Stability has been a primary focus of the maritime industry and of immense interest to the IMO from the outset. Despite several attempts to resolve stability-related issues, the problem of stability remains one that has yet to be resolved. Reasons for this, range from the complexity of the problem itself to misconceptions in its very nature, particularly concerning intact or compromised conditions of the ship in question. Emphasis in this paper is placed on the latter. More specifically, whilst intact stability of ships is an extremely interesting scientific problem, to what extent is it a determining factor in the design and operation of passenger ships? Currently, intact stability and damage stability share the same stage from a regulatory perspective and, consequently, they have equal impact on design and operation-related decisions, an example of which is the use of combined intact and damage stability GM limit curves (e.g. IACS Rec 110 Rev1). However, in line with goal-based regulations and standards, design and operational decisions should be risk-informed in which case, matters relating to damage stability are of higher concern, simply by virtue of the fact that damage stability is by far the greater risk contributor. In fact, for passenger ships (>500GT), the level of risk associated with intact stability is indiscernible in contrast to that of damage stability. More importantly, in the operational loading conditions of such vessels, damage stability is a more dominant constraint. Hence, such ships can be designed on the basis of damage stability considerations alone. This paper delves in this direction by drawing on the current regulation-making process for risk estimation as adopted by IMO as well as current design and operational practice. Findings from European research and related studies are provided in order to substantiate the argument that intact stability for passenger ships is neither a safety issue nor a design concern.
industry with many dangers, so in order to ensure maritime safety, in our opinion, the Ministry of Transport should consider applying appropriate remuneration for officers engaged in maritime safety and security, collecting ship inspection fees from the second time on; supplement funding for this work, in order to enhance the inspection and supervision of maritime activities in the port waters. In some key national seaport areas and storm shelters for ships and boats, adequate investment is needed in channel dredging, synchronous investment in means, equipment, and rehabilitation equipment. Maritime safety and security services such as automobiles, special canoes, information systems, VTS, AIS signals, etc. Regulations on maritime safety, security and prevention Environmental pollution should be updated, revised and supplemented by agencies in charge of industry regularly, promptly, in accordance with the industry's development situation and compliance with new regulations of international organizations. Out unfortunate incidents. At the same time, it is necessary to study and adjust the functions and tasks among the sectoral management agencies, ensuring consistency, bringing high effectiveness, not allowing overlapping phenomena. To operate the system of ships at sea, the river requires full supply of raw materials such as petrol, oil, grease ... No one can guarantee these materials do not leaking out pollution. Incidents such as oil spills into the sea are not rare, and green seawater poisoned by too much oil will affect marine habitats. Submarine sewers are still maintained and operate when there is a waste incineration. In addition, the discharge of toilet water in the deck of the ship, discharge of lacquer solution directly into the sea also causes widespread pollution
Control (CDC), about 75% of women get at least one yeast infection during their lifetime and 40-45% will have two or more. Women of all ages can get yeast infections because Tampons and sanitary pads used during menstrual cycle are other factors leading to bacterial as yeast infections. [4-8] but Depending on the clinical situation, bacterial infections represent a great risk for the patient, an antibiotic therapy can be life-saving but has adverse effect on patients e.g. toxicity, side effects, and allergy [9, 10]. My aim of study is developed one important sensitive issue which they are neglecting after month by month to their struggle life which is used of textile jhut during their periods time and its final effects to their life but also work production is totally hazardous. I have investigated and collected data from several garments industry to various areas about this issue then attempt to developed cost effective medical textiles for application such materials as under garments to protect infection from bacterial attack which can also be used longer. ‘Antibacterial’ is an agent that either destroys various bacteria or slows down their growth where antibacterial agents may inhibit bacterial growth; for example, by cell wall damage, inhibition of cell wall synthesis or inhibition of the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids , Whereas our attempt is to coated TEXTILE VISCOE via antibacterial agent that may the most long-lasting solution for this issue. The main achievement of textile fabric development especially depends on their surface functionalization properties. Nowadays Textile materials have larger application not only for conventional dress but also smart applications e.g. both natural cellulosic polymer(cotton) surface modified as antibacterial, antioxidative virus filter etc. properties [12
Peer-reviewed biomedical journals are more likely to pub- lish original papers reporting positive results than studies with negative data [1-4]. This "publication bias," also termed "positive-outcome-bias," has been recognized and described in the internal medicine literature [5-8]. In addition, commercial funding of clinical studies has been described as an independent variable associated with the frequency of publication of positive articles [9-11]. Evi- dence-based decision making processes on therapeutic modalities rely on the availability of unbiased, balanced, and objective data from published studies, independent of the reported outcome . Particularly, high-quality systematic meta-analyses are corrupted by the "positive- outcome-bias" of individual studies, rendering clinical recommendations flawed towards a positive effect of spe- cific treatment strategies [13,14]. In the era of evidence- based medicine, this prevalent, often unrecognized, pub- lication bias poses a severe challenge to patient safety by promoting unjustified therapeutic concepts [13,15-17]. This notion is particularly true in surgical disciplines, since specific surgical techniques are frequently adapted or abandoned depending on the current status of evi- dence-based recommendations in the scientific literature [18-20].
