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The differences between value propositions following G D and S D logic : A multiple case study

The differences between value propositions following G D and S D logic : A multiple case study

increasingly acknowledged following the work of Treacy and Wiersema (1995), who discussed value proposition in terms of value disciplines. The authors distinguish between three different disciplines, i.e. operational excellence, customer intimacy and product leadership. The authors argue that the market success of a company is strongly influenced by the generic value proposition or disciplinary options that a company pursues (Treacy and Wiersema, 1995). Taking a different angle, Day (2006) applied the resource base view to further elaborate on the concept, incorporating a more relational approach towards customers, by outlining a different set of three generic value propositions and disciplines, i.e. price value, performance value, and relational value. These two approaches follow the intent for a company to deliver value to its customers by utilizing a seemingly customer- oriented approach; however, its generic nature deflects attention away from more individual customer-based strategies that are at the heart of S-D logic (Ballantyne et al., 2010).
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Marketing for a better world : a value proposition framework for NGOs from a S D logic perspective

Marketing for a better world : a value proposition framework for NGOs from a S D logic perspective

The transitioning to an initiator-participant perspective on the process of value creation has been acknowledged where actors in social and economic activity have the interchangeable role of being both the initiator and participant in the process (Kowallkowski, 2011; Truong, Simmons, & Palmer, 2012). This implies that in a network of social and economic actors in the value creation process, the value proposition is reciprocal in nature (Truong, Simmons, & Palmer, 2012). Thus shifting from the unidirectional communication of value to a reciprocal promise of value, connecting social and economic actors within a service system. Throughout the development of the S-D logic theory, scholars did not specifically raise the notion of reciprocal value propositions in the S-D logic (Ballantyne, Frow, Varey, & Payne, 2011). Ballantyne and Varey (2006) initiated the alignment of value propositions further with the core premises of the S-D logic. “Value propositions are reciprocal promises of value, operating to and from suppliers and customers seeking an equitable exchange. Thus, value propositions are always two-way, quid pro quo.” (Ballantyne & Varey, 2006, pp. 344-345). This equitable exchange finds its meaning in the interrelated value between actors as a recognition of complementary rather than antagonistic objectives must occur in order to co-produce value (Glaser, 2006). This exchange of value propositions include co- producing opportunities and operant resources as key benefits (Flint & Mentzer, 2006). Initially, in this reciprocity, two social or economic actors must collaboratively elaborate on the flexibility of the reciprocal value proposition in order to modify where needed to align with the needs of both parties (Flint & Mentzer, 2006; Ballantyne & Varey, 2006
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S D logic research directions and opportunities : the perspective of systems, complexity and engineering

S D logic research directions and opportunities : the perspective of systems, complexity and engineering

The Warwick Research Archive Portal (WRAP) makes this work by researchers of the University of Warwick available open access under the following conditions. Copyright © and all moral rights to the version of the paper presented here belong to the individual author(s) and/or other copyright owners. To the extent reasonable and practicable the material made available in WRAP has been checked for eligibility before being made available.

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Service Mediator Model for Value Co Creation Based on Service Dominant Logic

Service Mediator Model for Value Co Creation Based on Service Dominant Logic

Case studies on ISFs are used to verify the effective- ness of the new service mediator model based on S-D logic discussed in this paper. The cases studies are done with Hitachi TWX-21 [7,8], which is one of the most successful and effective service businesses in Japan and Cookpad Inc., which is the foremost recipe Website in Japan (Alexa traffic ranked 77 th of all Japanese Websites) [9], to analyze their business frameworks. New ideas are demonstrated through analyses of successful information service businesses to verify the effectiveness of the pro- posed model. The findings from the analyses provide evidence that the service field “Ba” plays a central role in cooperation with customers therefore leading to co-create values for efficient services. Here, the service field “Ba” is introduced by applying the concept of “Ba” in knowl- edge management proposed by Nonaka [10]. This service mediator model is believed to bring the triple win con- cept of benefits to all players in the business process.
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Aligning the value in use of B2B and B2G segments with a fitting value proposition from a Service Dominant Logic perspective

Aligning the value in use of B2B and B2G segments with a fitting value proposition from a Service Dominant Logic perspective

Secondly, qualitative research, in terms of interviews, is chosen to gather the needed data. Interviews can aid in gaining more information about the value proposition of the specified product as well as identifying potential opportunities from viewing it from an S-D logic perspective. Two different rounds of interviews are conducted. In order to ensure consistency that every possible fact is included in the data collection, semi- structured interviews are chosen for both interview rounds. In which the interviewer is able to guide the interview towards other relevant topics so qualitative textual data which could include facts, opinions and unexpected insights, can be gathered. The five interviews lasted between 30 and 60 minutes. Additionally, field notes are taken during the interviews, a few are transcribed verbally after being conducted. In order to create a general understanding of the organization, the product, the role of the interviewee as well as the customer, the first round of interviews is conducted with different functional managers such as product manager, service manager and sales manager. Also different sets of questions are used as the managers can provide different background information on their particular domain. The questions were based on the article by Aarikaa- Stenroos and Jaakkola (2012). Appendix A includes the interview guide used for the first round of interviews.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI): creates or destroys value in supplier customer relationships?

