Abstract. Salinewaterintrusion is a serious threat to the groundwater as many part of the world utilize groundwater as their main source of fresh water supply. The usage of high salinity level of water as drinking water can lead to a very serious health hazard towards human. Salinewaterintrusion is a process by which induced flow of seawater into freshwater aquifer along the coastal area. It might happen due to human action and/ or by natural event. The climate change and rise up of sea level may speed up the salinewaterintrusion process. The conventional method for distinguishing and checking saltwater interference to groundwater along the coast aquifers is to gather and test the groundwater from series of observation wells (borehole) with an end goal to give the important information about the hydrochemistry data to conclude whether the water in the well are safe to consume or not. An integrated approach of field and laboratory electrical resistivity investigation is proposed for indicating the contact region between saline and fresh groundwater. It was found that correlation for both soilbox produced almost identical curvilinear trends for 2% increment of seawater tested using sand sample. This project contributes towards predicting the salinewaterintrusion to the groundwater by non-destructive test that can replaced the conventional method of groundwater monitoring using series of boreholes in the coastal area
O STUDY the effect of fresh and salinewaterintrusion on the Bitter lakes region, five transacts have been taken along the southern part of the Bitter Lakes in Ismailia Governorate. Their locations were Deferswar, Abu Sultan, El-Saidia, Fayed and Fanara. These transect have been taken from the shoreline of the Bitter Lakes up to the Suez fresh water canal. Soil profiles were dug at each transect to the water table level and soil samples were collected from different layers of different soil profiles. The data showed that soluble salts of the surface layer (0-60cm) decrease sharply from the shoreline of Bitter Lakes towards the fresh water canal. Total cations such as Na, Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Mn were evaluated at each layer of profiles, and their distribution with the surface layers of the water tables. The data showed that the moisture percent of all soil profiles increased gradually in different layers up to water table level. With regard to the probability of impact of sea level rise on the coastal stability of the Bitter lakes, it was found that the area extended between zero and one meter level contributes about 8.0% of the study area. It is extended along the western side of the Bitter lakes and eastern Malaria drainage. The area extended between 1.0-2.0m levels contributes about 11.0 % of the study area and protected from the salinewaterintrusion by the main Malaria drainage. The area extended between 2.0-3.0m levels contributes about 19% of the studied area. It is located mainly in sarabium, Deferswar and Fayed regions. The area above 3m height represents the rest of the case study area which contributes more than 60%. It is mostly elongated adjacent to the Suez Canal fresh water.
Many of the coastal aquifers of the world experience the salinewaterintrusion problem (Frohlich et al. 1994; Choudhury et al. 2001; Batayneh 2006). The coastal stretch of Karnataka also experiences similar threats. Like most other coastal areas of the world, Ullal - Thalapady coast of Mangalore which is one of the highly populated coastal stretch of Karnataka rely on the groundwater resources for their domestic and other needs. As the shallow coastal aquifers are deteriorated due to salt water ingress, an attempt is made to delineate such polluted ones along the coastal stretch of Ullal and Thalapady of Mangalore, Karnataka and to demarcate areas for groundwater development that are not susceptible to saline-waterintrusion hazards.
The north-south geoelectric section (Figure 7) connecting Ominla, Oluagbo, Igodan Lisa 2, Igbokoda 2, Oriopo, Ugbo, Ugbonla and Ayetoro delineated very low resistivity values beneath Idepe, Ugbo, Ugbonla, Adagbakuja and Ayetoro. Four to six geoelectric layers were delineated across this sections and they cor- responds to five geologic layers namely; topsoil (red sand) which gradually change to coastal alluvium towards the shore line, lateritic sand, sandy clay/ mud-peat and clayey sand. Low resistivities (1 - 60 ohm) typical of salinewater intruded layer were delineated beneath Ugbo, Ugbonla and Ayetoro. Resistivities of all the layers delineated along this section decreases toward the shore, this suggest that the salinewaterintrusion mapped along this geoelectric section emanated from the Atlantic Ocean.
Abstract: - The magnitude of salinity intrusion in coastal areas depends on sensible balance between fresh water flow and saltwater from the sea. The interface between freshwater and salinewater is influenced by geology, hydrogeology, ground water heads and groundwater well pumping rates. But fresh water is important issue to counterbalance salinity intrusion at the upstream water intake. To quantify that required fresh water, indeed detailed understanding of the physical phenomena (tidal motion, wind mixing etc, river flow) is a prerequisite. The coastal zone of Bangladesh comprises of part of the flat Ganga Delta, which is crisscrossed by large tidal rivers discharging into the Bay of Bengal. The estuaries and tidal river systems of coastal zone have been formed by long periodical deltaic accretion which was dominated by the historical morphological changes of Ganga and Brahmaputra. The major estuarial rivers of the south-central region are interlinked and fed by numerous smaller channels. The approximate population in the coastal area is 40 million and they are very much vulnerable to the natural disaster along the about 720 km coastline. Salinewaterintrusion is the main problem in the south-western zone. About 60 and 15 percent of arable land (total 1.0 mha croplands) of southwestern and southeastern respectively are affected by salinity in the dry period. This salinity is caused by cyclone and storm surges, high spring tide inundation and capillary actions. Its affect the soil surface and root zones, which decreases the crop production about 0.13 M.T. in every year. The increase of salinity intrusion and decrease of arability will be prevailing due to climate change effect and reducing of flood plain and it may propagate in all over the country. In this situation management of salinity intrusion is the vital issue for Bangladesh. With the mission of salinewater proofing by structural management like coastal embankment projects, dam, sluices etc and coastal area zoning as non-structural management to change the land use and other activities can be the vision of sustainable livelihood and environment of Bangladesh.