The environmental pollution is of particular concern as ARB and ARGs may spread through plant, crop production and wildlife, and revert back to animals and humans thereby increasing the risk of transmission of foodborne infections and pose food safety and public health risks, particularly in developing countries due to the limited access to clean water and precarious sanitary conditions. However, the impact of environmental pollution goes beyond selecting resistant mutants, favoring the acquisition of ARGs via HGT and food safety and public health threats, to the enrichment of the pool of intrinsically resistant microorganisms and reduction of susceptible ones in the environmental microbiota (Martinez, 2009). Cyanobacteria for instance, that are responsible of more than one third of CO2 fixation and total free O2 production are naturally susceptible to antibiotics, and there is currently no evidence that this population is suffering the impact of antibiotic pollution. However, the elimination of Cyanobacteria as a result of this pollution, might imbalance the micro-biosphere and have impact on climate change (Martinez, 2009). The AMR environmental pollution thereby threatens achievement of SDGs 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 promoting end of hunger, healthy lives and well-being, availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, sustainable consumption and production as well as sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystem, respectively. It also endangers global actions undertaken in the mitigation of climate change.
29 Read more
This working paper comes to conclude that ‘tourism experience’ is playing an effective role in evaluating the social carrying capacity, given the higher values and the connection to ‘access to facilities’ and ‘safety issue’. An additional of 19% of positive perception towards an increase in tourism experience is expected when 1% of change is made for ‘safety issue’. Nevertheless, the complex relationship of ‘tourism experience’ within the evaluation framework shall no longer be traditionally viewed. It is within this working paper interest for ‘tourism experience’ to be envisaged as something that is gained for free of charge. Yet, the maximum value of it will be enjoyed when ones getting engaged in tourism activity with the understanding of awareness and responsibility are the two factors at hand that created their tourism experience (expectation and satisfaction). Having said that, this working paper strongly emphasizes that tourism experience (expectation and satisfaction) responsibility is no longer solely bear by the host community. Rather, based on the currently existing situation of the tourism world, both tourists and host community play a significantly unique part in ensuring tourists are enable to get hold of the maximum value of tourism experience.
It should be noted that this provision does not coincide with a number of principal provi- sions adopted in global legislation. Thus, the Eu- ropean Union General Product Safety Directive 2001/95/EC 9 admits that products conformity to the criteria, intended to guarantee general safety, does not prevent the possibility for taking the appropriate measures in limiting product release, withdraw or recall from the market, if, despite the specified conformity, this product turns to be dangerous (see Article 3, paragraph 5). Conse- quently, a situation is admitted where, in ob- servance of all requirements and standards, un- der real-life conditions, the products can turn to be dangerous for life and health of a consumer.
