 3 h and then slightly decreased, suggestive of further conversion or decompo- sition (Fig. 2A). These metabolites are most likely the condensa- tion products of L -cysteine with aldehydes (Fig. 3). T4C is made of FIG 3 Proposed scheme of 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid biosynthesis in E. histolytica trophozoites. Solid lines represent the steps catalyzed by the enzymes whose genes are present in the genomes, whereas dashed lines indicate those likely absent in the genome or not identified so far. Abbreviations: ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase; ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenases; CoA, coenzyme A; DAK, dihydroxyacetone kinase; DAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphatase; DHA, dihydroxyacetone; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; GDH, glycerol dehydrogenase; GK, glycerol kinase; G 3-P, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; G3PDH, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GPP, glycerol 3-phosphate phosphatase; MGL, methionine ␥ -lyase; PFOR, pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase; TD, threonine dehydratase; TK, transketolase; TPI, triose phosphate isomerase.
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Linear and nonlinear optical characterisation of self assembled nanostructures

Linear and nonlinear optical characterisation of self assembled nanostructures

Local electric field enhancements can enhance nonlinear processes by many orders of magnitude [149]. These field enhancements, caused by LSPRs, make SHG a viable epioptic technique for characterising these systems, since SHG has intrin- sic sensitivity to electric fields at interfaces. This section discusses the nonlinear optical response of aligned NPs arrays. The use of SHG on plasmonic systems has been reported previously [77], however, this is usually performed spectro- scopically with a view to tuning the plasmonic response as opposed to providing information on symmetry and morphology of the system. Polarisation dependent SHG can give an insight into the symmetry of these aligned NP arrays. The input polarisation angle, α, is rotated using a half–wave plate and the p– or s–polarised output is detected. The variation with α is fitted to Equation 2.23 and 2.24. The graphs show the SHG intensity as a function of input polarisation angle, α, of linear polarised light, with respect to the optical plane of incidence. The SHG intensities have been normalised to the square of the laser power. Figure 5.16 show the geometry of the experiments performed in relation the Ag deposited on rippled Si. Placement of the plane of incidence across the NP array is given the designation x, whereas placement of the plane of incidence along the NP array is defined as y. α-p and α-s measurements were perfomed on the capped and uncapped Ag on rippled Si samples, in both x and y azimuths. The α-s measure- ments should reveal interesting information on the symmetry of the NPs in the plane of surface: a centrosymmetric NP will have a negligible sS response.
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Disulfide Bond Configuration of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B

Disulfide Bond Configuration of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B

However, the functional significance of this disulfide bond and the tight loop that it likely creates is unknown. An in-frame, four-amino-acid insertion mutant six amino acids downstream of C250 (mutant I-256) resulted in the loss of recognition by monoclonal antibody 27-39, which recognizes a folded and conformation specific epitope, indicating that this region may be important in the final folded form of gB (28). The I-256 insertion mutant also showed a defect in proteolytic processing by furin despite the fact that the furin cleavage site is over 200 amino acids downstream of the insertion. Therefore, it is prob- able that the region encompassing the C246-C250 disulfide bond and associated loop is an important structural component of the glycoprotein. Based on these data, we predict that the disulfide bond between cysteine residues C246 and C250 and the loop that this bond likely creates is important for the function of gB, perhaps as a surface loop involved in interac- tions with the gB receptor or as a structural component linking two functional domains. Since CMV gB does not have heptad repeat regions indicative of coiled coils on both sides of the C246-C250 loop, it is unlikely that this region facilitates the packing of coiled, helical domains, as is the case for HIV gp41 (24). However, it remains possible that this region is important for linking important functional domains of gB. We are cur- rently investigating the role of this region in more depth.
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Cysteine Supplementation to Parenteral Nutrition Improves Red Blood Cell Glutathione Concentrations of Critically Ill Preterm Neonates

Cysteine Supplementation to Parenteral Nutrition Improves Red Blood Cell Glutathione Concentrations of Critically Ill Preterm Neonates

AA analyses were performed on peripheral blood (0.8 ml) collected in a separate heparinized tube at baseline and on the final day of each of the three different cysteine doses. Immediately after collection, blood samples were placed on ice and transported to the laboratory for separation of plasma within 30 minutes of collection. Samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes at 1800 times gravity, and whole plasma and packed erythrocytes collected for further analytical proce- dures. A portion of whole plasma was deproteinated with 5’-sulfosalicylic acid at 40 mg/ml plasma. Whole and deproteinated plasma were stored at −70˚C until further analyses. Packed RBCs were twice washed with normal saline and cen- trifuged. The final RBC pellet was re-suspended with an equal volume of double-distilled water, and vortexed vigorously. This RBC lysate was quickly frozen and thawed twice, and then centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 10 minutes. The lysed RBC supernatant was then frozen at −70˚C. Free AA concentrations in deproteinated plasma were measured on a Beckman 6300 AA analyzer using a 10 cm Li high performance column, four lithium citrate buffers, and an ex- panded physiological sample program. The AA analyzer only measures cystine, and has an accuracy of ±7%. Total and free cysteine/cystine concentrations in whole plasma were measured spectrophotometrically by the method of Gaitonde as modified by Malloy [19] [20]. This method uses the reducing agent dithioth-
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Electrochemical behaviour of L-cysteine on massive chalcopyrite (CuFeS2)bioleached by leptospirillum ferrooxidans