Artificial Intelligence (AI): creates or destroys value in supplier customer relationships?

The new perspective on the concept of goods and services introduced by Vargo & Lusch (2004) has received much attention from the marketing field. Before the introduction of the S-D logic, the product itself was seen as value adding to the customers. This is called the Goods Dominant Logic (G- D Logic). In the perspective of the G-D logic, the purpose of economic activity is to make and distribute units of output, in most cases tangible goods, in order to maximize profits through efficient production and distribution of goods. Value for the customer is created during the manufacturing process which implies that customers had no role in value creation. The new perspective on enterprises is that all types of businesses provide services to their customers (Skålén & Edvardsson, 2016; Vargo & Lusch, 2004). Manufacturing firms are included in the definition of service provider, as they produce goods in order to transmit their services to their customers. Besides the emphasize that firms are service providers, the involvement of customers in the value co- creation process is one foundational premise of the S-D logic (Vargo & Lusch, 2016). Looking from the SD-logic perspective, the concept of value-in-use and co-creation of value are essential (Vargo & Lusch, 2016). However, it is first necessary to clarify the meaning of ‘value’ before starting the discussion about value-in-use and co-creation of value. Value is connected to value-in-use in the S-D logic framework. The definition of MacDonald et al. (2011) can be used to explain value-in-use as “a customer’s outcome, purpose or objective that is achieved through service”. The meaning of service here is that the supplier’s resources are used to benefit the customers. The customer is the value creator and therefore determines what value
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School Desegregation, Law and Order, and Litigating Social Justice in Alabama, 1954 1973

School Desegregation, Law and Order, and Litigating Social Justice in Alabama, 1954 1973

1) Platforms for engaging customers were established: Software Inc. adopted several approaches to better understand their customers' organizational processes and their precise utilizations of Secure-on-Request. The company's managers recognized the importance of this understanding for boosting the value proposition and the value co- creation process. During our action study, we collaborated with Software Inc.’s managers and established engagement platforms such as the Early Adopters Program and the Customer Advisory Board meetings (Table 5.4 - 1 above). During these interactions, customers and users provided valuable feedback for the recurrent release-cycle and service-innovation processes at Software Inc. Moreover, these interactions created partnerships with customers to further strengthen the value co- creation process and the firm’s value proposition. Recent studies on improving value co-creation and furthering S-D logic have noted the need for establishing specific mechanisms to engage with customers to co-create value (Maglio & Spohrer, 2008; Ramaswamy & Gouillart, 2010). Our analysis adds to these studies by highlighting the value of proactivity on the part of SaaS providers to gather information from their customers to maintain and enrich their service innovation. Although value co-creation involves actions on the parts of both providers and customers, we found that SaaS providers' initiation of customer engagement was pivotal to the promotion of the value-creation process.
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Corporate branding’s influence on front-line employee and consumer value co-creation in UK household consumer markets

Corporate branding’s influence on front-line employee and consumer value co-creation in UK household consumer markets

S-D Logic encourages General Managers to think differently about their firms: as a place where value is co-created through a system of service exchanges, especially those that occur between FLEs and consumers (Greer et al, 2016). This change in emphasis offers General Managers an opportunity to innovate and gain market advantage through service exchange and value co-creation. For example, to use a simple household central heating service as an opportunity for the customer and engineer to talk through household energy usage and make a plan to reduce energy costs. However, to realise this potential, General Managers must address three potential gaps in their knowledge. First, what influences the content and quality of FLE and customer service exchanges? Second, what predisposes FLEs to commit to service exchange and value co-creation? Third, what organisational phenomena can General Managers use to influence this predisposition?
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A case study of hybrid strategies to create value for a contracting business in the education sector in England and Wales

A case study of hybrid strategies to create value for a contracting business in the education sector in England and Wales