10 Read more
In the sample representing the potential bike-sharing users from Drama there were no age- specific differences of statistical significance (χ 2 = 22.225; df = 24; p = 0.566) nor gender- specific ones (χ 2 = 2.958; df = 4; p = 0.565). Nonetheless, household income had a statistically significant correlation with the perception regarding cycling’s respective safety (χ 2 = 29.901; df = 20; p < 0.01). People earning 5,001€ and more and the ones not wanting to disclose their household income were far more likely to agree or strongly agree than all others that bicycle was an unsafe mode. The frequency with which people self-declared that they will be using an eventual bike-sharing scheme was also strongly correlated with the perception regarding cy- cling’s respective safety (χ 2 = 44.956; df = 20; p < 0.05). The respondents less likely to self- report an eventual use of the scheme were the ones most likely to believe that riding a bicycle is an unsafe travel option. The final statistically significant finding was the one referring to the correlation with the attitude set to frame whether a particular respondent was likely to believe that bike-sharing should be introduced in Drama (χ 2 = 35.808; df = 16; p < 0.05). Respondents that self-reported compliance with this notion were more likely to believe that cycling was safe although it should be noted that the sample groups against this notion were rather small. This last finding combined with the correlation reported in Gothenburg’s sample relating the per- ceived goodness of bike-sharing for the city with the perceived safety of cycling means that people who tend to believe that bike-sharing is a needed function for the wellbeing of their urban society are more likely to consider cycling a less dangerous travel alternative.
14 Read more
The identification of safety hazards in the FBI was evaluated and result from respondents indicates that 65% agreed that some machines and equipment are faulty and not in good working condition; 80% confirmed that there is loud noise in the work place; only 41% consented that there are damaged electrical cables in the workplace; while 43% said that there are chemical spills within the work environment. On the issue of vibration, 69% agreed that there is vibration from equipment in the workplace; 90% confirmed the hazard of high voltage area; 41% said there are unguarded machines; while 55% confirmed the hazard of radiation exposure. Concerning flammable substances and explosive chemicals, only 37% agreed that there is poor lighting system; 91% confirmed the hazard of working at height; while 47% agreed that there are flying cables and unwanted items in the work environment. There was no definite trend in agreement among the respondents on the types of identified hazards in the FBI as shown in Fig. 1. However, the computed Kendall’s Concordance Coefficient was 0.625, the Chi-Square (χ 2 ) value was 22.5 and the p-value was < 0.000 (p < 0.05, 95%Cl.) as shown in Table 4. This shows that there is a reasonable degree of agreement among the respondents on the identification of safety hazards in the food and beverage industry. This finding agreed with the studies of [22,23] who identified similar hazards in the process industries.
18 Read more
Regarding to the importance of hiding the location of source nodes in WSN which is very critical in some applications. This study attempts to increase the level of source privacy by proposing a new variant of solutions in this area which is called “Isolated Adversary Zone” in this project. This technique tries to conduct the adversary to the specific area far from the source and sink and keep it there to provide a safe path for transmitting rest of the messages. For measuring this factor in WSN, the amount of safety period is important and it means how long it takes to the location of source node be discovered by a local adversary who apply the backtracking technique as an attack.
30 Read more
Since the outbreak of huge earthquakes in Taiwan and Turkey in 1999, the concern that surface fault ruptures could damage various infrastructures and buildings has increased. It is necessary to make a reliable estimation of possible displacement (see Figure 1). Indeed, the estimation of fault displacement is a crucial issue for on-site fault assessment in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Numerical simulation for the fault rupture processes is a candidate of such a reliable estimation of fault displacement. There are many numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics for a source fault located in the crust, and the numerical methods used are being applied to the evaluation of surface fault displacement.
10 Read more
Four recent reviews of data on GM crops in agriculture [53–56] present evidence confirming herbicide-tolerant cultivar equivalence, as compared to non-modified com- parators. None of these reviews mention herbicide resi- dues or their potentially conflicting nature in relation to concept of substantial equivalence. Contrary to this, three reviews by independent scientists approach the role of herbicide residues in GM crops or present indica- tions of toxicity. In one of these  the authors review several contested safety assessment studies and specu- late whether adverse effects reported in animal testing in 2002 , in 2004  and in 2009  could be attrib- utable to pesticide residues contained in the tested GM- crop material. Another recent review  concludes that parts of published evidence in assessments of health risks of GMO foods are general indications of toxicity.