Electrochemical behaviour of L-cysteine on massive chalcopyrite (CuFeS2)bioleached by leptospirillum ferrooxidans

reaction is controlled by the electron transfer step in the high-frequency region, and is diffusion- controlled in the low-frequency region. In addition to this, an inductive loop was observed in the low- frequency region, possibly related to the presence of an adsorbed species on the surface of the electrode. All of the curves indicate that the addition of L-cysteine does not change the controlled step of bioleaching [18]. Figure 5A reveals that the arc is largest without L. ferrooxidans and L-cysteine. After the addition of the bacteria and L-cysteine, the arc decreases by several degrees, and when the L-cysteine concentration is 10 -3 M, the arc is smallest. Thus, we can infer that the speed of the chalcopyrite bioleaching accelerates with the addition of L-cysteine, which is consistent with the Tafel conclusion.
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The analysis of volatile flavor components of Jin Xiang garlic and Tai’an garlic

The analysis of volatile flavor components of Jin Xiang garlic and Tai’an garlic

The volatile constituents of Jin Xiang and Tai’an garlic were detected by automatic static headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Qualitative analysis of samples was made through the analysis of NIST mass spectral library computer retrieval, and quantitative analysis was made by area normalization method. Re- sults showed that 1,3-Dithiane, and Allyl trisulfide and Allyl disulfide and Diallyl tetrasulphide were the major volatile flavor of garlic. And the content of allyl trisul- fide (allicin) is relatively higher than others. Because of different producing area and stored time, the composition of garlic volatile flavor is slightly different and regional difference is not obvious. All this provided a scientific basis on the appraisal of the quality of garlic. Further-
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(η6 Benzene)di­chloro­(di­allyl­phenyl­phosphine)­ruthenium(II), the first structurally characterized complex with the di­allyl­phosphine ligand

(η6 Benzene)di­chloro­(di­allyl­phenyl­phosphine)­ruthenium(II), the first structurally characterized complex with the di­allyl­phosphine ligand

Despite the asymmetric disposition of the ligand in the solid state with regard to the metal centre, the sharp NMR spectrum, in which both allyl groups are equivalent, suggests that in solution the conformation is on average symmetrical indicating that the allyl groups should both be able to react with a secondary phosphine coordinated to the metal centre, as we desired.

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S Benzyl L cysteine

S Benzyl L cysteine

Geometry . All e.s.d.'s (except the e.s.d. in the dihedral angle between two l.s. planes) are estimated using the full covariance matrix. The cell e.s.d.'s are taken into account individually in the estimation of e.s.d.'s in distances, angles and torsion angles; correlations between e.s.d.'s in cell parameters are only used when they are defined by crystal symmetry. An approximate (isotropic) treatment of cell e.s.d.'s is used for estimating e.s.d.'s involving l.s. planes.

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S,S′ (But 2 yne 1,4 diyl)­bis­(L cysteine) monohydrate

S,S′ (But 2 yne 1,4 diyl)­bis­(L cysteine) monohydrate

sodium hydroxide, 5 ml of water and 7.5 ml of ethanol. After that, the reaction mixture was stirred for another 24 h at room temperature. The precipitate is filtered and recrystallized with water. Pale yellow flakes were obtained with a yield of 37%; m.p. 513–515 K (decomposition); IR (KBr) of (I): 3446 (s), 3226 (b), 2910 (s), 1599 (versus, b), 1501 (s), 1391 (versus), 1333 (s), 1300 (w), 1240 (w), 1169 (w), 1069 (s), 902 (s) cm -1 ; 1 H NMR (D

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(η3 Allyl)[(S) (+) (2 pyrrolidinyl­methyl)­pyrrolidine]­palladium(II) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

(η3 Allyl)[(S) (+) (2 pyrrolidinyl­methyl)­pyrrolidine]­palladium(II) tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate

Geometry . All e.s.d.'s (except the e.s.d. in the dihedral angle between two l.s. planes) are estimated using the full covariance matrix. The cell e.s.d.'s are taken into account individually in the estimation of e.s.d.'s in distances, angles and torsion angles; correlations between e.s.d.'s in cell parameters are only used when they are defined by crystal symmetry. An approximate (isotropic) treatment of cell e.s.d.'s is used for estimating e.s.d.'s involving l.s. planes.

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