Kakdwip block is socially low vulnerable block in comparison to Patharpratima, Sagar and Namkhana block. While entire Patharpratima block, coastal villages of Namkhana and Sagar block are socially very vulnerable, Kakdwip block is not so vulnerable except some villages like Mrinalnagar, Hasemabad, Ramtanunagar and Madhusudanpur. Social vulnerability map has been prepared after calculating social vulnerability score. Very low social vulnerability can be seen at the villages like Sitarampur, Ramchandranagar, Shibkalinagar, Kashinagar, Ganespur, and Gobindapur. Physical vulnerability of this block is responsible for social vulnerable condition of the Kakdwip block. As this block is situated very near to Bay of Bengal it is very prone to tropical cyclone, coastal flooding and embankment breaching with salinewaterintrusion. Such physical vulnerability is very much responsible for social
Climate change as occasioned by environmental degradation has led to innovative thought on how to preserve natural resources while also deriving benefits. Mangrove destruction, salinewaterintrusion, decline in fish stock and reduced livelihoods were factors that led to the establishment of Kung Krabaen Bay development study centre and the Welu wetland both in Chanthaburi province. The two wetlands provide important benefits to the people that live around it as well as tourists. Through the absorption and processing of wastes, these wetlands help maintain environmental quality and safety while also maintaining a biological balance of carbon IV oxide and other green house gases. Shrimp farm waste is treated in Kung Krabaen bay. A synthesis of Provisioning, Regulating, Cultural and Supportive benefits of the two wetlands is presented. Management regime involves integrated approach (Kung Krabaen Bay) and a co-management approach (Welu wetland). Direct and indirect drivers of change are analysed with management capacity to effectively manage these drivers being examined. The rational use of the resources provided by wetlands is a key factor in their conservation. Recovery from overexploitation may take time but these wetlands are showing resilience and there is need to improve management regimes via international cooperation.
In the second trial (non-salinewater on saline soil) the data show a significantly lower severity of the saline stress on all the cultivated plants. This results, intuitively, in milder growth and yield reductions, but at the same time the action of the halophytes becomes less beneficial and po- tentially it can bring damage. This is because the benefits of the consociation are connected with the absorption of saline ions from the circulating solution, but in the cases in which these ions are not at high concentrations, the action of nutri- tional competition prevails. So, the growth and production of tomatoes in consociation are not remarkably better than the ones of saline controls, and in the presence of a. hortensis or, more, of S. soda they can become dramatically lower. This different situation in comparison with trial No. 1 can also be appreciated by the lower level of saline ions performed by both the tomato plants and the halophytes, demonstrating an effective lower disposability of those ions.
dispersive exchange flows (third term). If there is no other source of salinity, then the sum of these terms is zero. If we average this equation over a tidal period, then the first term reflects the long-term change in the salinity as a result of the balance between the advection of fresh water from the river and the tidal average exchange flows. In a steady state in which the first term is zero, the equation can be simply integrated with respect to x, yielding
Coastal zones encompass the complex interaction among dif- ferent water bodies (i.e., river water, seawater and groundwa- ter). The interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Yang–Dai coastal river plain have generally been ig- nored in previous studies. However, the surface water chem- istry data show that the distribution of saltwater has histori- cally reached more than 10 km inland along the estuary of the Yang River, and approximately 4 km inland in the Dai River (Han, 1988). The relatively higher proportion of seawater- intrusion-derived salinity in shallow samples in this study, along with the evidence from resistivity surveys (Fig. 6, Zuo, 2006) indicate that intrusion by vertical leakage from these estuaries is therefore an important process. The hazard asso- ciated with this pathway in recent times has been reduced by the construction of a tidal dam, which now restricts seawater ingress along the Yang estuary to within 4 km of the coast- line. This may alleviate salinization to an extent in future in the shallow aquifer by removing one of the salinization path- ways; however, as described, there are multiple other salin- ization processes impacting the groundwater in the Quater- nary aquifers of the region.