14 Read more
Susan: It depends on two things. The staples yesterday, they came in quite sturdy packaging. If the paper side got wet, I'd still be doubtful it had been damaged as it’s water resistant but if the plastic side got wet I'd probably just wipe that off. The paper packaging is more of an issue as it’s not as sturdy. It also might come down to the availability of the item. Weck clips for example, we've got lots of those so it wouldn’t be a drama if we discarded that and had to get another one. But if it was an instrument we only had one of, well obviously, if it’s damaged it’s damaged and there'd be no doubt about that. But I guess if you only had one of those for the operation and the packaging was still intact and you were happy with that, you would be tending to think, well I’m going to run with that because the packaging is still intact and we only have only got one of those and if I was going to send it up to re-sterilise it there would be a 3 hour wait and if we are going to need it for this case, I’m happy to use that because the integrity is still ok. Researcher: So, it’s going back to something that you have said before quite consistently and that is that over and above understanding what the standard or rules say you are applying a level of clinical judgment in tandem with that rule. So not accepting the rule as black and white.
245 Read more
Oral evidence for Scotland reveals a subterranean matrix of resistance and direct action on health and safety, co-existing, sometimes uneasily, with consent, apathy and conformity to managerial authority and traditional forms of masculinity expressed in risk-taking. This is evident, for example, in relation to asbestos. Given the significance of asbestos as a work-related hazard its reception by the trade unions and the extent to which direct action was utilised is significant. Historian Geoffrey Tweedale has argued that the trade union movement failed to act as an effective countervailing force and activists such as Alan Dalton have been critical of trade union inertia at the top level. 41 In Johnston and McIvor’s book Lethal Work, the example of some STUC delegates contemptuously ripping up asbestos campaigners’ pamphlets in 1976 has been cited. 42 The TUC was also very influenced by their incumbent Medical Adviser (1962-74), Robert Murray, who quelled workers’ fears by declaring asbestos safe to work with under certain conditions and assuaged their growing anxieties as medical knowledge of a cancer
45 Read more
Qualitative research on patient safety climate attitudes has been conducted in a range of countries and hospital departments showing nurses generally rate patient safety climate attitudes lower than doctors, especially on teamwork climate, working conditions and the quality of management support [5‐7]. Research in the context of Saudi Arabian hospitals has also shown a similar discrepancy between safety climate attitudes of nurses and doctors in different hospitals and hospital departments [8‐9]. As surmised by Thomas and colleagues , these findings are likely to be associated with differences in status/authority between nurses and physicians, differential responsibilities and training, gender issues, and nursing and physician cultures.
17 Read more
For the French side, it's a complementary action that is planned around the 10-year shutdown including in the periodic safety review. During this 3rd 10-year shutdown of these 3-loop plants we have to guarantee that all the ageing mechanism of safety components is under control for the next 10 years and to assure no important acceleration of the ageing after the next 10 years (no license process in France).
Awareness could also be considerably raised through participation in international interactive projects, for example, Radiation Protection of Patients (RPOP, ). It is the IAEA project that brings together a great number of learning materials, guidelines, recommendations and other IAEA documents, information about training events, including on-line seminars. There is a very useful data base called Safety Reporting and Learning System for Radiotherapy (SAFRON, ) concerning incidents with nuclear energy use in medicine. Any medical institution can access it. Anyone can obtain and study a range of reports, graphs, statistics etc. Recent times few medical institutions joined to the data bases in the frame of the IAEA Regional project RER9147 “Enhancing Member States' Capabilities for Ensuring Radiation Protection of Individuals Undergoing Medical Exposure”. The study will be conducted in the following steps: Phase 1: the participating hospitals answer the questionnaire and submit the completed forms; Phase 2: the departments that participated in the Phase 1 will be invited to provide more detailed data on imaging doses and associated parameters, using a standard data collection form. It is expected that data collected will allow for preparing a scientific paper(s), and if deemed appropriate, a guidance document to help optimize the use of imaging in radiotherapy.