Vargo and Lusch (2008) suggested that the lack of understanding of the difference between services and service, and the value creation process may mislead marketers to focus on changing the unit of output from tangible goods to intangible services instead of providing service. Evidence suggests that the S-D logic is only loosely adopted to formulate marketing strategies in project business. Research on the utilisation of S-D logic in project-centric businesses is limited (cf. Smyth, 2014 p.229-252). The authors argue that successful marketing strategies, which have implicitly adopted the principles of S-D logic, exist in project-centric construction businesses. However, these initiatives have not been publicised due to the practitioners’ lack of awareness. A case study of a construction firm is used in this paper to explain how its strategies were adopted to create value using Vargo and Lusch’s axioms of S-D logic. In the case, the firm adopts a hybrid strategy in its school offerings which is a rather new concept to the construction industry. The emergence of hybrid strategy in the project domain is reviewed in the next section.
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Measurement of the B ̄s 0 → D s   Ds + and ̄ Bs 0 → D Ds + effective lifetimes

Measurement of the B ̄s 0 → D s Ds + and ̄ Bs 0 → D Ds + effective lifetimes

F. Bedeschi, 22 I. Bediaga, 1 S. Belogurov, 30 K. Belous, 34 I. Belyaev, 30 E. Ben-Haim, 8 G. Bencivenni, 18 S. Benson, 49 J. Benton, 45 A. Berezhnoy, 31 R. Bernet, 39 M.-O. Bettler, 46 M. van Beuzekom, 40 A. Bien, 11 S. Bifani, 44 T. Bird, 53 A. Bizzeti, 17,d P. M. Bjørnstad, 53 T. Blake, 47 F. Blanc, 38 J. Blouw, 10 S. Blusk, 58 V. Bocci, 24 A. Bondar, 33 N. Bondar, 29 W. Bonivento, 15,37 S. Borghi, 53 A. Borgia, 58 M. Borsato, 7 T. J. V. Bowcock, 51 E. Bowen, 39 C. Bozzi, 16 T. Brambach, 9 J. van den Brand, 41 J. Bressieux, 38 D. Brett, 53 M. Britsch, 10 T. Britton, 58 N. H. Brook, 45 H. Brown, 51 A. Bursche, 39 G. Busetto, 21,e J. Buytaert, 37 S. Cadeddu, 15 R. Calabrese, 16,b O. Callot, 7 M. Calvi, 20,f M. Calvo Gomez, 35,g A. Camboni, 35 P. Campana, 18,37 D. Campora Perez, 37 A. Carbone, 14,h G. Carboni, 23,i R. Cardinale, 19,j A. Cardini, 15 H. Carranza-Mejia, 49 L. Carson, 49 K. Carvalho Akiba, 2 G. Casse, 51 L. Castillo Garcia, 37 M. Cattaneo, 37 Ch. Cauet, 9 R. Cenci, 57 M. Charles, 8
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PP 2011 07: 
  Dependence and Independence

PP 2011 07: Dependence and Independence

Proof. Let us see how this follows: Suppose T | = y ⊥ x. We try to derive y ⊥ x from T. If y ⊥ x ∈ T or x ⊥ y ∈ T , we are done by the Symmetry Rule. So we assume y ⊥ x / ∈ T and x ⊥ y / ∈ T . Let V be the set of variables such that x ⊥ x ∈ T . If x ∈ V or y ∈ V , we are done by the Constancy Rule, so we assume V ∩ {x, y} = ∅. Consider a domain consisting of V and two new elements 0 and 1. For d ∈ {0, 1} let X d consist of all s such that if v ∈ V , then s(v) = v, and moreover s(y) = s(x) = d.

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Measurement of D∗±, D± and D±s meson production cross sections in pp collisions at √s= 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

Measurement of D∗±, D± and D±s meson production cross sections in pp collisions at √s= 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

To model inelastic events produced in pp collisions, a large sample of Monte Carlo (MC) simulated events is prepared using the PYTHIA 6.4 [11] MC generator. The simulation is per- formed using leading-order matrix elements for all 2 → 2 QCD processes. Initial- and final-state parton showering is used to simulate the effect of higher-order processes. The MRST LO* [12] parameterisation is used for the parton distribution functions (PDF) of the proton. The charm- and bottom-quark masses are set to 1.5 GeV and 4.8 GeV, respectively. The event sample is generated using the ATLAS AMBT1 set of tuned parameters [13]. The fraction of the D meson sample produced in bottom-hadron decays ( ∼ 10%) is normalised using the measured production cross section of b-hadrons decaying to D ∗+ μ − X final states [3].
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Designing of S Box Based On Null Convention Logic     

Designing of S Box Based On Null Convention Logic     

(substitution box) is design for AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) crypto-systems is proposed and validated. The S-Box is considered as the most critical component in AES crypto systems. The proposed design Substitution-Box is implemented based on a delay- insensitive (DI) logic paradigm known as Null convention logic (NCL), which supports useful properties for resisting SCAs including dual-rail encoding, clock-free operation, self-timed logic and monotonic transitions. These advantageous properties make it difficult for an attacker to decipher secret keys. The proposed NCL based Substitution Box have been done using Mentor Graphics EDA (Electronic Design Automation) tools.
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Default Logic, Natural Language and Generalized Quantifiers

Default Logic, Natural Language and Generalized Quantifiers

Default Logic, Natural Language and Generalized Quantifiers Default Logic, Natural Language and Generalized Quantifiers P a t r i c k S a i n t D i z i e r 1RISA INRIA, CAMPUS de BEAULIEU, 35042 RENNE[.]