At present, the rivers of the southwest zone suffer from salinity intrusion among the four coastal zones. The water from the Ganges River, which flows through its tributary, the Gorai River, is the only major source of freshwater to the southwest zone. The water flow of the Gorai River is almost dry during the dry season (December to May). The salinity level at the Bay of Bengal during the dry season is also comparatively higher; and salinewater intrudes through the major rivers, namely the Baleswar, lower Meghna, Malancha, Pussur, Sibsa, and Tentulia, through tidal effects. The land topography of the region is very flat; strong tidal effects at times travel up to 200km upstream of the coast. Consequently, the region is severely affected by salinity intrusion. In this study, it was found that the spatial variation of the maximum river salinity level occurred during 2011–2012 in the southwest zone. Spatial variation of river salinity within this region, however, depends on tidal amplitude, the extent of landward penetration of tides, and the volume of freshwater flow from the upstream rivers (Gain et al. 2008).
a near surface, brackish/saline groundwater zone. In coastal areas, resistivity methods face limitations like the development of very low potentials, transition in resistivity with depth, suppression of thin layers with intermediate resistivity values, in coastal areas. The resistivity results and subsurface information obtained from this work have been found to be satisfaction. A typical area of data acquisition was around Visakhapatnam, where the information available prior to exploration also revealed the occurrence of a deeper, highly conductive horizon. On the other hand, a typical case for the interpretation of resistivity data existed in the area around coastal areas of Visakhapatnam. Excessive abstraction of groundwater from the coastal aquifer may trigger the lateral ingress of sea water and/or the up-coning of salt water from the deeper zones. This would lead to the deterioration of groundwater quality and hence degradation of the environment. For disaster management, these modeling will be of immense values.
Water salinity data (1998– 2000); Drinking water sources, 24-hr urine samples, BP (October 2009 through March 2010). The hospital data on the occurrence of hypertension amid gestation among 969 expectant females (July 2008 through March 2010).
ABSTRACT: In this research, the effect of water salinity on geotechnical properties of fine grained soilcollected from Sultanpur & Ambedkar Nagar was studied. In the Laboratory, Several tests such as Atterberg limit test were done withdistilled water and water of different concentration of Nacl. Results on soil show that both liquid limit and plastic limit decreases with increase in salinity. Increase in salinity increases optimum moisture content and decreases maximum dry density.
Most cements used in the oil industry are a type of portland cement. The name portland was taken from an English channel island with a limestone quarry that was used as source of stone for the development of portland cement. Portland cement is produced from limestone and either clay or shale by roasting at 2600 to 3000°F. The final size of the cement particles has a direct relationship with how much water is required to make a slurry without producing an excess of water at the top of the cement or in pockets as the cement hardens. The crystals seen in set cement include; C3S - tricalcium silicate, C2S – dicalcium silicate, C4AlF - tetracalciumaluminoferrite, C3A - tricalcium aluminate, MgO - periclase or magnesium oxide, and CaO - free lime.
in the Rock dominance category indicating the role of weathering of rocks as the minor mechanism of controlling the groundwater chemistry. The 3 to 12 samples (40%) fall in Precipitation dominance, and the remaining samples (37%) fall in outside the field indicating that various other process also exist in controlling the water chemistry. During pre monsoon, 8 samples (34%) fall in Rock dominance and 6 to 8 samples (31%) fall in Precipitation dominance. The remaining samples (35%) fall in outside the field. It is also supported by Edmond (1995) using ternary classification based on the SiO 2 (Cl - +SO 4 )-
Results: Among mice that underwent tMCAO, those that received CORM-3 had significantly smaller infarct volume and greater expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) and microtubule-associated protein 2 than did saline- treated mice. CORM-3-treated mice had significantly fewer activated microglia in the peri-infarction zone than did control mice and exhibited downregulated expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule (Iba)-1, tumor necrosis factor- α , and interleukin 1 β . CORM-3-treated mice had significantly lower brain water content and enhanced neurologic outcomes on days 3, 7, and 14 post-tMCAO. Lastly, CORM-3 treatment reduced Evans blue leakage; increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor- β , tight junction protein ZO-1, and matrix protein laminin; and decreased protein level of matrix metalloproteinase-9.
tude of annual phytoplankton maxima, they did not similarly affect zooplankton community structure and abundance. High densities and dominance of omnivorous copepods regardless of the season indicated the existence of the complex food web in which herbivory is just one of the possible paths. Although the zooplankton assemblage was dominated by the neritic species, strong circulation and the compensatory inflow of the highly saline offshore waters in the bottom layer during the autumn–winter period promotes the presence of the open water zooplankton, such as small oncaeids and ostracods which are important ele- ments of the south Adriatic winter zooplankton community (Rudenjak-Lukenda 1990; Krsˇinic´ 1998; Brautovic´ et al. 2006). Highest values of the Shannon diversity index for the copepod community were also recorded in the colder part of the investigated period.