to stream flow, more strict rules and regulations, the means of itinerary here, especially with the means inland waterways for improved navigational safety. Hopefully with the above-mentioned solutions, this year, Vietnam's maritime safety assurance branch not only assists the ship with safe navigation, but also conducts ships in and out of ports. As a result, the flow of luong lanes contributes to the creation of a maritime safety environment for the marine economic sector of Vietnam. To set up an electronic navigable channel chart on the navigable channel from the "0" float to the wharf to serve the management and operation of the navigable channel and issue a maritime notice; To build a new navigational traffic control system (VTS) on the high-density channels of vessels in and out of the sea, with complicated maritime conditions and high risks of insecurity, Hon Gai - Cai Lan, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Dung Quat, Van Phong, Cai Mep - Thi Vai, Can Tho - Tra Vinh; Build DGPS stations in high-density navigable maritime areas such as Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Da Nang, Dung Quat, Van Phong, Sai Gon, Vung Tau, Cai Mep - Thi Vai. Maritime navigation from the sea into the port, the right is the right of the channel, the left is the left channel. Maritime navigation at sea, direction is determined as follows: In the direction from North to South, the right is the right of the channel, the left is the left; In the east to west direction, the right side is the right side of the channel, the left side is the left side of the channel; The dominating side of the maritime signal; In the direction of the navigational channel, the signal on the right controls the right of the channel, the signal on the left controls the left channel. By geography: Northern controlled from 315 o to
Another program is VGD program. The VGD is an important and largest safety net program for women, which is jointly organized and implemented by Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs and Ministry of Food & Disaster Management with the help of local NGOs. The VGD program exclusively targets poor women. The selected women receive a monthly food ration (30 kg rice) per month over a period of 24 months. Although it was introduced as a relief program in the mid-1970s, it has evolved over time to integrate food security with development objectives . Later the development package includes training on income generating activities like livestock, vegetable gardening and awareness-raising on social, legal, health and nutrition issues, and basic literacy. The main objectives of VGD are to assist poor rural women with complementary inputs that will improve their nutrition and enhance their livelihoods and self-reliance, to overcome existing food insecurity, malnutrition, lower social status and poverty. To develop skills of women through training and encourage collecting initial capital for investment through savings are the ultimate goal. Discussion with the associated NGOs in the local area, the VGD selection committee selects women for two years from the destitute and very poor who are physically and mentally sound. To be selected for the program, a household in which the woman belonging should meet at least four of the following criteria: sever food insecurity, i.e. those household members consume less than two full meals in a day, it holds no land or less than 0.15 acres of land, it has very poor housing conditions and it should be headed by a woman and has no mature male income earner.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the views of senior hospital managers’ perspectives and sug- gestions for strategies to address hand hygiene non- compliance in the acute care setting. This study was conducted at one large metropolitan acute care hospital and the views expressed by these participants may not necessarily be representative of all senior managers ei- ther at this hospital or other hospitals. The study provides insights rather than findings that can be generalised. Se- nior clinical and non-clinical managers were interviewed because they can provide a unique ‘helicopter’ view across organisational levels and also because of their involvement in patient safety initiatives. Future studies could examine the views of other groups of hospital staff and investigate the acceptability by different disciplines of some of the suggested strategies. Participants were asked to comment generally on hand hygiene campaigns and programs; this qualitative study was not linked to an evaluation of the impact of a particular hand hygiene program. Managers from a diverse range of professions and disciplines were included and the semi-structured interview guide allowed for the expression of a broad range of views. Given this di- versity, it is interesting to note that there was considerable consistency across clinician and non-clinician participants’ responses in relation to some of the themes. For example, the need for senior managers of all levels to lead the way in terms of culture change; for messages and education to be reinvigorated; for audit results to be timely and de- aggregated and also for hand hygiene strategies based on the 5 moments of hand hygiene to be tailored to particular settings. While there were concerns expressed by some participants from the clinical manager group about empowering hospital staff to challenge poor hand hy- giene practice, there was acknowledgement that train- ing and hospital-wide support could overcome some of the perceived barriers to this approach. Views were ambivalent about whether hand hygiene lapses should be categorised as patient safety errors. However, there was some receptiveness to the idea of at least debating how repeated lapses should be penalised and there was enthusiasm across the sample for introducing the no- tion of individual responsibility for ensuring best prac- tice hand hygiene.
12 Read more