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Search for CP violation in D+→ϕπ+ and D+s→K0Sπ+ decays

Search for CP violation in D+→ϕπ+ and D+s→K0Sπ+ decays

decays due to their different kinematics are studied by applying several different kinematic binning schemes to the data. The measured asymmetry is found to be stable with varia- tions in the binning, suggesting that the detector asymmetries are small. The results are summarised in table 4. The largest discrepancy in raw asymmetry, as expected, results from using no kinematic binning, as this does not account for any variation of the D ± pro- duction asymmetry across the kinematic region. The next largest difference with respect to the baseline binning scheme, of 0.035%, is assigned as a systematic uncertainty on the asymmetry due to residual kinematic differences between decay modes.
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The Relationship between R&D Investment and Dividend Payment Tax Incentives and Their Role in the Dividend Tax Puzzle

The Relationship between R&D Investment and Dividend Payment Tax Incentives and Their Role in the Dividend Tax Puzzle

There are four input linguistic variables P (price), L (location), Y (years), and D (distance), and one output linguistic variable S (satisfaction) in the fuzzy inference system of the Web Shopping Expert. P has three linguistic values of low, fair, and high. L has three linguistic values of bad, fair, and good. Y has two linguistic values of old and new. D has two linguistic values of far and close. All of them are defined by their own membership functions in triangular shapes. The linguistic variable P has a type-2 membership functions and others have type-1 membership functions. This is because the standard of price can be different for different people (e.g. professional people and students). Also, it could be very difficult if you try to find an exactly $200,000 house, but you may find many houses priced around $200,000. Of course, location has different meaning to different people as discussed in the example of house hunting. The similar consideration can be applied on Y (years) and D (distance). For simplicity, however, the membership functions of L, Y, and D are defined as type-1 fuzzy sets here. The output variable S has three linguistic values of low, medium, and high defined by a type-1 triangular fuzzy set too.
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A New Approach with Three Dimension Figure and ANSI/IEEE C57 104 Standard Rule Diagnoses Transformer’s Insulating Oil

A New Approach with Three Dimension Figure and ANSI/IEEE C57 104 Standard Rule Diagnoses Transformer’s Insulating Oil

As we know that, how to detect the transformer fault quickly and accurately is not an easy job. In this paper, we have investigated the DGA methods and developed a quick method to diagnose the malfunction of power trans- formers by using ANSI/IEEE C57.104 diagnosis specification and IEC Basic Gas Ratio method. We have de- veloped the transformer fault diagnosis tool by a MATLAB program. The real measured data of the transformer oil taken from Ba Dou D/S # 4DTr transformer of Taiwan Power Company are used to verify the validation and accuracy of the developed diagnosis tool. This tool will be useful for engineers and technicians who are in charge of transformer’s maintenance.
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3410 Maint Manual Vol1 pdf

3410 Maint Manual Vol1 pdf

Note 3: Interchange logic board CARRL D-16 and motion control board CARRL D-19 with logic board and motion control board from another tape unit if available, and rerun diagnostic... Retu[r]

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Design of Reversible Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Using VERILOG HDL
Bobba Rajashekhara Reddy, Mr D Chakriya Nayak & Mr S S G N Srinivasa Rao

Design of Reversible Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Using VERILOG HDL Bobba Rajashekhara Reddy, Mr D Chakriya Nayak & Mr S S G N Srinivasa Rao

proposed reversible ALU design 2 outperforms the proposed reversible ALU design 1 and conventional ALU design. we exploring the design of a 16 bit reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) with 15 operations is presented by making use of Double Peres gate, Fredkin gate, Toffolli gate, DKG gate and NOT gate. A first single bit reversible ALU and second single bit ALU are designed and Then 16 single bit ALU’s are cascaded together taking carry out of ALU performing LSB operation as an input to carry in of ALU performing next LSB operation. Design is implemented and verified in Verilog HDL in Xilinx 14.4.
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On the D*s and charmonia leptonic decays

On the D*s and charmonia leptonic decays

Abstract. Among the different scenarios of New Physics, those with an extended Higgs sector are examined with a lot of attention. Recent experimental observations of several anomalies in flavour physics with respect to expectations of the Standard Model further motivate the effort of phenomenologists. First, informations about the R D s ratio, a test

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